Skip to main content

Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1899)"

See other formats


EDD7 120b073 b 

California Stale Library 



Call No- 

Copy No. 



This book is due on the last date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 

WE JUN 1 3 '61 

K23 3 «G 10M 










Vol. VIII. Jan.— Dec, 1899. 




Location. Architect. 

Boston, Mass Wheelwright & Haven. 

Ellis Island. X. V Boring & Tilton 

New York City Allen & Vance 

Philadelphia. Pa Kean & Mead 

Tewksbury, Mass John A. Fox 





Camden. N. J Baily ft Truscott 

Philadelphia, l'a Wilson Eyre, Jr 

Pittsburgh. Pa Alden & Harlow 

Leominster, Mass McGinnis, Walsh & Sullivan. 

New York City Barney & Chapman 

Bridgewater, Mass Hartwell, Richardson & Driver. 

Des Moines. Iowa George E. Hallett 

New Haven, Conn Brite & Bacon 

Philadelphia. Pa Cope & Stewardson 

South Braintree, Mass Hartwell, Richardson & Driver. . 

Syracuse, NY Green & Wicks 

ENCINE HOUSES Philadelphia, Pa E. V. Seeler. 

HOSPITALS See Asylums. 

HOUSES, Athens, Ohio.... Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson.. 

RESIDENCES Belair, Ind Wyatt & Nolting 

Brooklyn, N. Y Ba'bb, Cook & Willard 

Germantown. Pa Rankin & Kellogg 

Hamilton, Mass Winslow, Wetherell & Bigelov 

New York City Barney & Chapman 

New York City Brite ft Bacon 

New York City Ernest Flagg 

New York City J. A. Schweinfurth 

Ogontz, Pa. Kean & Mead 

Philadelphia. Pa Cope & Stewardson 

Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 

Philadelphia, Pa Edgar V. Seeler 

Thompson, Conn Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. . . 

Toledo. Ohio E. O. Fallis 

Tuxedo Park, N. Y Adams & Warren 

Tuxedo Park. N. Y T. Henry Randall 

Washington, D. C McKim, Mead & White 

Washington, D. C Totten & Rogers 

LIBRARIES Pepperell, Mass Ernest Flagg and W. B. Chambers. 

Wayland, Mass Cabot, Everett & Mead 

Journal Plate 

12 92, 93 

9 67, 68, 69 

10 .74, 75. 78, 79, 80 
3 «9- -- 

7 51.52,53 


8 58,63.64 

8 57 

11 .S3. 84, 85, 86,87 

5 ■••34. 35- 38,39 

3 24 

4 25 

7 49. 56 

6 42, 46. 47 

3 iS. 23 

1 1,8 

n 81,88 

7 54 

2 '5 

4 .26,27,30,31,32 

9 66,70,71 

6 48 

5 33.4o 

7 5o.55 

1 3-4.5-" 

2 9, 16 

2 12, 13 

1 2, 7 

9 65 

2 10. 1 1. 14 

3 20, 21 

'o 76, 77 

12 ... 89, 90. 95, 96 

'' 43.44.45 

5 36.37 

11 82 

4 28, 29 

12 91,94 



Drawn bv 

Cornices Will S. Aldrich. 

Cornices Will S. Aldrich. 

Cornices Will S. Aldrich. 



Boston, Mass Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. 

Boston, Mass A. W. Longfellow, Jr 

Boston, Mass Peabody ft Stearns 

Boston, Mass K. Clipston Sturgis 

I m 1 1 1 n , 1 ! 







• '7 

• 4i 

• 73 


. 6l 

. 60 
. 62 


This list does not include illustrations made in connection with articles, nor those of terracotta details. 

Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

ADMINISTRATION Building, McLean Hospital, Waverly, Mass Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 123 

Apartment Houses, Chicago. Ill Edmund R. Krause 60 

BARNARD College. New York City Lamb & Rich 142 

Beggs Building, Columbus, Ohio C. A. Stribling [89 

Belknap House for Men, McLean Hospital, Waverly, Mass Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 123 

Berzelius Dormitory, New Haven. Conn Brite & Bacon 144 

Business lilock. New York City J. B. Snook & Sons 192 

CHESEBROUOH Building, New York City Clinton & Russell 145 

City Electric Light Station, Chicago, 111 Adolph Finkler 62 

Commercial National Hank Building, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden ft Harlow \<\~ 

Construction and Architectural Treatment of a Chicago Store Front Louis H. Sullivan 253 

Counting House, Philadelphia, Pa Wilson Eyre, Jr 166 

Court. Barnard College. New York City Lamb ft Rich 142 



^ r g libRAR' 


Vol. VIII. Jan. — Dec, 1899. 


Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

DOME of High School, East Boston, Mass John Lyman Faxon 255 

ENGLISH Manor House 61 

Entrance, Brewers' Exchange, Baltimore, Md Joseph Evans Sperry ... 1 01 

Entrance, Hartford Life Insurance Building, Hartford, Conn F. R. Comstock 81 

Entrance, Piazza and Botta Building, Vicksburg, Miss Alfred Zucker 192 

Entrance, St. Joseph Roman Catholic Church, Allegheny, Pa F. C. Sauer 103 

FIRST National Bank Building, Hartford, Conn Ernest Flagg 169 

Front Entrance. House, Baltimore, Md Wyatt & Nolting 37 

GATE and Gate Lodge, Woodlawn Cemetery, Everett, Mass William Hart Taylor 19 

Gateway, Jesus College, Cambridge, England 59 

HAMPTON Court Palace, London, England 210. 21 1 

Hartford Savings Bank (detail), Hartford, Conn Peabody & Stearns 213 

Hotel Schenley, Pittsburgh, Pa Rutan & Russell 1 89 

Hotel Touraine, Boston, Mass Winslow & Wetherell 38 

House, Boston, Mass Gay & Proctor 214 

House, Chicago, 111 Jenney & Mundie 190 

House, Dayton, Ohio Frank M. Andrews 1 23 

House, Longwood, Mass Chamberlin & Whidden 257 

House, New York City Brite & Bacon 143 

House, New York City S. M. Holden 1 88 

House, New York City McKim, Mead & White 186 

House, Oak Park, 111.. George W. Maher 61 

House, Pittsburgh, Pa Alden & Harlow 1 68 

House, Pittsburgh, Pa Sidney T. Heckert 1 70 

House, Pittsburgh, Pa George S. Orth & Bro 102 

House. Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 104 

House, Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 104 

House, St. Louis, Mo Barnett, Haynes & Barnett 82 

House, St. Louis, Mo Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 212 

House, Thompson, Conn Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 59 

House, Tuxedo Park, N. Y T. Henry Randall 1 22 

Houses, Melbury Road. Kensington, England Wallace & Stevenson 39 

INTERIOR, Church of Ascension, Pittsburgh, Pa Halsey Woods; Alden & Harlow 146 

Interior View of Roof, City Electric Light Station, Chicago, 111 Adolph Finkler 63 

Ivy Club House, Princeton, N.J Cope & Stewardson 100 

LABORATORY and Gymnasium Building, South Braintree, Mass Hartwell, Richardson & Driver 61 

MANHEIM Cricket Club, Germantown, Pa McKim, Mead & White 16, 17 

Mantel, House, Albany, N. Y Franklin H. Janes 37 

Memorial Campanile, Iowa State Agricultural College George E. Hallett 80 

Methodist Orphans' Home, St. Louis, Mo T. B. Annan 1 90 

NORTHERN Pacific Depot, Fargo, N. Dak Cass Gilbert 233 

Nunupton, Herefordshire, England 144 

OFFICE, St. Louis, Mo J. L. Wees 256 

Ohio Pythian Orphans' Home, Springfield, Ohio Yost & Packard 236 

PLAN, House at Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 18 

Plan, Houses at Philadelphia, Pa Cope & Stewardson 191 

Porch, House at Jamaica Plain, Mass Wheelwright & Haven 41 

SCHOOLHOUSE and Gateway, Truro, England 17 

Shelter House, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, N. Y McKim, Mead & White 40 

St. Raymond's Roman Catholic Church, West Chester, N. Y George H. Streeton 41 

Store Building, Pittsburgh, Pa Peabody & Stearns 83 

Swimming Tank, New York Athletic Club, New York City William Cable 20 

Syracuse University Block, Syracuse, N. Y Green & Wicks 19 

UNION Club, St. Louis, Mo Grable, Weber & Groves 256 

Union Passenger Station, Omaha, Neb Walker & Kimball 1 26 

VESTIBULE Ceiling, City Hall, Binghamton, N. Y Ingle & Almirall 13 

Vestibule, New Detroit Opera House Alpheus W. Chittenden 103 

WESTERN Reserve Historical Society Building, Cleveland, Ohio F. S. Barnum & Co 187 

Westminster Apartments, Boston, Mass Henry E. Cregier 232 




(This Series was begun in the November number, 1897.) 
Paper XIV. 


Paper XV. 

The Normal School 6 


State Normal School, New Haven, Conn. 

State Normal School, North Adams, Mass. 

State Normal School, Lowell, Mass. 

State Normal School, Salem, Mass. 


Newark High School, Newark, N. J. 
Springfield High School, Springfield, Mass. 
Latin School, Cambridge, Mass. 



Paper XVI 45 


Public School, No. 153, New York City. 
Public School, No. 20, New York City. 
Girls' High School, New York City. 
Public School, No. 165, New York City. 

Paper XVI I '. 67 


Public School, No. 154, New York City. 

Roof Playground, Public School, Xo. 147, New 

York City. 
Playground, first Moor. Public School, No. 154, New 

York City. 
Public School, No. 159, New York City. 
Public School, No. 166, New York City. 
Plan of Cellar, Public School, No. [65, New York 


Vol. VIII. Jan.— Dec, 1899. 

Paper I. 

Paper I. 
Paper 1 1. 
Paper III. 
Paper IV. 

,\ PUBLIC LIBRARY, COST $100,000. 
(Continued in Vol. IX.) 

by Thomas M. Kellogg. 


A VILLAGE CHURCH, Cost $100,000. 
(Continued in Vol. IX.) 

by R. Clipston Sturgis 135 

by Ernest Coxhead 157 

by Allen B. Pond 1 73 

by T. Henry Randall 1 95 



Paper I . 

Paper II. 


(Continued in Volume IX.) 


Paper 1 10 

Paper II 4§ 

Paper III 89 

Paper IV '3 6 



Paper I. 

Paper II. 




Paper I. 
Paper II. 

Paper I. 
Paper 1 1. 





(Continued in Volume IX. 


Paper I. 239 

The reprint of this work was begun in Tin: BRICKBUILDER for 
January, 1894, and lias been continued in the following numbers: — 

Volume III. Xos. 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. <>. 7, 8. 9, 10, II. 12. 

Volume IV. Xos. I, 2, 3. 4, 5. 6, 7, 8. 9, 10. 

Volume Y. Xo. 2. 

Volume VII. Xos. 2, 5,8, 10. 

Volume VI 11. Xo. 5 92 

Xo. 8 159 

Xo. 9 179 

X o. 10 20 1 


Another Instance of Mistaken Identity 102 

Architectural League of America 109 

Boston Architectural Exhibition 113 

Bricks for Sea Walls 41 

Brickwork at the T Square Club Exhibit 245 

Design and Construction of Terra-Cotta Columns 1 76 

Economics of Cement Mortar 249 

Fineness of Cement 75 

Foundations for Buildings 224 

Garden Walls of Brick 163 

League and T Square Club Exhibitions 23 

Qualities and Limitations of Ceramic Products 1 18 

Roman Bricks at Rath 134 

Sand for Mortar 116 

Strength of a Brick Vault 231 

Terra-Cotta Architecture in England 243 

Vertical and Horizontal Brick Courses 230 

Waterproofing Damp Walls 230 


A. I. A. Convention 1 50 

British Fire Prevention Committee, The 21 

By Taking Thought 2 1 j 

Carved Brick 172 

Colonial Brickwork 1 93 

Convention of the American Institute of Architects 215 

Convention of Architectural Clubs 8jj 

Copyright in Architectural Designs 65 

County Supervisors" Valuation of Architects' Services 108 

Evolution vs. Originality in Design 86 

Extension of Fire Limits in Boston 2 

Fire-proofing 1 

1 1 igh Buildings 1 

Hij^li Building Legislation 86 

Lesson from a Building Accident 172 

Monteventoso 149 

Roman and Pompeian Brick 1 (^3 

Tin Strength of a Brick 171 

Time in Building 149 

Valuable Highway 171 

Windsor Hotel Fire. The 43 


Pages 21, 22, 65, 66, 107, 127, 128. 150. 194, 237. 238 



Economy of Floor Construction 120 

Effects of Heat upon .Natural Stone and Burnt Clay 50 

Fire-proof Construction of Buildings in the I Inited States, 206, 228, 251 

Fire-proofing Fifty Years Ago 34 

Lessons from the Home Life Building Fire 14 

Recent Improvement in Fire-proof Construction at Chicago; 

The Aver Building 33 

Serrated Arch *)- 

Simple Rules for Figuring the Strength of Terra-Cotta Arches. . .73 
Some Deductions from the Evolution in Fire-proof Construc- 
tion 1 '14. 184 

Teachings of the New York Fire 12 

Test of Wide Floor Arches 13^ 


Contracts 52 

Estimating 208 

Full-face Headers for Pressed Brick 54 

Hardening Cement Paving 16 

Production of Portland Cement in the United States in [897-98 . ... 36 

Some Evils of Present Systems 98, 1 40 

Some Mistakes of Contractors as Viewed by an Architect 15 

Soundness of Cement 35 


Boston Letter 189 

Brick Architecture, Washington. D. C 54, 77 

Buffalo Letter 1 S 

Chicago Letters 17, 38, 81, 100, 124, 142, [67 

Interesting New Store Fronts in Chicago 253 

Memphis Letter 41 

Minneapolis Letters 60, 1 02. 234 

New York Letters. .. 16, 37. 58,79, 100. 122, 142. 165, 186, 210,232 

Philadelphia Letters 122, 166, 211, 254 

Pittsburgh Letters 18, 59, 101, 143, 233 

St. Louis Letters 39. 82. 12;, [68, 21 2, 233. 255 

St. Paul Letter 60 


Pages 108, 194, 216, 238 


VOL. 8. NO. 1. PLATE 1. 

Detail of Main Entrance 


CREEN & WICKS. Architects. 

(Elevation shown on page 19.) 


VOL. 8. NO. 1. PLATE 2. 

Oan^om^t Elevation-South 




COPE & STEWARDSON. Architects. 
(Plan shown on page 18.) 


VOL. 8. NO. 1. PLATE 3. 



VOL. 8. NO. 1. 

i^ f J{-- 




PLATES 4 and 5. 



VOL. 8. NO. I. PLATE 6. 



2 g 

UJ o 

> <; 

3 Q g 

w uj 5 
S Q u - 

1 w £ 

UJ 2 
> fc 








VOL. 8. NO. 1. PLATE 7. 

Front Elevation. 

• East- 

t .■■• • a 

5an5om Street Elevation 



COPE & STEWARDSON. Architects. 

(Plan shown on page 18.) 


VOL. 8. NO. 1. PLATE 8. 





' > 































i i 



















■ 1 

















r >V* A i 


t N 





Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3. 50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


THE old adage that "Necessity is the mother of invention" 
accounts for a very large proportion of the advance which has 
been made at different times in constructive methods. Probably no 
country in the world has ever developed its structural architecture so 
speedily as the United States, and certainly no other country has had 
as many object lessons to teach what to avoid. Experience keeps a 
very dear school, and though it may hardly be fair to say that we 
belong to the numerous category of those individuals who will learn 
in no other, it is a fact that our best lessons have been derived from 
our worst failures. Elsewhere in these columns we comment at some 
length upon some of the more manifest lessons of the New York fire, 
a catastrophe which will undoubtedly lead to improvements in some 
of the details of our construction, just as it has demonstrated the 
value of certain accepted methods of fire protection. This country 
has not, however, arrived by one step at the construction which stood 
the fire so successfully last month. We can all remember the long 
period when mediums were used and methods were employed which 
would not now be tolerated for a moment, but which were supported 
by much the same arguments that are used now in favor of our hol- 
low-tile arches and terra-cotta protection. It was then claimed that 
those methods and materials would stand tire and water to just the 
same extent that the systems now in the market claim complete im- 
munity for themselves. Our eyes in the past were opened not so 
much by our investigations as by the stern teachings of hard experi- 
ence. We learned that all materials were not immaculate, and by a 
process of natural selection and the acceptance of the fittest the best 
constructive minds of this country have agreed upon terra-cotta and 
brick as the only materials which can be depended upon to withstand 

the extreme action of fire. The Home Life Building is an epitome 
of the experiences of the past twenty-five years. The failures therein 
have a manifest cause; the successful resistance is due to precon- 
ceived methods. It rests now with the profession to assimilate the 
results of failure and to eliminate the possibility of a repetition of 
disasters of this sort ; for a disaster it certainly is. The fact that 
the steel frame was not materially affected is a triumph for that par- 
ticular detail of the construction; but a building which can have its 
upper six stories gutted, in which the fire can travel from room to 
room, even though it takes only one floor at a time and all the start 
comes from outside, certainly leaves something to be desired. The 
New York World, in an editorial of December 5, sums up the two 
most prominent morals of this fire: — 

"Moral No. 1 : If the Rogers. Peet & Co. building had been 
reasonably fire-proof, there would have been no fire in the buildings 
of its neighbors, the Home Life and the Postal Telegraph Compa- 
nies. Why should any but fire-proof buildings be allowed in the city : 
Moral No. 2 : When a fire-proof building is put up. its owners ought 
to insist that no furniture or curtains or anything else should be put 
into it without first being fire-proofed by a perfectly simple and inex- 
pensive treatment with tungstate of soda. It was the furniture and 
that sort of thing which destroyed the upper stories of the Home 
Life Building last night." 

The fact is that our modern business methods and modern con- 
structions have advanced much more rapidly than the science of the 
prevention of fires. We can build a fire-proof building without any 
difficulty, but we cannot construct either fire-proof tenants or a fire- 
proof fire department; and so long as a great municipality will 
permit such structures as that in which this fire started to exist in 
the very heart of the business district, disastrous results must be ex- 
pected to adjoining structures, no matter how scientifically they may 
be constructed. All our great cities are undergoing at present a 
species of regeneration. The old structures are disappearing, and 
new buildings, built to resist fire within and without, are rapidly 
taking their places ; but any transition state of this kind has its 
dangers. The risk to a modern fire-proof building through its neigh- 
bors is not anywhere near as great as it was ten years ago, and the 
more fire-proof buildings that arc erected, the more the chances are 
lessened of such a result as accompanied the conflagration of Decem- 
ber 4. The fact still remains that not a single properly constructed 
fire-proof building in this country has ever been destroyed to any con- 
siderable extent by a fire starting within its own walls. 


IT seems to be quite the fashion just at present for officials to 
voice a certain amount of public sentiment in regard to a cur- 
tailment of height of commercial structures. Governor Wolcott, of 
Massachusetts, in his inaugural address, urged upon the Legislature 
the advisability of restricting the areas in the neighborhood of the 
State House, so that no high structure can be erected thereon. 
Mayor Cjuincy, of Boston, in his message to the Common Council, 
alluded to a certain Commonwealth Avenue hotel, which is the only 
one on that street carried to a height greater than about .So ft., and 
expressed the hope that some way might be devised for compelling 
the removal of the upper portion of this building. The subject of 



high buildings is very largely a personal one. The real-estate owner 
who desires to draw all the income possible from his property puts 
up a tall building and objects to his neighbor doing likewise. The 
architect and the lawyer, who seek light and air and the outlook, will 
take the top story in preference, and will be very indignant with the 
neighbor across the street who blocks the view with a similar sky- 
scraper. Fifteen years ago no one would have dared to predict the 
present extreme expansion of tall buildings. Fifteen years hence we 
may look back with horror, or we may look down on them from 
structures so much higher that these will seem small by comparison. 
Whether these tall structures are right or wrong, whether the prin- 
ciple is pernicious, or whether we are only just beginning to fly, 
there is one indisputable fact : that the tall commercial structures of 
to-day have done more to teach architects and constructors how to 
build, how to use material, what material to use, and how to execu- 
tively handle large work, than would have been possible with a dozen 
generations of the kind of buildings which were called first class a 
generation ago. They have served and are still serving a useful pur- 
pose in our architectural development. We may grow out of them 
and may regret our own flights of fancy, but surely no architectural 
problem was evei more resolutely adapted nor more scientifically nor, 
on the whole, satisfactorily solved than these very sky-scrapers. 


THROUGH theenergetic efforts of Mayor (Juincy. the question 
of the extension of the so-called fire limits in the city of Boston 
is again up for consideration. A commission is in process of for- 
mation, including representatives from the Society of Architects, the 
Master Builders' Association, and the Real Estate Exchange, which 
is to consider the advisability of so amending the existing laws that 
the area within which anything but brick buildings shall be tolerated 
shall be considerably extended. This is emphatically a movement in 
the right direction and will undoubtedly result in materially lessening 
the fire risk of the city. A brick building is by no means necessarily 
a fire proof one, but it is certainly a great deal better than the fungous 
growths of wooden structures which flourish so luxuriantly in the de- 
batable line between the residence and the business sections of the 


Park & Hulsebus, architects, have opened an office in the 
Y. M. C. A. Building, Peoria, 111. 

Harvey J. Blackwood, architect. Scranton, Pa., has removed 
his offices to the Connell Building. 

Edgar Y. Seller, architect, Philadelphia, has removed his 
offices to the Real Estate Trust Building. Broad and Chestnut 

Mr. BAGGALEY, of Pentecost & Baggaley, architects, Buffalo, 
X. Y., has retired from that firm and taken up his residence in Eng- 
land. Mr. Pentecost will continue the business at 406 Fornes Build- 
ing, Buffalo. 

Tin-: Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., is holding an exhibition 
<>l a collection of antique European and Oriental textiles. The ex- 
hibit closes January 31. 

The Washington Architectural Club held its regular 
meeting January 7. The subject for the evening was a competition 
[or " A Station House for the District of Columbia.'" The criticism 
was led by Mr. Snowden Ashford, and the competition was won by 
Mr. G. A. Desst-z. 

The fourteenth annual exhibition of The Architectural League 
of New York will be held from Saturday, February 1 1, to Saturday, 

March 4, inclusive, in the building of the American Fine Arts 
Society. 215 West 57th Street, New York City. Exhibition hours : 
10 a. m. to 6 p. m.; 8 p. m. to io p. m ; Sundays, 12 M. to 6 P. M. The 
annual dinner of the League occurs Thursday, February 9, at 7 p. m. 

The third annual ''smoker" of the Pittsburgh Architectural 
Club was held in the studios of Mr. H. S. Stevenson, 413 Wood 
Street, on Friday evening, Dec. 23, 1898. Mr. Edward Stotz, 
architect, gave a talk on " Shadows." The musical program was 
given under the direction of Mr. Frank T. Thuma and Mr. David 
T. Moore. Committee, Messrs. W. H. Stulen, S. C. Irwin, and 
R. G. Dickson. 

Recent happenings at the Chicago Architectural Club are as 
follows: On Monday evening, January 9, Mr. Dwight Heald Per- 
kins addressed the club, his subject being " A Study of Recent 
International Expositions." The lecture was illustrated by the 
stereopticon. Monday evening, January 16, Mr. Thomas Jones read 
a paper on " Plastering." An interesting discussion followed. The 
drawings for the Church Window Competition were on exhibition 
during the evening. 

The Pittsburgh Architectural Club has commenced a 
series of competitions to be held during the winter months. The club 
has been fortunate this year in obtaining rooms at the Carnegie Insti- 
tute, and is carrying on its work with a great deal of success. Two 
classes have been started : one in drawing from cast and one in 
modeling, both under the best of instructors. December 23, the club 
held a smoker at the studio of Mr. H. S. Stevenson. It is to be 
regretted that the club, in connection with the local chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects, has given up holding an exhibi- 
tion this year. 


page v, details of Crozer Building, Philadelphia; Frank 
Miles Dav & Bro., architects. This illustration is one of a series 




Executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
James E. Ware & Son and Herbert S. S ILirrle. Associate Architects. 

which is to be selected from their recently issued and beautiful 
catalogue, and to be shown in theii advertisement. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., page x, a new mercantile building. Boston ; 
Gay & Proctor, architects. 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Company, page xx, Home 
Life Insurance Building, New York City (damaged by firer. 
X. l.e Brun & Sons, architects. 

Ludowici Roofing Tile Company, page xxvi, Presbyterian 
Church, Evanston, 111.; D. H. Burnham & Co., architects. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Ltd., page xxvii, Grove 
Hall Engine House. Boston, Mass.: Perkins & Betton, architects. 



Bricks and Tilesfor Interior Finishing. I. 


ONE of the hygienic maxims or principles of Dr. Richardson, — 
him of the "model City of Health," — was that the interior 
walls and ceilings of rooms must absolutely be made of non-absorbent 
material, or, at least, that theirsurfacesbe made non-absorbent. Glazed 
or enameled tiles and bricks 1 were obviously the materials which the 

doctor had in mind, 
and they are those 
which would occur 
to any builder or 
architect who 
might consider the 
possibility of carry- 
ing out this counsel 
of perfection. We 
have all of us tried 
the experiment, or 
proposed, or wished 
to try the experi- 
ment, of lining a 
hospital ward with 
glazed brick or tile, 
floor, wall, and 
ceiling alike, and 
that with rounded 
corners, so that the 
ward might be 
emptied of its beds 
and of other furni- 
ture once in so 
often, and then 
subjected to the 
rigorous purgation 
of a fire hose. The tiles which would be used for such a purpose as 
this would be most commonly inexpensive, soft-paste squares of 
baked clay with a very high gloss on one side; but those for the 
floor need to be very hard, and with a resistant quality in their 
enamel, which most of the tiles in the market do not possess; those 
of the dado, or lowermost 6 ft., more or less, of the wall need to be 
nearly as hard as those of the floor, while those of the upper wall 
and the ceiling may be soft and proportionally cheap. Perhaps, in- 
deed, a finish of such a high gloss is not absolutely necessary. 
Among all the dull tiles and hard face-bricks now on the market 
there may well be found, on testing, many which are sufficiently non- 
absorbent to meet sanitary requirements: — certainly many as effi- 
cient, in this respect, as plaster and, moreover, free from the danger 
of cracking and of having holes knocked in them. Such brick and 
tile would be, generally, even less expensive, and far more effective 
in the way of decoration than those of high finish. All this is non- 
decorative. A very pretty effect of pale tints may indeed be got, 
and those in a hospital ward may be as subdued in tint as the di- 
recting physician or the authorities in charge of the structure might 
decide, for all shades of green and gray are within reach of the skilled 
tile-maker. But this, as has been said, is not exactly decorative work. 
Those who are familiar with the ground floor rooms of the Cafe 
Savarin, in New York, in the basement of the Equitable Life Insur- 
ance Company's building, and occupying the front on Pine Street 
with a return on Broadway, will remember the very pleasing effect of 
these low, large rooms divided by stout and stumpy, round columns, 
and lined and faced everywhere, columns, walls, and ceiling, with 
enameled tiles of a rather bright buff tone, in the reflecting surface 
of which a thousand repetitions of the electric bulbs repeat one 
another forever. The result is not so dazzling to the eyes as might 

1 Let us maintain the distinction of " enameled " for that which is covered with an 
opaque coat; "glazed " for that which has a transparent covering. 

FIG. I. 

be supposed, for the multiplicity of little points of light produces the 
effect of a general uniform illumination which is very agreeable, and 
the buff tone is sufficiently subdued, sufficiently " off white," to pre- 
vent the glare which weak eyes fear the most. The restaurant in 
the basement of the Dunn Building, at the corner of Broadway and 
Leonard Street, New York, opened for the first time in the summer 
of i.Sij.S. shows a further use of color in gla/ed surfaces than had 
been previously attempted in modern business buildings at least. 
Here there is an effect similar to that in the Cafe Savarin, but with 
a good deal more deliberate attempt at decoration. The difference 
between these two interiors is practically the difference between the 
room which seeks only to be pleasing in general effect, neat, smooth, 
and highly finished and thoroughgoing in appearance, and the room 
which has more pretense at artificial decoration. 

Now, there are two ways of lining a room or a passageway 
with baked clay : and one of these is the way of surface finishing, such 
as has been dealt with in the previous paragraph. There is nothing 
to be said against it; the wall which, in our larger cities at least, will 
usually be of brickwork, solid and good enough in all fairly well 
planned and well handled buildings, allows of being coated with tile 
of any shape and any sort. We shall see in a moment that there 
are many shapes and many sorts which are quite available for our 
purpose. The other plan, the constructional plan, is certainly in 
many ways more interesting. It is more interesting because of its 
very difficulty. Let us suppose that the architect has. as all archi- 
tects should have, a strong desire to get his decorative effect out of 
the very structure itself. He will then find that he wishes very much 
to build the interior face of his wall with enameled bricks, wherein 
the interior face of his wall will be of one mass with the solidity of 
the wall itself. He will then be led to consider, in advance, the place 
in his interior wall surface for the richer band of inlaid color near 
the ceiling and the plainer echo of it below. -the possible addition 
of relief patterns, and so on. We are all familiar with enameled 
bricks, because the courtyards of the great business buildings are 
lined up with them. Those in the courtyards are white or cream 
colored, or of a very light gray, and this because their very object — - 

PIG. 2. 

the very reason for their presence — is their reflecting quality and 
the way in which they retain that reflecting quality though soiled 
with smoke or stained with the weather. Already considerable 
progress has been made in producing enameled bricks of good tints 
ranging from "off white," through all gradations of yellow and buff, 


to reddish browns j and even more decided colors are not rare. 
Besides the examples mentioned above, agreeable effects are to be 
seen in the courts of the Congressional Library at Washington, and 
in the soffits of the floor arches of the eastern extension of the (".rand 
Central Station. New York. Even better shades will be given us 
undoubtedly ; and for the present, 
where stronger color is desired, 
and the thin surface tile, applied 
after the wall is built, is what we 
have to consider. 

One of the pavilions in the 
Paris Exhibition of 1878 was 
walled with painted tiles of the 
most splendid sort. The lunette 
over the great doorway of en- 
trance, with its triumphal com- 
position of Grecian architecture, 
was painted on small square tiles. 
On similar tiles was painted a 
much larger composition under 
the arch on either hand which 
made up the triple arcade. In 
each, a single landscape picture 
embraced at once the great 
lunette, in which were the tops of 
the trees and their spreading 
branches, and the smaller square 

frame below, in which were seen the trunks of the same trees and a 
landscape foreground with rocks, buildings, and water. This was 
treated as if a landscape seen through the openings of an architec- 
tural screen, which screen was made up of two Ionic pilasters with 
their entablature and* niches on either side. Two arched, window- 
like panels, one on either side of the large landscape picture, were 
tilled with figure subjects, and these also were painted on small tiles. 

Fig. 1 shows a detail of similar work in the Paris Exposition of 
[889. A fantastic Japanese figure embodies tobacco and the joys of 
smoking; an idealized German countrywoman stands lor the hop 
and the delights of beer. No matter what advertising names are 
given to this painting, it remains good, old-fashioned ceramic decora, 
tion still. 

Every one has seen 
in a museum trophies of 
Persian tile brought at 
immense cost from the 
Levant, and in which a 
decorative or pictorial 
composition is carried 
out in a great number 
of separate tiles, each 
piece 5 or 6 ins. square. 
The French example 
discussed above is in- 
teresting as showing 
how the modern require- 
ments of the European 
world are more readily 
to be met than by any 
more direct imitation of 
tlu- Oriental originals. 
When color decoration 
becomes rich and elab- 
orate with us of Euro- 
pean blood, it is much easier to find it in realized pictorial composi- 
tion, such as can be matched and executed easily and readily by the 
highly trained men whom we call artists in painting, than to resort to 
any more purely decorative scheme. The mural painter carries it 
over the decorator as soon as the work becomes rich. The first- 
named Parisian example was on a great scale, of course. The 

FIG. 3- 


1 . 

1 A ^ 

' 4£ v ^V 

V> m 

!> 1/ < <*4k 



*"- v 


>. ■. , ilP^ 


FIG. 4. 

panels of figure subject were less than 6 ft. high in the clear, and the 
total height of the large landscape picture was at least 30 ft.; so that 
the trees may almost be said to be of natural size. Such majestic 
decoration as that will stand us in good stead, if we bear it in mind 
as a possibility to be realized only in those rare cases when an archi- 
tect finds that space and funds 
alike are ample, and that he can 
for once have his way. In do- 
mestic interiors, and even in the 
rooms and halls of government 
buildings, civic buildings, munici- 
pal buildings, a somewhat smaller 
scale of adornment must certainly 
be adopted. Such a smaller scale 
is seen in use in the frieze of the 
dining room shown in Fig. 2. 
The subjects here are the fairy 
tales of childhood and the tales 
of adventure beloved by youth. 
— the "Arabian Nights," the 
French stories collected by Per- 
rault, Peter Wilkins and bis Fly- 
ing Island, " Robinson Crusoe," 
and the rest. These schemes are 
ranied out on rather large 
squares of tile, for the frieze 
must be nearly 4 ft. wide in the 
clear, and the tiles themselves at least 9 ins. square. This, however, 
is indifferent; and many an artist would prefer the broken and irreg- 
ular effect produced by many more squares, many more joints, and 
many more of those diversities and inequalities of surface which 
come of putting together pieces of material which have been made 
separately and which there is no means, fortunately, of scraping 
down to a dead level. If, however, these decorations again are not 
too large, at least too costly. — altogether out of reach of the ordi- 
nary adorner of dwelling houses, of town halls, of libraries. — let us 
consider the design shown in Fig. 3, in which conventional groups 
of familiar flowers are seen, each with its name displayed in me- 
dieval fashion by means of letters, which do not follow one another 

with any great regular- 
ity, each group being 
contained in its own 
painted arch of the 
little arcade which 
forms the main composi- 
tion. In the center of 
the picture are iris, 
called here " p U r p 1 e 
flag," and tulips, di- 
rectly over the head of 
the bed. Poppies. 
hyacinths, and foxgloves 
are on the left: anem- 
ones of the large and 
showy kind known to 
travelers in Italy and 
California, chrysanthe- 
mums, and •■ the miter 
lily " are on the right. 
It is hardly necessary 
to say that the formal- 
izing of flowers which 
are otherwise treated naturalistic-ally is rather disagreeable to the eye 
which has not been trained in that singular school of decoration of 
which William Morris is the best known master. It is not thus that 
one would have his floral compositions made up. And yet the sug- 
gestion is clearly intelligent and clearly attractive; and if this can 
be done, anything can be done in the way of floral ornamentation. 



Another course is open to the architect of neo-classic tastes, and 
who demands rather panels which he can enclose in an architectural 
framework than continuous broad friezes. Fig. 4 is a panel of 
modern Sevres porcelain, and this as a tour de force is painted on 
a single slab. But that is an inessential detail. The effect would 
be finer if it were enlarged and painted upon about twelve square 

One word more before the subject of enameled tile is aban- 
doned. When tile or brick without an enameled surface are used 
for wall lining, and, indeed, when any other material than tiles or 
bricks are used, enameled tile are still of the greatest value when 
used for the dado. Up to a height of 4 ft. in some cases, of 6 or 
7 ft. in other cases, the wall should really be covered with a hard, 
resistant, non-absorbent material, and for this purpose, while marble 
is excellent, tiles are still better, because they can easily be made still 
more incapable of absorbing impurity, and because, also, the deco- 
ration which can be put upon them is immeasurably more interesting 
than even the most beautiful veins and stains of the natural material. 
This subject of dado, then, might be treated by itself and at con- 
s i d e r a b 1 e 
length, but it is 
only possible to 
say here that it 
would be well if 
our makers of 
tiles would give 
us in their richly 
illustrated cata- 
logues some 
suggestions of 
what they are 
ready to offer in 
this direction. 

The men- 
tion of trade 
catalogues and 
the thought of 
the tiles which 
are commonly 

offered in the market bring up the serious consideration of patterns 
for a large continuous surface. There is, of course, the mosaic 
which is made of separate pieces of baked clay; small square, spe- 
cially shaped, or irregular tessera:, or 4 in. and larger flat tiles. 

But it is mainly the painted tiling and its patterns which are 
now in question. There are two kinds of patterns which are to be 
discussed, namely, diaper and that which, though often classed as a 
kind of diaper, is more properly called a sowing or seme. Heralds 
maintain this distinction, and they are right. If, for instance, you 
adorn a surface of velvet with an embroidered fleur-de-lis repeated 
over and over again, you have not a diaper but a sowed or seme 
pattern. A diaper pattern is, more properly, one of which the unit 
of design constantly repeats itself without break, or in which two or 
even three units alternate and in like manner rlow one into the other. 
The essence of the distinction is that nowhere must the unit of the 
diaper be a wholly independent and isolated figure. The seme 
pattern, while adopted for stuffs and embroideries, that is to say, for 
curtains, for hangings, for dress, and the like, where the folds of the 
stuff give it irregularity and break its monotonous repetition, is ex- 
tremely dangerous for flat wall surfaces. In tile work it is pecul- 
iarly important to avoid the pattern of isolated figures, because the 
tendency will then be to paint one figure upon a tile and then to 
face the wall with hundreds of such tiles put edge to edge. Any 
one who has observed the effect of this kind of pattern in use will 
feel the unfortunate effect that it produces. 

The diaper pattern, on the other hand, is capable of greater 
refinement, because of the passing of one element of the pattern into 
another, and it is also devoid of that strong tendency towards spotti- 
ness of effect which is the fatal characteristic of seme patterns. 


Some of the most splendid compositions of purely decorative char- 
acter in the world are those which are to be found upon large surfaces 
of tile in Persian and in Cairene mosques. Two examples, from 
Persian mosques, are seen in Figs. 5 and 6. The conventional 
flower design is apt to be extraordinarily effective, and a larger sur 
face can be adorned in this way, it is found, than by any other con- 
stantly recurring pattern whatever. Still, however, those who are 
familiar with photographs of the interiors of Oriental mosques, as in 
Cairo, are aware how monotonous, how dull, how heavy, can be the 
effect of these large surfaces of wall covered with constantly recur- 
ring pattern. Nor is it to be alleged that the absence of color and 
the substitution of the rather ugly purplish brown of the photograph 
explain this monotonous look of the wall surface. The loss, in the 
small scale of the photograph, of the irregularities, the breaks, the 
uncertainties, and inequalities of surface of the original makes a 
greater difference, but still the general effect of large wall surfaces 
covered with even the best diaper patterns, especially if in strong 
contrast with the background, is depressing. The modern designer 
for tile decoration should, therefore, be ready to imagine and to 
realize separate compositions : sometimes vertical candelabra with a 
decided foundation, or root, and an equally decided termination at 
the top: sometimes boskets of trees or bouquets of flowering 

A century ago the Chinese used to send to England and Holland 
and to the richer towns of our own .Atlantic seaboard, wall papers in 
which a series of flowering trees or plants of bamboo succeeded one 
another on the wall, while small figures accompanied them and 
formed a foreground of great variety. The same idea may be carried 
out in tile- without undue extravagance. It is better, of course, that 
each separate pilaster, candelabrum, or anthemion have its own begin- 
ning at the top of the dado and its own termination at some distance 
below the uppermost line of the ornamented band, but this is not 
absolutely essential, and cheaper work may have the vertical stripes 
of ornament passing from top to bottom of the frieze and disappear- 
ing. Moreover, horizontal as well as vertical division of the sort 

may be made. 
For the sake of 
clearness of 
c omprehension, 
let us suppose a 
plain, dark 
dado, and the 
surface to be 
adorned with 
tiles coming 
above this dado 
and extending 
over 8 ft. of 
vertical height. 
Such a surface 
as this can be 
adorned with 
bands, which 
may be exactly 
alike or may come in a wider and narrower, a richer and a plainer, 
a more brilliant and a more somber alternation. Or a single very 
rich band of scroll ornament, 2 ft. wide or more, may pass hori- 
zontally around the room in the upper part of this 8 ft. band, per- 
haps in its uppermost third, and this may be echoed by a much 
narrower band immediately above the dado. In either of these 
cases — in the horizontal as well as in the vertical treatment — the 
surface not occupied by the richer patterns may, indeed, be orna- 
mented by small and not very noticeable spots, as of gold, or brown, 
or some neutral gray, or by groups of such spots ; but it will gener- 
ally be found that the irregularity of the background produced by 
the small tiles will sufficiently diversify the surface, which, after all, 
is a foil, or set-off for ornament. 

FIG. 6. 


The American Schoolhouse. XIV. 



THE normal school, being primarily for the training of teachers, 
has features analogous to that of a college, /. e. its principal 
function is to give recitation rooms, laboratories, drawing rooms, etc., 
for instruction in special subjects; but unlike a college, it is required 
that there should be a large assembly and study room in which the 
students prepare their recitations and where they join in general 
exercises: also, as in the English schools, small classes may recite in 
this large room without disturbance to others in their studies. In 
tine, the method of instruction in the normal schools is that which 
is given to the higher 
classes in schools of the 
t y p e of the Roxbury 
Latin School, whose tra- 
ditions are based on the 
English method of indi- 
vidual instruction. 

With the advanced 
age of the pupils and the 
advanced studies in our 
best high schools, there 
seems to be no good 
reason why the upper 
classes in these latter 
schools should not be 
placed under the systems 
adopted in the normal 
schools. If this were 
done, the plan of the high 
school would be materi- 
ally affected and the cost 
of such constructions 


Ilartwell, Richardson & Driver, Architects. 

materially decreased from that involved by the graded class system, 
which is generally followed in our high schools. 

Aside from its collegiate characteristics, the normal schoolhouse 
plan when fully developed gives class rooms for the kindergarten, 
primary, and grammar grades. The pupils in these " model depart- 
ments," as these branches of normal schools are designated, are not 
a picked company of children, but are taken without selection from 
districts which are established by the local school committees. The 
teachers for these " model departments " are nominated by the prin- 
cipal of the normal school and are elected by the city school com- 
mittee. The aim of these departments is to produce actual school 
conditions and to afford to the students in the upper class of the 
normal school an opportunity for practical application of the teacher's 
art. Other normal school students than those especially assigned to 

instruct these pupils are 
permitted to observe the 
work. These depart- 
ments have become es- 
sential to a thoroughly 
equipped normal school, 
so that class rooms and 
other provisions for their 
accommodation are a re- 
quirement of the fully 
developed plan of this 
type of building. We 
therefore find in the typ- 
ical normal school plan 
an "assembly study 
room " with single desks 
and chairs for say, two 
hundred and fifty stu- 
dents, class rooms for the 
kindergarten. primary, 
and grammar school, 
which are given an en- 

5E( "Mi FLOOR. 


tf— T[— TJ 





trance to the class rooms and a stairway to toilet accommodations in 
the basement distant from the portion of the building assigned to 
the normal students. 

Special class rooms should be furnished for instruction in 
geography, mineralogy, zoology, history, literature, "pedagogy," and 
languages, as are physical, botanical, and chemical laboratories : 
rooms for instruction in drawing, music, and manual training are also 
required. A well appointed gymnasium is also properly held to be 
an essential feature of such 
schools. The library is also 
important in such an institu- 

A good example of the 
normal school building is 
that shown in the State 
Normal School at Salem, 
Mass. In the basement of 
this building are located the 
heating and ventilating ap- 
paratus, the toilet and play 
rooms for the pupils of the 
•'model department" 
schools, a well-equipped 
gymnasium with dressing 
room, the industrial labora- 
tory, a lunch room, and store 
rooms for supplies. 

On the first rloor are 

H. Neill Wilson, Architect. 

three hundred pupils. These rooms have been planned so as to be 
entirely distant from the space assigned to the normal school proper, 
and the stairways to the basement are so planned that they may be 
used by the children without disturbance to the normal school stu- 
dents, while easy communication between the two departments is 

On the second rloor is the assembly and study room. 60 by 85 ft. 
On this floor is the principal's office, reception room, teachers' 

meeting room, with toilet 
room, library, supply and 
recitation and work rooms. 

The third floor is mainly 
devoted to instruction in 
science. Here are the rooms 
and laboratories for instruc- 
tion in physics, chemistry, 
botany, geography, miner- 
alogy, and zoology. Here 
also is a lecture room with 
seats arranged in tiers, and 
two rooms on the north side 
furnish accommodations for 
instruction in drawing. 

The smaller State Nor- 
mal School at North Adams 
is designed to meet similar 
requirements, but the " model 
department " school is in a 






the toilet and cloak rooms provided with individual lockers for the 
students of the normal school, a system of clothing disposal which 
we have seen to have been gradually adopted in several high schools 
recently constructed. Two outside entrances give access to the por- 
tion of the- building assigned to normal school scholars. In either 
wing is an entrance for the pupils of the •• model" schools. The 
rooms for these schools are nine in number and accommodate over 

separate building on the same lot of land. In this building is .1 
gymnasium equipped for the Swedish method of instruction. 

In the North Adams Normal School proper we find the cloak 
and toilet rooms on the fust floor, as in the Salem school, but here, 
also, since "model" class rooms are provided for, as above noted, 
four natural science laboratories are placed on the first floor. On 
the second floor is an assembly hall, the office, libraries, and class 



room for mathematics and languages. In the third story are the phys- 
ical and chemical laboratories, the drawing rooms, and class rooms. 

In the normal school at Lowell in the same State the cloak and 
toilet rooms are on the first floor, as in the other two schools : for the 
" model " departments a kindergarten class room only is provided, 
the other "model " being furnished in adjacent public schools. The 
assembly hall and study room are united as in the Salem school, and. 
as in that school, this 
room is placed on the 
second floor. 

The State Normal 
School building at New 
Haven, Conn., as here 
shown, is but a portion 
of the structure contem- 
plated for the future 
needs of the institution. 

The main building 
is 155 ft. 4 ins. long, with 
an extreme depth of 70 
ft. 4 ins. 

It is expected that 
wings will later be built 
projecting from the rear 
of the present building, 
which will then occupy 
three sides of a hollow 
square, with the heating 
plant in the center. 

This proposed ex- 
tension accounts for a 

Stickney & Austin. Architects, 

other articles are passed from the basement to the room above, where 
the finer work is expected to be done. 

There are also two recitation rooms, a physical laboratory, with 
alcove, store room, and closets, a lecture room of same size, with 
alcove, and a women's toilet room. This toilet room has no direct 
connection with the rest of the building, and is entered by a passage 
underneath and behind one of the main staircases. The men teachers 

have their toilet room in 
the basement. 

In the second story, 
the northerly end of the 
building is occupied 
wholly by one class and 
one recitation room, 
which open together by- 
means of double rolling 

Corresponding t o 
these in position at the 
opposite end of the 
building are two class 
rooms, while the library. 
or, as it is designated in 
this case, reading room, 
is centrally located along 
the front, with a length of 
about 55 ft. (or an extreme 
length, measuring into 
the alcove at the end, of 
65 ft.), and a depth from 
front to rear of 25 ft. 

- T" 




■s f j 



disposition of the staircases that 
would otherwise have been extrav- 

The clear height of the first 
story above the street is 12 f t. ; 
that of the second, 13 ft., while 
the third is the same as the first. 
except that the lecture room and 
class room, which open together, 
are 16 ft. in the clear. 

Hut little of the basement is 
occupied at the present time. One 
room is arranged for a lunch 
room. Two other rooms are 
thrown together, which are devoted 
to manual training, while the remainder is unoccupied, awaiting 
future development. 

The clothing lockers, which are now placed in a room upon the 
first floor, will doubtless finally be placed in the basement as originally 
planned, and the space they now occupy will be used for class rooms. 

There will then be upon the principal floor one class room, a 
manual training room of the same size, with an alcove for the con- 
venience of the instructor, from which stairs descend to the room.'- in 
the basement devoted also to manual training. In the floor a hinged 
trap door opens upon an inclined plane, by means of which stock and 



Book shelves in alcove form, 
two stories in height, cover the 
rear wall opposite to the light. 

This library and reading room 
is connected with the lecture room 
just mentioned by double rolling 
partitions, having an opening 8 ft. 
in width. 

The second story also con- 
tains the principal's office and re- 
ception room, a teachers' room, 
and a retiring or emergency room, 
each having its individual toilet 

In the third story are the 
chemical and biological laboratories, each with its large store room 
and two class rooms. 

Another class room opens by sliding partitions into a still larger 
lecture room, the two having an extreme length of 73 ft., with a 
height of [6 ft., as previously stated. 

In the center, at the rear, is a kitchen or cooking school, fitted 
with closets, sinks, dressers, and lockers, and with a lift running from 
the basement. 

It will be noted that the requirements in the case of this school 
.ire different from those of the normal schools of Massachusetts. 


Certain of the Massachusetts requirements are not demanded in this 
institution or are met by accommodations in the city schools. 

The following quotation from the catalogue of the North Adams 
school, describing the administration and the facilities for practise 
in teaching, given in the training school, may be of interest to those 
unacquainted with the Massachusetts Normal School methods. 

•■ Unusual opportunities are afforded for the study of children 
and the practise of teaching. Students begin their work in this school 
immediately upon their entrance into the normal school, and continue 
it regularly throughout the course. The rapidity of progress through 
the various stages of the 
training-school work de- 
pends on the ability and 
previous experience of 
the student. In general, 
the order of work is as 
follows : — 

" First Year. — First 
term : reading of individ- 
ual children begun. 
Second term : observa- 
tion of teaching begun. 

"Second Year. — 
Third term : study of 
school organization and 
management, and assist- 
ing in teaching and man- 
agement. Fourth term : 

J. P. Rinn, Architect. 

practise in teaching, the amount of responsibility conferred depend- 
ing on the ability of the student. 

"Third Year. — Responsible charge of classes, elective work. 
Students who have taught successfully before entering will be given 
opportunities for practise in teaching and disciplining as early in the 
course as their abilities warrant. 

" Close and appropriate supervision and instruction are given 
students by the regular teachers of the several grades and by the 
principals of the various departments, thus insuring reasonable 
progress to students requiring extra opportunities in the practise 

work of teaching. 

" In the kindergarten 
department, which occu- 
pies a suite of three rooms, 
which can be opened into 
one, students not only are 
trained to be kindergart- 
ners, but also are taught 
the importance of and the 
ways of continuing the 
kindergarten spirit into 
primary work. They ob- 
serve and practise in the 
early primary grades, and 
are fitted thus to become 
kindergarten or primary 
teachers in the public 
schools as they may elect.'' 





Church Architecture in Materials of 


THE brick churches of moderate cost yet to be built in this land 
of the Pilgrim Fathers, to supersede or replace such as other- 
wise would be (or are) of wood, offer a wide field for the legitimate 
use of terra-cotta. In many of those already built it has been used 


extensively, giving enhanced reputation to rising architects who have 
anticipated the wants of the community immediately concerned, and 
contributing something towards the less specific demands of those 
interested in the abstract question of street architecture. In many 
churches of comparatively recent erection, however, the terra-cotta 
has been limited to gable coping, roof cresting, and, perhaps, a few 
grotesque finials. These meager items but serve as reminders of what 
might have been done on a more extended scale in the same building 
had the architect been endowed with artistic perception, united to a 
faculty for wise discrimination in the choice of materials. If, in 
addition to other acknowledged excellences, the weather-resisting 
qualities of terra-cotta have justified its use in the more exposed situa- 
tions, why stultify these candid admissions by withholding it from 
the entrance, the apse, the spire, the buttress weatherings, and the 
window tracery? The same work that served medieval builders for 
these and other purposes remains to-day intact, while stone of the 
same age has long since yielded to the tooth of time. So, too, in 
our own experience, thoughtful men have turned it to good account 
in every part of the edifice, interior as well as exterior, not even 
excepting the font, chancel screen, and reredos. Such examples, 
creditable and encouraging as they undoubtedly are, render more 
conspicuous a wilderness of wasted opportunites, most of them charge- 
able to the force of conventionality, the inexperience, or the want of 
resource on the part of architects. The reminiscent architect to 
whom these strictures would apply must often feel the force of Whit- 
tier's couplet : — 

" For of all sad words of tongue or pen, 
The saddest are these : ' It might have been.' " 

We are not, of course, referring invidiously to mission buildings, 
or to merely temporary outposts of the Christian religion, in which no 
architect of standing has had a share, or in which four walls and a roof 
may have exhausted the (usually limited) means at the building com- 
mittee's disposal. The sins of omission and commission to which 
exception is taken are everywhere noticeable in city churches, built 
for prosperous — -even fashionable — congregations. Door and win- 
dow jambs without the semblance of a molding, buttresses without a 
pinnacle, pointed arches filled with pretentious " tracery " from a 
planing mill, amount to a travesty on Gothic architecture. As for 
stained glass, we hold it as much out of place in a frame of perish- 
able wood as a diamond, or other precious stone, surrounded by a 
nickel-plated setting. Granted that the public taste has yet to be 
educated up to this standard, and that even church members need an 
occasional reminder of "the eternal fitness of things," it is to those 
who are professionally engaged in what has been truly described as 
the greatest of all the arts that they must needs look for enlightenment. 

The relationship in which an architect stands to his client and 
the status accorded to him in the community are largely of his own 
making. Like other professional men, his opinions will command 
respect and his advice will be accepted with a degree of deference 
equal to the measure of success achieved in work already executed 
under his direction. The average American architect has been con- 
tent to occupy a somewhat dubious position in this respect com- 
pared with that of his European contemporaries. Of late years, 
however, he has made good his claim to a much higher place in 
public estimation. This improved position has not always been 
gained by wordy self-assertion, or merely adventitious circumstances. 
In most cases, it has been the well-deserved reward of merit, dis- 
played in the conception and execution of work bearing evidences of 
taste, utility, varying degrees of originality, free from fads and eccen- 
tricities. Assuredly, it has not resulted from catering to the whims 


Edmund Sharpe, Architect. 



of a client, be he an individual or a noun of multitude, or by follow- 
ing too literally notions that may be crude or commonplace, perhaps 
irreconcilable. The architect who can resist these influences, adher- 
ing to his own (presumably trained) judgment with firmness and in 

' a 




i % 


mf •>' 




M4 < 




and brick came to be used as a matter of course. Midway in this 
period arose the graceful campanile of San (iottardo. Milan, seen in 
the foreground of Fig. i, surrounded by a setting of brick chimneys 
rising out of an unstudied ensemble of red roofing tile : on every hand 
a changing vista of variously designed but similarly constructed roofs, 
chimneys, and campaniles. In this view, while there is much to 
charm, there is nothing to offend, the eye of an artist. It embodies 
the essence of the prevailing material, and may be said to typify the 
style of architecture that came into existence in an age and country 
known to us, above all others, for its exemplary use of burned 

An eminent English architect and author, Mr. Edmund Sharpe, 
must have reasoned with himself from these premises, until he 
reached a satisfactory conclusion, which he did in 1S42. Previous 
to that time the manufacture of terra-cotta in England had been con- 
fined to busts, medallions, and other isolated features of a purely 
decorative character. Beyond these no serious attempt had been 
made to convert it into a bona-fide building material. Notwithstand- 
ing this, Mr. Sharpe conceived the idea of building a church entirely 
of terra-cotta, the same to be made from fire-clay, obtained as a by- 
product in the coal measures of Lancashire. The immediate outcome 
of this initial effort is shown at Fig. 2, and the one that followed it. 
two years later, at Fig. 4, both of which we commend to the notice 


moderation, has done much to prove his fitness as the interpreter of 
his client's actual wants, and as a safe guide in their ultimate 

The responsibilities inseparable from such a position cannot be 
minimized or ignored ; they are the price paid for an established 
reputation, and are not without compensating advantages. On every 
building for which an architect is responsible, he has written his 
name in letters that cannot be effaced, repudiated, or recalled, so long 
as the building exists. It is a challenge to public criticism, becomes 
part of his life's record, on which he must stand or fall. If it stands 
the test, that name will find favor in his own time and be known to 
future generations, for the good, even more than the evil things that 
architects do, are destined to live after them. 

The architects of northern Italy, from the twelfth to the six 
teenth century, accepted these conditions in their fullest significance. 
Their work has survived until our own time, and will continue a font 
of inspiration for ages to come. The excellence of their designs and 
the soundness of their construction were in accord with their choice 
of an enduring material. In this latter particular, the physical dis- 
advantages by which they were beset did not cause dismay. On the 
contrary, they were faced in such a way as to make them a help in- 
stead of a hindrance. The scarcity of stone did not force them to 
temporize with wood for structural purposes, or deprive them of a 
means wherewith to make themselves known to posterity. Turning 
to the rich deposits of clay which had trickled down into the valley 
of the Po, they molded it into building blocks, using the inflam- 
mable wood to fire the kilns, in which to render them imperishable. 
It is by their skilful and extensive use of burned clay that the archi- 
tects of Lombardy achieved lasting renown. We, more fortunate 
than they, have clay ba:.ks of much greater extent and variety; for 
its preparation, we have engine power and appliances of the latest 
approved pattern, where they had hand labor; we have chemists and 
mineralogists vying with each other in their desire to reveal the se- 
crets of nature. With all these advantages, shall we not try to imi- 
tate — if we cannot improve — the examples in church building left 
by men who lived in the Middle Ages, before "the revival of learn- 

With a superabundance of material wherewith to illustrate the 
preceding paragraph, we must forego that privilege until a more op- 
portune moment presents itself. From Santa Eufemia at Pavia to 
" Santuario di Crema " represents fully four centuries of incessant 
church building throughout Lombardy, in all of which terra-cotta 


m & a 


' . - " ■ ■g. i f 'ifes' 

Edmund Sharpe, Architect. 

of our friends, whether architects or architectural clay workers. The 
author of " Sharpe's Parallels" and other standard works reunited 
the two functions and proved himself preeminent in both. 

For the information of those who have not read our description 

I 2 


of three years ago, 1 it should be noted that the whole of the interim . 
as well as the exterior, of the first-named church is finished in terra- 
cotta. This applies to the seat ends and finials, the tracery panels 
in the seat backs, the font, pulpit, organ screen, and even the com- 
munion table, all of which are shining examples of finished workman- 
ship. While not prepared to advise the use of terra-cotta in some 
of these items, it is hard to withhold our admiration for an architect 
who displayed such steadfast faith in it> claims and capabilities. 

To the church at Lever Bridge, a schoolhouse and rectory have 
now been added, in which, needless to say, the same unexceptionable 
material has been used, — used in such way as to produce a group 
that is truly picturesque. That richly crocketed, open traceried 
spire is still intact, and through it, on the occasion of our visit, skints 
of sunlight were gleaming down into the vestibule, lighting up the 
somber habiliments of the female bell-ringer, at that moment calling 
the parishioners to Lenten service. This spire does not owe anything to 
an interior anatomy of steel : nor does it contain a metal dowel, cramp, 
or anchor of any description. I f it has withstood the frosts and storms 
and weekly vibrations of the bell for more than fifty years, there need 
be no apprehension as to the general condition of the edifice. The 
fabric of the whole establishment remains, and is likely to remain, 
unimpaired for an indefinite period. While waiting for a train on the 
high ground at Darcy Lever, black smoke from the neighboring cotton 
mills and mounds of colliery slag were closing in a limited perspec- 
tive, but the unique ensemble of this little terra-cotta village in the 
foreground was enough to redeem the bleakest of landscapes, render- 
ing hospitable the otherwise dreary outlook towards Bolton-le-Moor. 

The Piatt Church is built upon lands forming part of an estate 
of that name, which, in the middle of the twelfth century, had been 
conveyed to those truly militant champions of Christianity, the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. It is now a residential suburb on 
which the city of Manchester is making rapid encroachments: 
bounded, as yet, on one side by an expanse of meadow land which 
renders the scene more pastoral if less picturesque than the one just 
described. Our visit, interesting as it would have been, was made 
additionally gratifying by the friendly greeting received from the 
rector, the Rev. W. H. Finney, to whom we are likewise indebted 
for some useful information. 

The metal gutters behind the diapered parapet appear to have 
become leaky of late years, giving cause for portions of the roof tim- 
bers to be renewed. The delicate undercut ornament inserted in the 
hollow of the molded door jambs has, in some instances, broken off. 
and the finial on gable of chancel had been displaced during a 
recent wind storm. With these trivial exceptions, no block of terra- 
cotta in the building shows the slightest svmptom of decay. Indeed, 
to quote the words of Mr. Finney : " It is not possible, apparently, 
to find a single one that has been affected by time or weather." In 
1896, this church having been built fifty years, pastor and people were 
looking forward to the celebration of its jubilee. Barring shocks of 
earthquake, lightning, or the less likely danger from invading artillery, 
coming generations will celebrate, perhaps, more than one centenary 
of its existence without finding any need for restoration of the fabric. 

These two churches were not only the first of their kind that 
had been built in modern times; they were the forerunners of all that 
has followed in structural terra-cotta in Kngland — therefore, in 
America. In many respects the work will stand comparison with the 
best of our recent efforts this side the Atlantic; while in some it is, 
perhaps, ahead of anything that has been accomplished during the 
intervening half century. Considering the boldness of the venture, 
the responsibilities of the task, the untold difficulties incident to its ex- 
ecution, this terra-cotta lastingly associated with the name of Edmund 
Sharpe might well claim to be the Mecca of modern clay-workers. 
It was a precursor, and is, therefore, a fitting preface to what may be 
said subsequently on behalf of burned clay in church architecture. 

1 A descriptive commentary on these two churches appeared in I'm I'.kh kbuh di k, 
February, 1896, and was continued in the June number of that year, on which occasion 
adequate illustrations were promised at some later date. Since that time, the writer has 
revisited these two remarkable specimens of terra . hire, and. not unmindful 

of the foregoing promise, obtained the negatives from which these plates have been made. 



IF one of the provinces of the architect is to assist in the educa- 
tion of the general public, the recent fire of December 4, in 
New York, by which the Home Life Insurance Building was par- 
tially gutted, has demonstrated that the efforts of the profession 
have not been in vain. Whenever a fire has occurred in a building 
which has any more than ordinary solid construction, the daily press 
has been wont to make remarks about fire-proof construction and 
to assume that any building not manifestly dilapidated must have 
been intended to be fire-proof. In the newspaper comments on the 
New York fire, however, the amount of tangible appreciation of 
structural conditions manifested by the reporters has been somewhat 
remarkable, as showing how well the lessons of fire-proof construc- 
tion have been assimilated by the press. ( )f course there has been 
a certain amount of slopping over, and the scare headlines which 
came out at first would seem to infer a belief that the Home Build- 
ing was a total failure, but on the whole, the comments of the press 
on the lire and its result have been very intelligent and have shown 
a reasonable fairness in judgment of conditions. Several of the 
papers also have shown a commendable desire to submit judgment 
upon questions of this sort to experts. Mr. W. W. Kent, the well- 
known New York architect, made, to the New York Herald, a verv 
complete report of the condition of the Home Building, which un- 
doubtedly had a great deal of weight in moderating the yellow jour- 
nals, which are only too prone to jump on a suspicion of failure. In 
its issue of December 6, the New York Tribune published an editorial 
apropos of the fire, which is of interest to quote. 

•'Sneers over the burning qualities of fire-proof buildings will 
doubtless be much in evidence because of the fire at Broadway and 
Warren Street on Sunday night. The result of that conflagration, 
properly interpreted, however, stands much to the credit of modern 
' fireproof construction.' The fact that the Home Life Insurance 
Company's building was not utterly ruined, but that only a few floors 
were gutted, is, under the circumstances, strong testimony to the en- 
durance of such structures and their great value as barriers to the 
progress of a fire. The existence of some defects in the design of 
the building, which apparently prepared the way for such damage as 
was done in it, only serves to emphasize the effectiveness of terra- 
cotta covered steel in resisting flames when it is properly disposed 
and an edifice is not planned with an open door for the entrance of 
a passing fire." 

The World was not quite as successful in its statements: — 

"The 'fire-proof sky-scraper ' in New York was tested by fire 
last night. It did not stand the test. The lofty Home Life Insurance 
Company's building on Broadway, opposite City Hall, 280 ft. high, 
absolutely 'fire-proof,' caught fire from a burning building next door 
to the north. The flames were not confined to that floor of the Home 
Life's building in which they first ignited. Devouring everything 
combustible, they ate their way to the roof, floor by floor. Their 
progress was very slow, of course, but finally only the stone and iron 
and terra-cotta remained in the floors through which the fire had 
soared. The fire burned itself out, for the firemen, fighting insuper- 
able difficulties, could not put it out." 

Our readers who studied the presentation of the condition of the 
Home Life Building, as set forth in our last issue, will appreciate that 
the World's statement in regard to the flames not being confined to 
one floor of the Life Building is hardly a fair one, for though some 
six floors were gutted, the evidence of the newspaper reports is on the 
whole quite clear that the lire was communicated to each story indi- 
vidually from without. One of the best descriptions of the manner 
in which the fire was communicated from one building to another 
was published as follows in the New York Sun : — 

"The clothing store was all in a blaze in a quarter of an hour. 
Then it burned as a whole until the floors fell, one after another. At 



1 1 o'clock there was nothing left to burn. Meantime, the big insur- 
ance building, against which this white-hot mass of fuel had been 
sending up steady sheets of flame for a full hour, had just begun to 
catch fire, this notwithstanding the fact that the windows had no iron 
shutters on them." 

We believe that the disasters of this fire, which are really very 
considerable, though confined so closely to mere externals or non- 
essentials of construction, will prove of vast benefit to the profession 
and the public in that they will do a great deal towards the educa- 
tional development of our architects, our builders, and our real-estate 
owners. This fire has demonstrated that a building properly devised 
and properly constructed has great resisting powers against heat. It 
has also demonstrated that a structure of this sort is a very effectual 
fire stop. The possible consequences of a fire of this sort are 
simply appalling. Mr. Brady, of the New York Building Department, 
was asked by one of the reporters if, in the light of what has hap- 
pened to the Home Life Building, there was such a thing as a fire- 
proof building. 

" Yes," he replied. " 1 think that is a fire-proof building. 
Look at it. The walls, the floors, the tower, are all standing intact. 
Very little of it has 
been burned. The fire 
was practically confined 
to the contents of the 
offices ; and let me tell 
you that if it had not 
been a fire-proof build- 
ing, the firemen would 
be blowing up buildings 
to-day away down below 
the Astor House, in an 
effort to stop the prog- 
ress of a conflagration. 
With the gale that was 
raging last night, the 
firemen would have 
been utterly powerless 
against such a confla- 
gration, had there not 
been such a bulwark as 
this building interposed 
between the flames and 
the blocks beyond it. 
When we speak of a 

fire-proof building, we use the word in a comparative sense. Cer- 
tain heats will burn anything, but this building showed itself able 
to stand up against as fierce a fire as we are likely to have. Whether 
or not buildings should be as high as this I don't care to say. That 
is a question with which I am not dealing at present." 

Surely, this is pretty good testimony to the value of this particu- 
lar construction. But we will not learn a great deal by limiting our- 
selves to congratulations that the building stood so well, but rather by 
considering if it were possible for it to have stood a great deal better. 
and this is manifestly the case. The omission of all external shutters 
on the side towards the fire was bad enough. As a matter of fact, it 
is very difficult to put shutters on an office building and keep them 
closed. Real-estate owners have found it again and again the rule 
that the tenants object to having their shutters closed. There is no 
way of closing them simultaneously without giving trouble to the occu- 
pants of the rooms, and there is hardly a building in existence with 
windows situated as those on the inner side of the Home Life which 
are not equally unprotected. Shutters sound all right, and the press is 
united in saying that had they been in place the Home Building 
would not have suffered ; but they are impracticable from a business 
point of view, and we imagine that most owners of buildings would 
much prefer to take their chances of an external fire destroying 
their building entirely than to be put to the continual annoyance of 
trying to close these shutters. But even with the openings unpro- 

Ingle & Almirall, Architects. 

tected by shutters, there are methods of vastly diminishing the risks 
of fire from without. Wire glass has repeatedly been alluded to for 
protection in cases of this sort. The wire glass now in the market 
is not suitable for use in windows, but we understand that the glass 
companies are preparing to issue a product which is essentially a 
plate glass with wire embedded therein. This wire is so fine that it 
does not materially obstruct the vision, and tests have shown that 
the glass will melt before it will allow the flames to go through, and 
a heat which will melt glass, though by no means uncommon in a con- 
flagration, occurs only in spots and lasts for only a very short time. 

But even aside from the lack of shutters, the lack of wire glass, 
and admitting for an extreme argument that wooden window frames 
and sashes might be tolerated in a modern fire-proof building, there 
was a grave defect in the interior arrangement of the offices in the 
Home Life Building, a defect for which nobody but the renting 
public is to blame, namely, the cutting to pieces of the partition walls 
by rows of light sashes in the upper portion nearest the ceiling. Mr. 
Kent, in his report to the Herald, says that, " Perhaps the most strik- 
ing fact in connection with the entire disaster is the thorough man- 
ner in which the hall and room partitions were overthrown by the 

heat. I say heat ad- 
visedly, inasmuch as it 
was impossible to throw 
any water into the upper 
part of the building. On 
almost every floor in 
wh i c h the fire had 
gained much headway 
the destruction of these 
partitions was seen at a 
glance to be due very 
largely to the fact that 
the fire-proofing only 
continued up about 5 ft. 
from the floor to the 
bottom of the interior 
sash, which gave bor- 
rowed light to the hall- 
ways, corridors, and 

There is not the 
slightest reason why 
these interior windows 
should ever be tolerated 
in a building which claims to be fire-proof. An external conflagra- 
tion might destroy the window frames, the finish around the win- 
dows, and the furniture of an individual room, but it has repeatedly 
happened in offices which were enclosed by tight walls that the entire 
contents has been consumed without the fire spreading beyond that 
particular office. Indeed, there are a few cases on record where the 
presence of the fire was not even suspected until the following morn- 
ing. Consequently the windows in the interior partitions of the 
Home Life Building were undoubtedly responsible for a very large 
proportion of the damage. Then, again, the construction of the 
partitions themselves leaves a great deal to be desired, aside from 
the cutting off by the rows of windows. These partitions were built 
of hollow blocks, the openings for the doors being spanned overhead 
by a wooden trimmer. 

Quoting again from Mr. Kent: "I do not recall a single in- 
stance in recent great fires in large so-called tire-proof buildings 
where the ordinary terra-cotta block partition has not met with 
disaster, and as this special form of partition has so many admirable 
qualities, both in strength and in fire resistance and as a sound 
deadener, it would seem as if in some way it could be made much 
better on the point of stability under conditions like these." 

This is a seven- indictment of the terra-cotta block partition 
work; but the indictment is limited to the manner in which the 
material is used rather than the material itself. We cannot have a 



tire-proof partition unless it is able to stand fire and water. This 
seems axiomatic, but the axioms of construction are the ones which 
are most often ignored. 

Then, again, the results of this fire seem to show that wire lath- 
ing and plastering are not the most advisable protection possible for 
structural steel work. In fact, we would draw a deduction even 
further than this and say that in a modern building, to be thoroughly 
tire-proof, there ought to be no lath and plaster whatever, except 
possibly for decorative purposes, and that in the offices themselves 
the ceiling ought to be of terra-cotta, so arranged that it will form its 
own finish. We appreciate the argument that the terra-cotta floor 
blocks as now used are of themselves fire-proof, and that the plaster- 
ing applied to them is an additional safeguard; but on the other 
hand, the fact that the soffits of the arches are to be plastered 
makes it possible for a careless builder to do his work in a very rough 
manner without being found out. and we see no reason why we should 
not be able to produce a good ceiling without the use of metal lath- 
ing and plastering to cover up the carelessness of the workmen. 

There are points about the floor construction of the Home Life 
which might be improved upon. The air space left under the 
wooden floor boards is a menace, and ought not to be. But the 
amount of actual damage to the floor construction in the Home 
Building was surprisingly slight. It will be noted that a safe 
weighing two tons fell through the tenth floor into the office of the 
Rapid Transit Commission on the ninth floor, and there stopped. 
This apparently shows two things : one that the particular floor arch 
over which the safe stood on the tenth floor was of faulty construction, 
and the other that the remaining arches were unusually well built. 

The damage to the exterior of the building by the fire is what 
might have been expected. Perhaps it is too much to hope the time 
will come when our architects will feel that only a few building 
materials are suitable for the exterior of a structure in a crowded 
business district of the city. We believe Boston is the only city 
which recognizes officially the non-fire-proof character of granite, its 
building laws requiring all granite supporting work below certain levels 
to be protected by brick or terra-cotta. But. though the temptation 
to use elaborate stonework is one which is very strong to an archi- 
tect who takes a pride in producing a certain effect, it is more logical 
to admit in the beginning that no building stones can be depended 
upon to resist a lire, and that if we are to be consistent with the sur- 
roundings, with the conditions which are very apt to prevail at times 
in a commercial structure located on a crowded street, the choice of 
material for the exterior must be limited to burnt clay in some of 
its various modifications. Quoting again from Mr. Kent's report to 
the Herald : — 

" The total ruin of half of the front repeats the old and expensive 
lesson of how utterly useless in a great fire any building material is 
except such as has already been through a great fire before, namely, 
terra-cotta or brick. The white marble stood as well as any stone 
could be expected to stand, but I believe had brick or terra-cotta 
been in its place, it would still be there in a much less mutilated 
form. At the great fire of the Bedford Street stores, in Boston, built 
by H. H. Richardson, of brown sandstone, the effect of fire and 
water on this stone was at the time noted as very disastrous, and 1 
believe that in all cases where most of our well-known building 
stones have been subjected to great heat they have failed to stand 
the test like brick." 

We need hardly more than repeat what has often been stated in 
these columns, that brick and terra-cotta are preeminently the build- 
ing materials of the nineteenth century, and are especially suited to 
the wants of our modern commercial structures, to an extent un- 
equaled by any other product available to the architect or builder. 

In fact, the lessons of the fire are such as we imagine any in- 
telligent architect could have written out in advance. The failures 
have taken place precisely where they could have been expected to 
occur, and without an exception the damage done to this building is 
the result of concessions to popular demand, either in the line of 
arrangement or of external decoration. 



WHILE the reports and comments of the technical press have 
been all but unanimous in pointing out the contributory 
causes of this disaster, there is a corresponding agreement upon the 
things necessary to minimize the effect of tires that must occur, not- 
withstanding all that can be done to render them less frequent. The 
echoes that continue to reverberate through the offices of our leading 
architects show the widespread interest excited by this instructive, if 
expensive, object lesson. Those who have not been taught by 
reason may glean something from experience, while the residue will, 
at least, be amenable to the dictates of stern necessitv. 

The present writer has been favored by many freely expressed 
opinions confirmatory of the conclusions reached in his own summary, 
contained in last issue of THE BRICKBUILDER. Some of these have 
been delivered verbally, and some received in writing, from architects 
who are identified with the higher types of modern construction in 
New York. Chicago, Philadelphia, etc. The verdict of this highly 
competent jury may be summarized in the tersely stated findings of 
two of its most eminent members. F. H. Kimball, New York, and 
Louis H. Sullivan, Chicago. 

The former architect admits that marble and limestone are con- 
verted into lime in the presence of fire; that granite will disintegrate, 
and that sandstone will flake beyond redemption when exposed to 
fire and water. When an owner expresses a decided preference for 
stone, his architect is expected to acquiesce: but he considers that 


terra-cotta has many claims to favorable consideration, the more 
notable of which are its undoubted weather and fire-resisting quali- 

He suggests a double casing of fire-proofing with a 2 in. air 
space between, around all first-story columns in buildings where 
inflammable merchandise must be held in stock. He would have all 
fire-proof arches floated off in cement flush with top of the strips to 
which the flooring is nailed. This has been done in his latest 
erections, in one of which he displays unqualified confidence by 
having his own offices situated on the twenty-first floor. 

He denies the validity of Chief Bonner's plea based on an 
alleged inability to raise water beyond the 150 ft. limit. If this 
cannot be done at present, or with the means at his disposal, then a 
new and better system must be invented that will enable him to do 
so. But the remedy lies in leveling up to present requirements, not 
in leveling down to a standard that has been found altogether inade- 
quate. While the height of modern buildings has been increasing, 
the fire department has remained nearly stationary, and, without 
improved appliances, would soon become obsolete. 

Mr. Sullivan writes: "I indorse every word that you have to 
say. As you are perhaps aware. I have, for a number of years, 
been an advocate of the use of terra-cotta for covering the steel work 
of the modern tall building. I have erected such a building in \eu 
York City, on Bleecker Street, 150 ft. east of Broadway. In that 



building I took additional precaution to provide for coiling steel 
shutters in all the openings on the street fronts, although these 
shutters have not yet been put in place. The Guaranty Building in 
Buffalo (now the Prudential Building), the Chicago Stock Exchange 
Building, and the Schiller Theater Building, both in Chicago, are all 
of them terra-cotta buildings erected from my designs. I trust that 
the effect of your article may be to bring about a further increase in 
the use of terracotta for building purposes, as I consider it a superior 
material, with almost inexhaustible artistic possibilities, and the man- 
ufacture of which, excellent though it may be, is still in its infancy.'' 

These two statements fittingly represent the concurrence of 
Eastern and Western ideas in which advanced practise, up to date of 
writing, is epitomized. The writer of an otherwise reliable report 
contained in the Scientific American, December 17, allowed himself 
to say that, " The northern brick wall has been badly disintegrated 
by fire, and will also need repairs, if not replacing." We have re- 
examined this wall in the light of that divergent note, which bears 
evidence of having been made inadvertently, and find no warrant for 
any such statement. Beyond the smoke, which will wash off, the 
only injury which this wall has sustained is confined to the stone 
window lintels. They are all more or less blown and splintered, and 
will certainly have to be replaced ; but the comparatively uninjured 
condition of the brick wall is a thing that seems to impress the most 
casual observer. 

The accompanying photograph shows the immediate result of a 
recent test made by the writer, on 3 in. cubes of sandstone, granite, 

Masons' Department. 


limestone, and marble, with an equal number of terra-cotta tablets 
representing approximately the same color equivalents. The former 
were exposed to a jet of flame produced by crude oil and compressed 
air for about ten minutes, when they were withdrawn and allowed to 
cool gradually, no water having been applied. The latter were 
heated under the same conditions for a period of fifteen minutes and 
until they had reached a nearly white heat, when they were raked 
out and dropped directly into a pail of cold water. Had they been 
allowed to cool in the same way as the pieces of stone, the heat 
would not have made any perceptible impression on them. 

The moisture absorbed from the air was sufficient to " slack " 
the calcined limestone and marble, both of which fell to powder. 
The feldspar contained in the granite, accelerated by the alkalies 
present, began to fuse at a rose-red heat, liberating the particles of 
quartz, which, when cool, fell asunder. The piece of brownstone 
resisted the fire better than any of the others, but it, too, cracked 
into a mosaic and became worthless as a building stone. The 
corresponding piece of terra-cotta cracked slightly on the face, 
but adhering together with great tenacity, would still stand a test 
equal, perhaps, to half its original crushing weight of 5,000 lbs. to 
the square inch. The tablet next to it was merely crazed on the 
face, while the other two underwent very little change, notwithstand- 
ing the sudden reaction from white heat to water a little above 
freezing point. We present this demonstration to all whom it may 
concern without comment beyond a bare recital of the facts. 




CONTRACTORS often make mistakes in assuming responsibil- 
ities without proper compensation and in taking unnecessary 

Not a few contractors will estimate on a hazardous piece of 
work on the basis that everything will proceed favorably, and if any 
mishap occurs they have no provision for meeting the expense in- 
variably occasioned. The contracting business necessarily involves 
the taking of some chances, as in the rise of the price of materials or 
labor, but when unusual chances are to be taken, as in remodeling, 
underpinning, or supporting old buildings, or in the case of uncertain 
foundations, the contractor should protect himself by estimating so 
that in case unexpected, although possible, difficulties are encountered 
he will not lose more than his profit. It is much better to let some 
one else have the job than to take it at a figure which will allow a 
profit only under the most favorable conditions. 

Then many contractors are careless about allowing their work 
to be damaged by other workmen or through orders of the owner or 
architect. For instance, a mason contractor has built a cellar or 
basement wall, and the excavator wishes to fill against it on the out- 
side before there is sufficient weight on the wall to insure its stability, 
or perhaps he may be directed so to do by the architect or owner. If 
the excavating is under the control of the mason, he can forbid the 
filling until such time as it may be done with safety, but if he has no 
control over it, he should protect himself by notifying the owner in 
writing, that if the filling is done it must be at his, the owner's, risk, 
otherwise if the wall springs or falls the mason contractor will be ex- 
pected to make it good. 

Similar risks or chances of injury frequently arise in connection 
with other portions of the building, especially when the work is done 
under several contracts, and the wise contractor will protect himself 
as far as possible from damages that may happen to his work through 
the ignorance or carelessness of others. If a contractor executes a 
given piece of work in conformity with the plans and specifications, 
and it is injured through the fault of persons working under another 
contract with the owner, it is evident that the first contractor should 
not be made to suffer from the damage ; but it is the experience of all 
who have had charge of building operations that, unless some un- 
usual precautions are taken, it is difficult for the contractor to collect 
damages for repairing his work, and he must leave it in good condi- 
tion - before it will be accepted. 

Contractors also occasionally run a risk in attempting to execute 
work that is not properly designed or has not sufficient strength. 
For example, a stone lintel may be shown on the drawings with a 
span so great that it is doubtful if the stone will support its own 
weight and that of the load upon it. Now, if the contractor goes 
ahead and puts in the lintel without comment, and it breaks, the 
chances are ten to one that the architect or owner will insist on his 
putting in another stone or remedying the defect in some way, at his, 
the contractor's, expense. The same thing might happen in the case 
of an arch without sufficient abutment, or of a flat arch with no sup- 
port under it. It is therefore the business of the contractor to care- 
fully consider all of the constructive features of the building before 
he commences work on them, and if he believes that any part of the 
work cannot be safely executed, as shown by the plans, he should 
call the attention of the architect to it and try and have it changed, 
or extra provision made to give the necessary strength, so that there 
will be no risk of failure. In case the architect declines to make any 



change, the contractor should serve a written notice on the owner that 
he will not be responsible if the work fails, and at the same time he 
should take care to see that the work is executed in the best man- 
ner, and in strict conformity with the plans and specifications, so that 
in case it does fail there will be no opportunity to show defective 
work as a cause. Generally it will pay the contractor to go to some 
extra expense himself to insure the safety of the work rather than 
to run any risk of a dispute or possible lawsuit. 

The writer has known of a number of instances where contrac- 
tors have suffered considerable loss from carelessness or negligence 
in this respect. 

Occasionally a contractor permits himself to be imposed upon by 
the architect in the way of details. Not a few architects have the 
fault of showing much more work on their details than is implied by 
the scale drawings, and of expecting the contractor to carry out what- 
ever they may choose to draw. Of course, if the details are made 
before the contract is awarded, and the contractors have an oppor- 
tunity to examine them, it makes no especial difference if the draw- 
ings do not exactly correspond, as the details would determine the 
character of the work to be done, and the tender would, or should, be 
based on them. When the details are made after the contract is 
signed, however, the contractor is not obliged to adhere to them if 
they show more expensive work than is reasonably implied by the 
scale drawings and specifications. Thus, for illustration, where 
carving or dentils are put on the detail drawings, but are neither 
shown in the original scale drawings nor mentioned in the specifica- 
tions, the contractor may claim an extra price for the extra work, or 
refuse to execute it. A claim for extra remuneration, however, would 
probably not be allowed unless made in writing before commencing 
the work, and acknowledged by the architect. It is therefore best, 
in such cases, for the contractor to politely call the attention of the 
architect to the discrepancy, and show him that the work cannot be 
done for the price at which the original work was figured. If he is 
then unwilling to either allow an extra price for the work, or to 
change the details, the contractor must choose between omitting the 
extra work or putting it in at his own expense. If to carry out the 
details means a loss on the contract, it will probably be best to refuse 
to do more than the contract drawings call for, but if only a small 
amount is involved, it may pay the contractor to retain the good-will 
of the architect by doing the work. Very often such extra work is 
put on the detail drawings by draughtsmen, without the knowledge 
of the architect, and when his attention is respectfully called to it, he 
will have the details revised. 

In conclusion, the writer suggests that while the main object of 
a contractor is to make a profit from his business, or, in other words, 
to make a success of it, such success depends upon the exercise of a 
considerable degree of intelligence and tact, and that a successful 
contractor must have in mind the interest of the owner and architect 
as well as of his own ; also that a successful business does not neces- 
sarily imply that a profit must be made from every piece of work. 
Not a few successful contractors owe their success in a considerable 
degree to the fact that they have carried out their unprofitable con- 
tracts with the same thoroughness with which they have executed 
their profitable ones. 


PORTLAND cement paving will attain a considerable degree 
of hardness without any dressing or any special treatment ; 
but paving laid in damp weather will ultimately attain a greater de- 
gree of hardness than that laid in very hot weather. Further harden- 
ing of the surface may be produced by keeping the work moist by 
means of wet cloths, or by damped sawdust or sand laid over the 
paving as soon as it has set ; flooding the work with water, where 
possible, will be best of all. Miller mentions that cement work may 
be rendered tough and hard by gauging the material with 10 to 15 per 
cent, of minion — the sittings of iron stone after calcination. Indu- 
rating concrete slabs causes them to become very hard; by it their 
density is increased and porosity lessened. — British Brickbuilder. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — A few shrewd investors, who have "nerve" 
enough to take risks, have taken advantage of the prevailing 
dulness and consequent close competition in bidding, and have 
erected buildings much cheaper than they could have at any other 
less favorable time, and the chances are that they will not lose by it. 
It is really astonishing to contemplate the long list of new apart- 
ment buildings for which plans are filed every week. The upper part 
of the city is now a complete network of apartments, most of them 
very complete with elevators, steam heat, etc., and for these there is 
great demand. One reason for their popularity is that, when built in 
the best manner with fire-proof construction, the yearly bills for 
repairs and deterioration become extremely small. As is well known, 
these bills are large in all other flat and tenement property, and in 
much of it they are simply appalling after the first few years, whereas 
in the modern fire-proof apartment they are almost nothing. Tenants 

McKlm, Mead & White, Architects. 

here are of the kind that stay, and a fiat with a tenant who stays, as 
is well Known, requires about half as much decorating and repairing 
as one with tenants who move in and out frequently. 

Although very seldom of any interest architecturally, the amount 
of money expended on these buildings commands the attention of all 
who are interested in brick and terra-cotta materials, cf which such 
buildings are largely constructed. Below we give a list of some of 
the more important apartment buildings for which plans were filed 
during the past month. St. Nicholas Avenue, corner 114th Street, 
a seven-story brick store and apartment ; cost, $250,000 ; Neville & 
Bagge, architects. 100th Street, near Lexington Avenue, sixteen 
five-story brick and stone flats; cost, $300,000; Thomas Graham, 
architect. West Central Park, near 98th Street, two seventy-story 
brick apartment buildings; cost, $140,000; G. F. Pelham, architect. 
120th Street and Seventh Avenue, two six-story brick apartment 
buildings; cost, $150,000 ; G. F. Pelham, architect. Third Avenue, 
near 171st Street, four four-story brick flats ; cost, $88,000 ; K udolph 

__________^ —— i— , 



McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 


Werner, architect. I22d Street, corner Hamilton Terrace, three five- 
story brick and stone store and apartment buildings; cost, $ 1 50,000; 
Neville & Bagge, architects. 
80th Street, near West End 
Avenue, six-story stone and 
brick apartment; cost, $95,- 
000 ; Janes & Leo, architects. 
East 54th Street, four five- 
story brick and stone flats; 
cost, $120,000; Schneider & 
Herter, architects. 114th 
Street, near Amsterdam Ave- 
nue, a six-story brick and 
stone apartment; cost, $75,- 
000; Neville & Bagge, archi- 
tects. 1 ooth Street, near 
Amsterdam Avenue, a five- 
story brick and stone apart- 
ment ; cost, $100,000; Henry 
Anderson, architect ; and 
many others which limited 
space prevents us from men- 

Among the items of news 
are : A new church for the 

Christian Scientists is to be erected on the corner of 68th Street and 
West Central Park. It will be built of marble, granite, 
and brick, and cost $250,000. Andrew Carnegie will 
build a costly residence on Fifth Avenue, between 90th 
and 91st Streets. It is said that he will spend $900,000, 
but the architect's name is not known. C. R. Sefert 
has planned a twelve-story brick, stone, and iron busi- 
ness building to be built on Broadway, corner of Wav- 
erly Place; cost, $175,000. Charles C. Haight has 
prepared plans for a brick gymnasium and dormitory 
building for the General Theological Seminary, to be 
built on Tenth Avenue, corner 21st Street, at a cost 
of $100,000. Henry Fouchaux has planned an eight- 
story business building, to be built on East 19th Street; 
cost, $100,000. 

Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
Wm. J Marsh, Architect. 

brightest record for the great year of 1892, these hopes 
put fresh heart into every individual whose prosperity 
is dependent upon activity in real-estate investments. 
Chicago, with over five hundred licensed architects, 
overbuilt at the close of the World's Fair, has never 
before passed through such a long period of building 
trade depression. In the fat years that we trust are 
upon us may the architect, like the gold-seeker who 
has made a " strike," have the prudence to put away a 
large factor of financial safety against the days when 
many sketches are made for sky-scrapers whose foun- 
dations remain forever in the air. 

As to current work of general interest, there is 
little of note going up at present. The only large 
building in the business center is the new Ayer Build- 
ing, replacing the fire-trap on Wabash Avenue, which 
destroyed many lives last summer. The architects, 
Messrs. Holabird & Roche, have adopted for their 
steel structure a large plan-unit and a simple, straight- 
forward scheme of covering, in glazed cream-white 
terra-cotta, which, with its fine, unobtrusive, Renaissance detail, 
promises to be very clean, quiet, and agreeable. The Reliance Build- 
ing, the first in Chicago to be 
clothed in glazed white terra- 
cotta, is still quite clean and 
fresh after four years of ex- 
posure to our notorious smoke 
nuisance. Hence, presumably, 
this material will soon receive 
the recognition its merits 
deserve. If our tall buildings 
were all glazed cream white or 
buff in color, with window 
shades of light, warm colors, 
there would certainly be less 
gloom and obscurity for our 
" Cliff Dwellers" on the lower 

The erection of a novel 
building will soon be begun 
by the congregation of All 
Souls Unitarian Church, 
whose pastor is the Rev. 
Jenkin Lloyd Jones. All pre- 
cedents have been ignored, 
and a building has been designed to meet in the simplest, quietest, 

d. c. 

CHICAGO. — In Chicago, for the first time since 
1893, a new year has dawned with a real hope 
for a turn in the tide of affairs, which for more than 
four years has been bearing out into the depths of dis- 
couragement, architect, builder, and landowner together. 
Founded upon reports of an unparalleled revival of 
trade and industry, overtopping in December even the 





Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

M. H. Burton, Architect. 

other buildings on all sides, will 
be of solid brick construction, 
and the general scheme is digni- 
fied and plain, almost to severity, 
depending chiefly for its effective- 
ness upon largeness and coher- 
ence of composition and refine- 
ment of the very sparing detail. 
The auditorium will be barrel 
vaulted and richly treated in 
brick, mosaic, and plaster in Mr 
Wright's original way, which is a 
restrained and agreeably geomet- 
rified phase of " Sullivanesque." 
Frank Lloyd Wright and I.) wight 
Heald Perkins are the associated 

and most natural 
way the peculiar 
conditions i m - 
posed upon the 
architects. These 
required, besides 
a large auditori- 
um with the usual 
accessories, a 
baths, etc., a 
store, and a free 
reading room on 
the ground floor 
in front of the 
auditorium, a 
suite of rooms for 
the Unity Club, 
a suite of living 
apartments for 
Mr. Jones, and 
four floors of 
offices and 
chambers, with a 
Masonic hall and 
its accessories 
covering the en- 
tire eighth floor. 
The exterior 
walls, which are 
isolated from 

estate business has already 
commenced to show such an im- 
provement that there seems very 
good grounds for the opinion ex- 
pressed everywhere that building 
operations here will be good this 
spring. There have been a 
number of sales of large tracts in 
the suburbs, where the buyers 
intend to build a number of 
blocks of houses, and there have 
also been a number of transfers 
of real estate in the business part 
of the city. There have been 
rumors of several large office 
buildings to be built this year. 

Among the items of building news may be mentioned: — 
Rutan & Russell are preparing plans for a new colonial resi- 
dence to be built at Sewickley. Alden & Harlow have let the con- 
tracts for three large summer homes near Sewickley. F. J. Osterling 
is at work on a block of seven houses. W. Ross Proctor is at work 
on a new store and office building, to be built on Penn Avenue. It 
is to be built of brick with marble trimmings. He is also at work 
on plans for a house and gate lodge, to be built near Sewickley. 
J. E. Allison is the architect of a new brick colonial house on Pacific 
Avenue, East End. Work has been commenced on the Passavant 
Hospital. It is built of brick and stone, and costs £50,000. The 
Westinghouse Company are building large new shops and a five-story 
office building at East Pittsburgh. Thomas Kodd is the architect. 

BUFFALO. — The feeling that the coming season will be one of 
comparative activity for architects, and consequently builders 
as well, seems to be widespread and assured, and already the profes- 



Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta 
Kurtzer& Rohl, Architects. 

sion in general is busier than it 
has been in many months, pre- 
paring drawings for a number of 
buildings of a larger and far 
better grade than have been 
erected previously in this city. 

A somewhat interesting law- 
suit has lately been decided here 
by the Supreme Court in favor 
of the plaintiff, an architect, 
who was suing a client for fees 
for services rendered. The 
work on which he was retained 
was a building originally in- 
tended to be two stories in 
height, but upon its reaching the 
level of the second-story ceiling, 
and the owner having changed 
his mind, and wishing the build- 
ing carried up one story higher, 
extra drawings for the new story 
were necessary; the plaintiff 
claimed that then a complete 
new set of drawings was ordered 
by the defendant for use on the 
building and incidentally to sub- 
mit in trying to procure a loan. 
The claim was for 3^ per cent, 
for plans, specifications, and a 
few details for the original build- 
ing, and 2^ per cent, for the 
second set of drawings. The 
verdict was in favor of the plain- 
tiff, allowing him a certain sum 
of money, which, taken together 
with what he had already re- 
ceived in the shape of remunera- 

FiRST.Tloor Plan 


Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 
(For elevations see plates 2 and 7.) 





THE following-named architects would be pleased 
to receive manufacturers' catalogues and sam- 
ples: Rowland & Bostwick, 504 Macder Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Parr & Hulsebus, 514 Y. M. C. A. Build- 
ing, Peoria, 111.; Oscar Kuehue. 171 Center Street, 
Chicago, 111.; Fred C. Watson, 8 (lerring Street, East 
Gloucester, Mass. 

Green & Wicks. Architects. 

tion, amounted to y/z per cent, on the first set, and about 1 per cent, 
on the second set. 

Architect Waite has lately been commissioned by two of the 
largest corporations in Canada to prepare drawings for two immense 
structures, which are to be started as soon as possible. One of these 
two buildings is to be the new terminal station of the Grand Trunk 
Railroad at Montreal, and which it is expected will cost more than a 
million of dollars. It is also rumored that Mr. Waite has been re- 
tained by the Metropolitan Railway Company, of London, England, 
to make the designs for a large station in that city. 

Mr. George J. Metzger, the local supervising government archi- 
tect for the Federal Building, now in course of erection, having 
recently resigned his position, Mr. E. A. Kent, archi- 
tect, this city, has been appointed his successor, and 
the appointment seems to be very pleasing to the others 
of the local fraternity. 

The long-mooted resolution for purchasing of the 
four sites for new schoolhouses, which are so much 
needed, has again been postponed by the councilmen. 
One good plan, however, that our city fathers have 
lately adopted is that all future public schools are to be 
tire-proof as nearly as possible, and are to be built of 
more than sufficient size for the present number of 
scholars in each district. 

A newly let contract calls for a large eight-story 
steel-constructed building on the northeast corner of 
Main and Mohawk Streets, of which Esenwein & 
Johnson are the architects. The contract calls for the 
building to be ready for occupancy March 31 next, 
with a heavy penalty if not completed on that day, 
and the same amount as bonus for each day if com- 
pleted before that date. The limit of time allowance 
for such a building as this is almost if not totally 
unprecedented in this city, but it is confidently ex- 
pected, in consideration of the class of firms engaged 
on the work, that the building will be finished in 
good season. 


E. E. NlCKSON, 41 1 John Hancock Building, 
Boston, Mass., has been appointed agent for the Conk- 
ling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

The Illinois Supply and Construction Com- 
pany, of St. Louis, have just shipped on order 30,000 
of their steel-gray brick to the city of New York. 

The Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Com- 
pany have appointed Mr. E. E. Nickson, 411 John 
Hancock Building, as their representative. 

The Favvcett Ventilated Fire-Proof Build- 
ing Company has been awarded the contract for the 
structural steel and fire-proofing to be used in the large 
printing house to be erected at Philadelphia for Walter 

W. L. Davis, of Berlin, Conn., has just placed an 
order with "Chambers Bros. Co. for a complete outfit of machinery 
to make hollow brick, which includes machines for making end-cut 
hollow brick, side-cut brick, an all iron and steel pug mill, clay ele- 
vator, shafting, pulleys, etc. 

Burgy & McNeill, Pittsburgh, Pa., dealers in architectural 
clay products, are sending with their compliments a handsome calen- 
dar entitled " Three of a Kind"; the same referring to three fin-de- 
sihle young ladies of charming mien, who compose the subject of 
the illustration of the calendar. 

The Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, St. Louis, are to supply 


Wall copings in dull green faience ; balls, capping gate post, of dark green, high-glazed enamel. Faience and 

enameled work made by the Grueby Faience Company, Boston, Mass. 

Wm. Hart Taylor, Architect. 



the architectural terra-cotta on the following new contracts : Mac- 
cabers Temple, Port Huron, Mich., George L. Harvey, architect ; the 
Republic Building, St. Louis, Isaac S. Taylor, architect. 

The St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company 
white semi-glazed terra-cotta for a row of 
flats at St. Louis; and the silver-gray 
semi-glazed terra-cotta for the new Witten" 
berg Building, same city. They are also 
supplying the enameled terra-cotta for the 
C, B. & O. K. R. Station at Creston, 
Iowa; the colors are to be cream and 

In accordance with a yearly custom, 
F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl Street, New 
York, importer and dealer in minerals, 
clay, chemicals, and colors, has issued a 
very attractive calendar for 1899. The 
neatness and simplicity which characterize 
the design are gratifying in the agreeable 
contrast offered to the many flaunting in- 
congruous subjects so freely used in cal- 
endar adornment. 

The American Mason Safety 
Tread Company is making rapid prog- 
ress in the erection of its new factory at 
Lowell, and has orders on its books re- 
quiring the employment of all its present 
facilities for many weeks to come. 
Among these orders is included work for 
seven vessels of the navy, and for school- 
houses, mills, and mercantile buildings in 
large cities throughout the country. 

is now making the 

Charles Bacon, Boston representa- 
tive of Sayre, Fisher & Co., has recently closed the following new 
contracts: cream-white brick, residence, Brookline, Mass., J. A. 
Schweinfurth, architect : mottled gray brick, pumping station. Brook- 
line, Mass., Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects; plain gray brick, 
police station, Brookline, Mass., J. A. Schweinfurth, architect; 
mottled buff brick, residences. Pittsfield, Mass.. Francis R. Allen 
and J. W. Vance, architects. 

"Absolute Fire-Proofing " is the title of a little pamphlet 
just issued by Henry 
Maurer & Son. New 
York, for the purpose of 
explaining, in a manner 
clear to the ordinary un- 
derstanding, the detail 
construction of what is 
known as steel-con- 
structed rire-procf build- 
ings. The little work 
covers its mission ably, 
and makes irrefutable 
arguments in support of 
this mode of construc- 
tion. It has, we feel, a 
usefulness not confined 
to " laymen " merely, but 
extending to architects 
and builders as well. 

tekra-cotta details, plum BUILDINI 


Executed by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

Thomas Cressey, Architect. 

John H. P. la < k . 
B u ff a 1 o representative, 
will supply the Akron 


Lined with enameled brick manufactured by the American Enameled Brick and Tile Company. 

William Cable, Architect. 

The floor is laid with brirk glazed on the flat ; the sides are lined with regular brick, English size. 

impervious red pressed brick to be used in the new Burgess Apart- 
ments, at Buffalo; also the glazed white terrra-cotta manufactured by 
the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, which is to be used in the same 
building, U. G. Orr, architect ; also Kittanning gray bricks for the 
Mayer & Weill Building, of which Esenwein & Johnson are the 

A few of the prominent buildings 
in Greater New York in which the Bolles 
Revolving Sash or the Oueen Overhead 
Pulley, or both, are now being incorpo- 
rated are the following: the Y i n c e n t 
office building, New York City, sixteen 
stories. George B. Post, architect: the 
Bourne office building. New York City, 
Ernest Flagg, architect : sixteen-story 
office building, W. Wheeler Smith, 
owner and architect, next to the corner 
of Broadway and Wall Street, New York 
City; public schools, Mott Avenue, 
Audubon Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, 
Brook Avenue, 169th Street, New York 
City, C. B. J. Snyder, architect; New 
York Hospital, Cady, Berg & See, archi- 
tects; Byrnes apartment house, Fifth 
Avenue and 45th Street. 

The new catalogue issued by 
Chambers Bros. Co., Philadelphia, is 
deserving of special comment as being 
most comprehensive in the information 
contained relative to machines for mak- 
ing brick by the stiff-tempered process. 
It is no mere list of clay-working imple- 
ments, but is a carefully compiled trea- 
tise, giving a technical description of the 
mechanical construction of their various 
machines, and the special adaptation of each for manipulating clays 
of peculiar characteristics. 

The catalogue contains some one hundred and twenty pages of 
text matter and some hundred illustrations of different machines 
made by the company. Aside from matter relative simply to these 
machines, there is much data and general information concerning the 
stiff-tempered process of brick making. 

For some thirtv-five vears now, the company has been promi- 
nently identified with this process of clay-working implements, and 

during that time has 
won for itself a national 
reputation for building 
machinery of the highest 
standard of quality and 
ingenuity. They were 
the pioneers in the field 
of this line of manufac- 
ture. It is of interest 
to note, as showing the 
immense developments 
in the clay industries, 
that when application 
was made by them for 
their first patent on brick 
machines, the invention 
was so novel that not a 
single patent had been 
granted by the United 
States Patent Office for 
that class of brick-mak- 
ing implements. Lack 
of space does not permit 



VOL. 8. NO. 2. PLATE 9. 

, ; ; :.; rJ , ,. . ■ ■ 

itnr M!>" llllllllllliiilltiir ■ 


- _c_jc— JO-d — c_jf 

* v ._ ^ V v . JV.'/ 

: lii- :!•'-■ ':j : Jkll 



Front Elevation. 


J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, Architect. 



VOL. 8. NO. 2. PLATE 10. 


EDGAR V. SEELER, Architect. 

THE B R 1 1 

VOL. 8. NO. 2. 

• J I L D E R . 

PLATES 11 and 14. 

'. va^^w^^H 












































VOL. 8. NO. 2. 







f „ . 

1 1 L D E R . 

PLATES 12'and 13. 







VOL. 8. NO. 2. PLATE 15. 























































VOL. 8. NO. 2. PLATE 16. 



J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, Architect. 


1 '«{&&»**' 



, lSKxxv^#5 *- 





BOSTON >|j! 





Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2-50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $35° per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


IN our editorial of last month regarding the lessons of the fire in 
the Home Life Building, New York, we referred to the value of 
stern experience of this sort in teaching us how to overcome difficul- 
ties. We have just received another evidence of the manner !n 
which a great calamity may become a means of very tangible and 
permanent good. Our readers will remember the fire which occurred 
in the Cripplegate district of London in November of 1897, one of 
the most disastrous conflagrations which has visited the British 
metropolis for several generations. As a direct result of this fire an 
organization has been effected of those who are interested in fire- 
proofing methods and constructions, the organization taking the name 
of the British Fire Prevention Committee. It counts among its 
membership some five hundred architects, surveyors, engineers, 
municipal officers, and others directly or indirectly interested in fire 
prevention, among whom are practically all of the leading members 
of the professions named. It has offices, wherein is a library includ- 
ing files of some fifty technical journals from all parts of the world, 
and the regulations and building acts of all countries. The founder 
was Mr. Edwin O. Sachs, the well-known architect, and the objects 
of the committee are defined as follows : — 

To direct attention to the urgent need for increased protec- 
tion of life and property from fire by the adoption of preventive 

To use its influence in every direction towards minimizing the 
possibilities and dangers of fire. 

To undertake such independent investigations and tests of 
materials, methods, and appliances as may be considered advisable. 

In order to meet these objects a testing station has been 

established and a series of tests begun to obtain data as to the exact 
fire resistance of the various materials, systems of construction, or 
appliances used in building practise. The circular announcing the 
organization of this committee throws in the statement that the few 
independent tests made in the United States have so far been of 
only minor importance. We do not quite agree with that statement. 
On the contrary, it is possible to cite a very long series of most 
admirable tests which have been made in our principal cities with 
these distinct objects in view, and in fact we believe that the amount 
of exact knowledge of fire-resisting materials is quite as abundant in 
this country as anywhere else in the world. Still there is plenty of 
room for more. The objects of this Fire Prevention Committee are 
most admirable and it would be a very excellent idea to copy the 
scheme right among us. Though our tests have been well conducted 
and have demonstrated certain facts, they do have one serious draw- 
back, namely, that with very few exceptions they have been princi- 
pally unde- the direction of parties who were interested in proving 
the capacity of their special products. If it were possible to organ- 
ize here a committee entirely distinct from any manufacturers' com- 
binations, whose sole object would be to make a rigid, impartial 
investigation, and not only begin such investigation, but keep it up 
periodically, as is the evident intention of the British committee, the 
resulting good to our profession and to methods of proper construc- 
tion would be almost incalculable. The British architects go about 
things more deliberately than we do. They do not have the rush and 
dash which seems to be a necessary concomitant of our work, and 
as a result thereof we get a great deal more done, but we slop over 
more easily, and are inclined to adopt systems of construction before 
they have been thoroughly tested. This British committee has our 
most hearty approval, and we shall await with a great deal of inter- 
est the results of these tests. We can only regret that a similar 
movement might not be started right off here in this country. 

THE series of articles by Mr. Russell Sturgis, of which the 
second instalment appears with this issue of The Brick" 
builder, touches some new notes on the subject of brick and tile 
work for interior finish. Mr. Sturgis emphasizes one point which 
we have repeatedly urged in these columns, namely, that decorative 
tile and terra-cotta can be made as dainty and graceful in design 
and as purely artistic as is possible with any other material. In- 
deed, some of the prettiest and most graceful effects are obtained by 
the proper treatment of burnt clay. The public that pays for the 
buildings is so inclined to associate a certain rudeness of finish and 
coarseness of effect with enameled terra-cottas and tiles, and it is so 
seldom that the proper spirit is applied to this sort of work, that it 
is not always understood how readily a thoroughly decorative and at 
the same time appropriate treatment can be adopted in the design- 
ing of terra-cotta work. Mr. Sturgis's statement that it is always 
well to go back to the Orient for suggestions for the best ways of 
using tiles is worthy of careful consideration. Among what we call 
the civilized nations of the world, the decorative sense is acquired, 
rather than sui generis. It is the Orientals, especially the Persians and 
the Hindoos, who have that innate sense of color which has found 
expression in enameled terra-cottas and tile work of a kind which 
we can only imitate. We certainly are hardly likely to produce them 
from our own resources in this generation. 



But, as Mr. Sturgis's article so aptly shows, there are lessons to 
be learned from the tile work of many other countries. We are so 
hampered by commercial considerations, and are so inclined to limit 
our choice to what the market ordinarily affords, that our compari- 
sons are often limited to the product of the terra-cotta companies, 
and we forget the wide range of possibilities which the experience 
of the past has developed in the terracotta and tile industries. The 
difference between the work of North Germany, the Saxon china. 
and the fairy-like enamels of Persia, shows a range of possibilities of 
which we ought to be more ready to avail ourselves. There is surely 
nothing coarse or unworthy of high effort about the Delft chinas, 
and the Spanish islands of the Mediterranean show a species of tile 
which in a decorative sense is unique. We need not limit ourselves 
to the pages of a trade catalogue in order to find a high expression 
of art in terracotta, and Mr. Sturgis's line of argument is one which 
ought to open our eyes most effectually to the possibilities of this 
most fascinating material. 

BOSTON has not kept up with the procession in the matter of 
architectural exhibitions. Indeed, there have been only two 
such in the past that were in any sense more than purely local in 
their character. In the fostering of the allied arts, however, a fine 
beginning was made two years ago by the exhibition of the Society 
of Arts and Crafts which was held at Copley Hall, under the direction 
of a carefully selected committee, including architects, artists, and 
craftsmen, and with so much success that it is to be repeated this 
vear. The Society of Arts and Crafts hopes to bring designers and 
craftsmen into mutually helpful relations and to encourage workmen 
to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in work- 
men an appreciation of the dignity and value of good design, to 
counteract the popular impatience of law and form and the desire for 
over-ornamentation and specious originality. The exhibition is to be 
held in April, and New England craftsmanship in great diversity will 
be shown, including metal work, jewelry, cabinet work, modeling and 
carving, pottery and glass work, stained glass and decorations, illus- 
trations, printing, bookbinding, engraving, and artistic photography, 
textiles, embroidery and leather work, designs for carpets, wall 
papers, etc. The field is certainly a large one, and there is plenty of 
opportunity for a display of a quality which ought to have a very 
decided influence upon the arts and crafts. 


Frank ELWOOD Brown, formerly of Brown & Berger, archi- 
tects, New Haven, Conn., has opened an office at 6l Orange Street, 

Ww I Fiven. 

Edgar B. Fox, architect, Columbus, Ohio, has withdrawn from 
the firm of C. A. Stribling & Co., and opened an office at 85 North 
High Street. 

James S. A. Mercer, architect, has opened an office at 1300 
Broadway, New York City, for the purpose of establishing a practise 
as a contractor's quantity surveyor. 

ROCKWELL M. Millujan, formerly chief draughtsman in the 
building department of the Board of Education of the city of 
St. Louis, has opened an office for the practise of architecture in 
Suite 1 103, Chemical Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

George L. Heins, of Heins & La Farge, New York City, has 
been appointed State Capitol Commissioner of New York to succeed 
Isaac G. Ferry. The position calls for supervision of all State build- 
ings, including hospitals, armories, reformatories, etc. 

The third competition for the John Stewardson Memorial 
Scholarship in architecture is announced. The scholarship is for a 
term of one year to be spent in travel and study in Europe. The 
income is ?!,ooo. 

There is a bill before the legislature of California which, if it 
becomes a law, will require all architects of the State to take out a 
license at an initial cost of twenty-five dollars and an annual cost of 
five dollars thereafter. 

Recent happenings at the Chicago Architectural Club: Mr. 
Louis J. Sullivan addressed the club on Monday evening, January 23, 
on " The Principles of Architectural Design." Mr. Lorado Taft 
addressed the club on Monday evening, February 6; the subject was 
• A Tramp Through Normandy and Brittany," illustrated with 
lantern slides. 

The New Jersey Society of Architects at their annual meeting 
elected the following officers for the ensuing year: president, Paul G. 
Botticher, Newark, N. J. ; first vice-president, James H. Lindsley, 
Newark, N. J.; second vice-president, Robert C. Dixon, Jr., town 
ship of Union, N. J. ; secretary and treasurer, George W. Von Arx, 
Jersey City. N. J. Trustees for three years : Albert Beyer, Hoboken, 
N. J., and Henry C. Klemm, Newark, N. J. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club has decided to hold an ex- 
hibition of architectural drawings, sculpture, etc., at the Museum of 
Fine Arts, from April 26 to May 2, inclusive. This being the sec- 
ond attempt of the club to hold an exhibition, every one is striving 
to make it a success. The club is doing more good work than at 
any previous time. A goodly number of drawings are submitted in 
the monthly problems. The club has lost one of its most valued 
members in Mr. B. H. Brown, who died on January 30. Mr. Brown 
has been for the past few years the superintendent of construction on 
the new City Hall. 

Tin: thirteenth annual convention of the National Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association was held at Columbus, Ohio, February 7, 8, 
9, and 10. The papers read before the convention were of un- 
usual interest, and the discussions which followed showed the keen 
interest that is taken by our burnt-clay manufacturers in the scientific 
and practical questions which their business presents. The following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year: president, W. D. Richard- 
son, Shawnee, Ohio; first vice-president. F. B. McAvoy, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; second vice-president, W. H. Hoagland, Cayuga, Ind. : third 
vii e-president, W. G. Titcomb. Providence, K. I.; secretary, T. A. 
Randall, Indianapolis, Ind.; treasurer, J. W. Sibley, Coaldale, Ala. 

A BILL to abolish the New York City Building Commission, 
recently appointed by the Municipal Assembly, and to repeal the 
Building Code adopted by it, was introduced in the New York Legis- 
lature on February 6. A second bill was also introduced, which 
provides that a new commission consisting of eleven members shall 
be appointed by the governor, as follows : a member of the Board 
of Buildings; chief of the fire department; one representative of the 
health department, one member of the Tenement House Commission, 
who shall be an architect; one representative of the Board of Fire 
Underwriters ; one civil engineer, to be chosen from a list of three 
names to be submitted to the governor by the American Society of 
Civil Engineers; three architects, to be chosen from a list of nine 
names to be submitted to the governor by the New York Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects; one practical builder of at 
least five years' experience in the construction of modern fire-proof 
buildings; and one attorney and counselor at law who has been 
admitted to practise in the State of New York for at least five years. 
The Commission is to report to the legislature, not later than Jan. 
15, 1900, a code of building laws for New York City. 


THE index to this volume, which is the first index that has been 
published in connection with The BRICKBUILDER, will be 
mailed with the March number. 



League and T Square Club Exhibitions. 

ONE of our best friends, who, by the way, is certainly in a posi- 
tion to know whereof he speaks, declares that after a visit 
to New York he always feels as if he had been living on champagne 
cocktails for a week. Our personal experience of a diet of that kind 
is not of a nature to serve as a guide, but certainly one can hardly 
visit New York, see the work which has recently been going on, 
and then take in the League Exhibition, without the architectural 
pulse being quickened to a degree which suggests the most vivifying 
influence, while the extent to which the New York architects seem 
to have the opportunity to lavish money upon the erection of large, 
magnificent buildings makes one feel that, after all, Boston is only 
in the provinces, and Philadelphia a mere village of a million souls. 
To be sure there are compensations, and we return to Boston or 
Philadelphia with quite as much love for our native cities, though 
fully appreciating the tremendous opportunities which the New York 
architects seem to be enjoying just at present. The Fourteenth 
Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League is in some respects 
one of the best that has been held. It is essentially an exhibition of 
New York architecture. Very little has come from outside of that 
city ; even Philadelphia sent but a scant quota, and of the New York 
architects themselves some 
of the best names are not 
represented. But withal 
the exhibition has so much 
of interest, and the promise 
it shows of the kind and 
the extent of work to which 
the New York architects 
are looking forward is so 
large, that a study of the 
drawings is very inspiring. 
The catalogue, which has 
come to be apparently so 
essential a feature of all 
these exhibitions, gives only 
a slight idea of the kind of 
work which is really exhib- 
ited. Modesty would cer- 
tainly be lost in an exhibi- 
tion of this sort, and mere 
size seems to have been 
considered in preparation 
of the drawings, for there 
is one tremendous sheet 
measuring 20 ft. long and 
9 ft. high, a i/i in. scale 
drawing of the proposed 
central pavilion of the Metropolitan Museum, which quite throws' 
jnto the shade any drawing on a smaller scale or less pretentious in 
area. And yet, going over the exhibition a second time does not 
reveal much real greatness in the designs, and one has a flavor of 
disappointment that where there is so much that is good there 
should not be, with so great elaboration of architectual drawing, 
more truly monumental pieces of work. The New York architects 
are manifestly lacking neither in imagination nor in facility of ex- 
pression, but elaboration does not necessarily constitute good archi- 
tecture. Any one can pile a profusion of details on a drawing; in- 
deed, as one of our prominent architects once remarked, " What do 
we buy books for anyway ? " but the fundamental conception of idea 
in mass, the monumental feeling, which should be the basis of all 
architecture, is not as conspicuously displayed in the designs exhib- 
ited here as one might wish. There is plenty of froth and foamy 
billows, but not the suggestion of a steady, increasing tide of good, 
solid growth which we should hope to see. It is as if our archi- 
tects, having ceased to be original and bad, had reached the second 
stage, where mere copying of detail masked absence of pure con- 

Cope X; Ste 
(By permission of the T Square Club.) 

ception. Fergusson, in his " History of Architecture," used to sar- 
castically remark that the American idea of planning was to cut out 
slips of paper the sizes of the desired rooms and somehow fit them 
together like a gem puzzle. It might now almost be said of the 
present New York fashion of design, that the modus operandi is to 
accept almost any general mass or arrangement, and by liberal bor- 
rowing from Caesar Daly and the ftrojet midailli, paste it all over 
with a swirl of ornament, and if perchance some clean wall spaces 
are left, make up for the neglect by piling it on a little thicker some- 
where else. There is one consolation, however. Like the present 
abominable styles of woman's dress, this is a passing fashion, and 
when our architects have recovered from our fin de siicle madness 
the profession will at least find itself with a greater facility in the 
use of our architectural tools. 

But this is not brick architecture. Indeed, it is hard to separate 
out all the designs which might have been executed in brick, for the 
reason that the color often masks the real material in the drawings, 
but there is hardly a design exhibited at the League which could not 
be studied to advantage by any one who would even wish to limit 
his architecture to expression in burnt clay. Cope & Stewardson, 
one of the few outsiders, send in a very interesting drawing of the 
University of Pennsylvania Law School. They also exhibit an un- 
usually interesting drawing 
of the central pavilion of 
the dormitories for the 
same institution, a Tudor 
design in brick and stone, 
with a big archway in the 
ground floor flanked by 
oriel windows and side 
towers, the whole very suc- 
cessfully pulled together 
and shown by a very clever 

On the opposite wall 
are several of the charm- 
ing post-offices for which 
the government architect 
office is indebted to Mi- 
J. K. Taylor, who is an 
artist as well as a good 
architect, and shows it in 
the way he treats the prob- 
lem of a post-office in small 
towns, a problem which, by 
the way, has seldom been 
treated properly, though 
offering great possibilities. 
There are also, as would 
naturally be expected, several designs exhibited for residences in 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts style, which seems to have fastened itself 
so thoroughly upon the affections of New Yorkers, the red brick 
and stone trimming sort of design, which is so familiar to the 
Parisians, and which we are beginning to see dotted around New 
York. Janes & Leo have a pleasing study for a house on upper 
Fifth Avenue, and close by is shown a very clever and knowing 
pencil sketch, daintily colored, for a city house, designed by Palmer 
& Hornbostel. Mr. T. Henry Randall sends some studies for a 
residence at Tuxedo Park, which seem in character quite a charm- 
ing innovation as compared with some of the earlier creations of 
that exclusive suburb, — a design in the Tudor style, to be carried 
out in brick and terra-cotta, facing on a broad, liberally proportioned 
terrace giving upon a formal garden, shown by a drawing which is 
well studied, appropriate, and presented in a very happy manner. 
Ingle & Almirall exhibit a drawing for the design of the Binghamton 
Savings Bank which is excellent of its kind, though it is so much 
akin to the motives which seem to have been appropriated for 
private residences that it would hardly suggest a bank. Haydel & 

irardson, Architects. 



Shepard contribute, in the fashionable line, an elevation of an elabo- 
rate residence in buff brick and white stone ornamented in the ac- 
cepted French style. 

Of the public work, perhaps one of the most notable contribu- 
tions is made by the competitive designs for the Jersey City Public 
Library, one of the numerous 
public buildings in which brick 
has been successfully applied. 
C. W. & A. A. Stoughton show 
a very well studied design in 
red brick and stone, and the 
designs for the same building 
!>v Mr. Freedlander, Benson & 
Brock way, Lord, Hewlett & 
Hull, and Stone, Palmer & 
Hornbostel, as well as the pre- 
miated design by Brite & Bacon, 
show a proposed use of brick, 
and the problem on the whole 
has been very satisfactorily 
worked out by all of them. The 
United States Immigrant Sta- 
tion, at Ellis Island. New York. 
by Boring & Tilden, is repre- 
sented by both an elaborate 
rendered drawing and a large 
plaster model. This building 
is apparently in a buff brick of 
strong color, with white stone 
or terra-cotta trimmings. Our 
readers doubtless remember the 
procedure by which the archi- 
tects for this building were se- 
lected as the result of a public 
competition, and certainly this 
exhibition would seem to justify 
in the fullest measure the 
choice of the jury. Then, on a 
smaller scale, the Grace Hos- 
pital Nurses' Home, by Nettle- 
ton & Kahn, is a well-balanced 
design in Tudor style, indicat- 
ing red brick and white stone. 
The 1'laintield Library, by 
Tracy & Magonigle. shows a 
scheme of pale brick and white 
trimmings, chaste, in thoroughly 
good design, and excellent in 
color, illustrating how well brick 
can be adapted to monumental 
purposes if properly designed. 

Mr. Bruce Price exhibits a 
perspective of a design for the 
Hotel Brunswick, rendered by 
Hughson Hawley, a combina- 
tion of red brick, white trim- 
mings, a rainy day, a crowd of 
people with umbrellas watching 
a procession, and a thunderous, 
cloudy sky. a drawing which 
makes one feel that both the 
architect and the draughtsman must have had lots of fun over it, 
for, aside from the picturesque treatment, the design builds up in a 
rich, opulent, New York fashion, with a profusion of really admira- 
ble motives and carefully studied details. The treatment of the first 
story seems to be especially good. Mr. Price also sends a design for 
the Oikopolis, also rendered by Hughson Hawley, a huge structure, 
which might be an office building or a modern hotel, but on the face 


Frank Miles Day & Bro. and George C. Baum, Associate Architects. 

(By permission of the T Square Club.) 

of it it is chiefly an interesting composition. In this building brick 
is used for a central motive, in the emphatic, straightforward manner 
which Mr. Price knows so well how to adapt to the exigencies of a 
large design. 

The piece de resistance at the exhibition, from a burnt clay stand- 
point, is a store front, which 
occupies the greater portion of 
one end of the room, being not 
merely a full-size model, but the 
actual construction of a two- 
story store building, which has 
been erected by the Perth Am- 
boy Company, chiefly as an ex- 
periment to determine the pos- 
sibilities of enameled colored 
terra-cotta. The photograph 
of the building itself, which we 
publish herewith, will show the 
character of the design. The 
wall surface, of which there is 
very little, is a light buff in 
tone. The window finish and 
the balusters of the cornice are 
white, or as near so as we can 
get in terra-cotta. The ped- 
estal and horizontal moldings 
generally are strong gray buff, 
the pilasters of the same, but 
colored a dull red in the hollows 
of the flutes. The frieze of the 
cornice has a green ground 
with running ornament in white 
picked out with a little red. In 
the egg-and-dart course of the 
cornice, the eggs are red, the 
darts black, and the fillets green. 
The pilaster bases and foliage 
of the caps are green with a 
dash of white in the latter. 
Green also appears in the or- 
namentation of the panels under 
the windows and in the pedestal 
course. The general effect is 
all pale buff, red, and green, the 
buff being varied only slightly 
by the use of white. The red 
is a dull Indian red, and the 
green is a strong though not a 
bright emerald. The terra-cotta 
is glazed, with the surface cut 
down to a smooth, velvety ap- 
pearance by the use of sand- 
blast. The mortar is in general 
colored to match the adjoining 
terra-cotta. Without undertak- 
ing to discuss the architectural 
merits of the design, as an at- 
tempt in color, it is a brave en- 
deavor deserving every encour- 
agement, and the general effect 
is soft and pleasant. It is a 
kind of success which, while by no means perfect and leaving much 
to be desired both in the quality of the colors and in the relative 
application thereof to the architecture, shows, or at least indicates, 
the possibilities of this kind of treatment. The architecture is of 
design to which color can be applied with perfect propriety, when a 
larger or more pretentious scheme might be simply ruined or frittered 
thereby. It used to be a maxim of the school, that color and form 

>\Tior . 5E 


2 5 

in decoration should not be used together. This is a mistake which 
we are growing out of slowly, and the dogma was probably formu- 
lated from the timidity or crudity into which one can so easily slip. 
Certainly this essay of the Perth Amboy Company shows that color 
and form can be allied most successfully. 

A noticeable feature of the exhibition is the extent to which 
models have been shown: models not merely of fragments of orna- 
ment, but of all schemes of development for houses and their sur- 
roundings. There are no less than thirty serious models of this sort 
forming a part of the exhibition, and they not only help out the inter- 
est very materially, but they show how thoroughly our architects are 
studying the problems which are presented to them. 


Of recent years the illustrated catalogue has come to be a very 
prominent feature of our architectural life. It is by no means sure, 

rably selected, and it forms a sort of an annual round-up which has 
interest not only for Philadelphia but for the country and the pro- 
fession at large. The Quaker City has been passing through an 
architectural development in which the T Square Club has been by 
no means an inconsiderable factor, and with its customary enterprise 
the club this year has in its catalogue inaugurated a departure in 
the shape of an introduction which deals with matters architectural 
in a way that would perhaps be possible only in a publication of this 
sort. The introduction forms a review, having as its well-defined 
purpose the encouragement of honest, unaffected architecture. It 
begins with a very clear summary of the principal architectural 
events of the year 1898 which are of moment to Philadelphia, and 
it would be difficult to overestimate the good that this summary of 
the municipal work might accomplish. The emphatic protest against 
the condition of the public building in Philadelphia, upon which 
millions have been sunk and upon which millions must yet be ex- 


Mead Si Keen, Architect*. 
(Hy permission <»f the T Square Club.) 


however, that the illustrated catalogue, pe> se, is a highly desirable 
factor, and the hope has often been expressed that the day may 
come when, if catalogues must be, and they must be illustrated, it 
will not be necessary to levy contributions on the builders and 
manufacturers to pay the expenses thereof. There is an ethical 
question involved therein which is susceptible of very extended dis- 
cussion, and there is a sort of feeling on the part of a good many 
architects that the exhibition ought to pay its own bills rather than 
call upon the kindness of the manufacturers. But taking things as 
they are rather than as they might be, the catalogue of the T Square 
Club exhibition of Philadelphia for this year is certainly in the lead 
of the procession. It is well gotten up, the illustrations are admi- 

pended before it will be anywhere near complete, ought not to pass 
unheeded. It is an old story to all of us, and the characterization 
of the kind of work which every municipality seems to have to con- 
tent itself with is a standing reproach to our methods of civic archi- 
tecture. This particular building, however, is no worse than the 
Pennsylvania State Capitol, a design for which was accepted for a 
structure, the cost of which was to be something over $300,000, 
which is still so incomplete that the building commissioners now 
have the audacity to ask for an approbation of $3,000,000 to com- 
plete it. 

The introduction of the catalogue also contains an interesting 
symposium upon the very trite subject, " An Unaffected School of 



Modern Architecture in America — Will it Come?" with replies to 
the question from a number of the most prominent architects and 
educators throughout the country. The symposium itself is a good 
presentation of the architectural bent of those who took part in it, 
and perhaps unconsciously there is more to be read between the 
lines than occurs in the actual words, for as the contributors are all 
leading men, the discussion presents some phases which perhaps were 
not intended. The forces are pretty evenly divided now as to what 
constitutes good architecture. There are those who feel that the sun 
rises in France and stays there, 
and that only faint reflections of 
glory reach our shores. There 
are others equally sincere who 
claim that " It is not a thinkable 
proposition that from a people 
democratic and free, self-reliant, 
resourceful, possessed of their 
own bodies, possessed of their 
own souls, self-centered, deep of 
aspiration, there shall not some 
day suspire as an exhalation an 
architectural art germane to 
those gifts, responsive to that 
throb, eloquently voicing every 
form, every aspect of what is gen- 
uine in our national life." There 
is a good deal of the holier-than- 
thou spirit in some of the replies 
which were sent in to this ques- 
tion, but there is also a good 
deal of earnest, straightforward, 
logical discussion of the subject 
which will do any one good to 
read. Mr. D. H. Burnham, in 
his terse, straightforward manner, 
summarizes in a very few words 
one view of the subject by say- 
ing: "There is little in the de- 
tails used on the exterior of our 
buildings that is exclusively 
American; but architecture is 
not detail : it is the whole ex- 
pression of a building, and in 
their whole expression there are 
American buildings that are fresh 
and original, and some of them 
are good from an artistic stand- 
point." Mr. John M. Carrere 
very aptly suggests that the devel- 
opment of an unaffected school 
of modern architecture in Amer- 
ica is the sort of thing which is 
usually looked back upon and not 
forward to, and it is truly to be 
doubted whether we are really 

able to judge of what is going on about us. We may be like Mo- 
litre's Bourgeois Gentilhomme and be talking most excellent archi- 
tectural grammar all the time without knowing it. Indeed, perhaps 
this is what Professor Ware has in mind when he advises the T 
Square Club not to worry. " The practise of architecture in this 
country seems to me to be, in the main, in a perfectly natural and 
wholesome condition, full of health and vigor, growing in grace and 
stature and in favor with gods and men, if there be any deities 
which concern themselves with its destinies. Speculative meddling 
can only do mischief." Mr. Cass Gilbert voices much the same 
thought when he says that if the architecture of our country is beau- 
tiful and appropriate the question of originality will take care of 
itself. All this discussion certainly tends to keep alive the spirit of 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 

investigation, the questioning attitude, the progressive thought, 
which must in the end conduce to the kind of architecture of 
which we should all be proud, and the T Square Club has drawn 
about this trite subject a very interesting expression of opinion, 
presented in such a way that it will be read and pondered by all 
those who are directly interested in good architecture. 

Another admirable feature of the introduction is a list of the 
names of those who have gained recognition in consequence of indi- 
vidual proficiency in the highest institutions at home and abroad, 

including the American graduates 
in architecture from the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts and the holders of 
the various traveling scholarships. 
It is interesting to note in this 
list that there are only twelve 
American graduates from the 
French school, three in 1895, 
three in 1897, and six in 1898. 
The work of these graduates has 
not yet made itself felt in the 
architecture of our country, but 
there are many others owing their 
training to the Ecole who are 
striving to make us all believe 
that therein lies our salvation. 
If, however, the illustrations 
which the catalogue contains of 
the accepted designs for the 
Electricity Building and for the 
main entrance to the Paris Inter- 
national Exposition of 1900 are 
to be taken as typifying the most 
recent expression of the possibili- 
ties of the Ecole des Beaux Arts 
treatment, it can only be hoped 
that such influences may be 
rendered innocuous by disinfec- 
tion in crossing the Atlantic, for 
no wilder, ghastlier scheme of 
architecture, no more truly in- 
congruous, irrational constructive 
nightmare could be evolved than 
the design of the Electricity 
Building, 'while the main entrance 
is like nothing in the heavens 
above nor the earth below. The 
value of the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts training is beyond question. 
The high quality of the work 
which is at times turned out by 
the French architects is deserving 
of the sincerest form of admira- 
tion, but if the tendencies of the 
Ecole are to degenerate at the 
rate they seem to have been travel- 
ing during the past few years, we shall not need to go to Paris to find 
our distinctive American inspirations. 

All this need not imply any censure of the T Square Club or its 
catalogue. The one is a worthy representative of the excellent spirit 
and organization of the other, and both are eminently successful. 

The Chicago Architectural Club has announced its twelfth 
annual exhibition of works of architecture and the allied fine arts, 
to be held at the Art Institute, Chicago, from March 2,S to April 16, 
[899. This exhibition will include architectural drawings and 
sketches ; projects for public and monumental work ; interior decora- 
tions and furnishings; architectural and decorative glass, mosaic, 
and metal work : sculpture — architectural and decorative — models. 



Bricks and Tiles for Interior Finishing. 



IN the first of these articles mention was made of the easy prac- 
ticability of so using painted tiles as to give more than a mere 
pattern decoration to a wall. It was suggested that vertical bands 
of scroll ornament and the like could be used with an effect midway 
between strictly architectural designing and that of flat wall decora- 
tion. What are often called, by a very bold extension of the term's 
significance, candelabra may be carried much farther than is done in 
the Chinese examples cited above. Those who remember the front of 
the house in Paris situated on the Cours-la-Reine, and known as the 
house of Francis I., or those who remember its rather close study in 
the front of the Fine Arts Society's building in West 57th Street, 
New York, will remember the sculptured uprights, whose design is 
midway between that of an engaged column and that of an inverted 
torch. It is a motive not uncommon in French Renaissance archi- 
tecture and not incapable of the finest inventions of that intelligent, 
vigorous, and most interesting style. Such quasi-architectural deco- 
ration seems eminently fitted for carrying out 
in terra-cotta, whether colored or uncolored, 
whether large or small in scale, whether in 
bold relief, as for large and high rooms, or in 
delicate half-seen projection, as if of Spanish 
tiles. That such motives of design are as 
workable in relief as they are in flat color 
will be readily granted by those who have 
seen the effective use of terra-cotta in the re- 
cent American exteriors. The pleading here 
is merely in favor of the freer use of such 
design as applied to interior decoration, 
where, of course, a less conservative method 
and a more ready trusting to one's own initia- 
tive may be looked for and may be safely 
condoned than in exterior compositions. 

It is always well to go back to the Orient 
for the suggestions of the best ways of using 
tile, for it is in the Orient that such work has 
reached its higher development. Fig. 1 is a 
representation of a piece of wall decoration 
in the mosque at Damietta, in lower Egypt. 
The tiles of the absolutely plain 
dado are green ; those of the desstis 
de porte are green above and blue 
with a yellow pattern below ; those 
of the outermost architrave are 
orange with a red pattern ; those of 
the lintel band with the Arabic FI( 

letters are dark blue, the scrolls in 

yellow, the letters in white ; those of the broad architrave with the 
leaf-shaped continuous pattern are bluish gray with dark blue bands 
outlining the member; those of the innermost vertical panel, which 
represents a door, a niche, a wall opening, what you please, are 
green with only the curious little spandrels at the top of a strong 
orange yellow. It will be noticed that the two inner members of 
this architectural composition are composed of tiles modeled in 
slight relief as well as decorated in color. All the rest of the de- 
sign is very flat, and the very narrow fillet which surrounds the 
whole and runs along the top of the dado may be supposed to be 
flush or nearly flush with the plastering outside. Now, this way of 
adorning the interior face of any door opening or window opening 
with its setting and its appliances is the normal one. Whatever you 
call your outside architrave and however you may disguise its nature 
by make-believe construction, — by pilasters, by engaged columns, 
by a fronton and an entablature of no matter what importance at 

the top,- — you still have it, the outside architrave and no more. The 
predilection of the present writer is strongly in favor of seeing things 
as they are, of refusing to disguise what is really a flat band intended 
chiefly for needed ornamentation under forms and under names bor- 
rowed from Greco-Roman architecture of a different destination and 
of a different class of work. Other critics, other designers, have a 
different notion and cannot dispense with the associations of the 
pilaster and what it carries. This is indifferent; the only essential 
point is that the outer band of the door piece or window piece be 
considered now from the point of view of the maker of decorative 
objects in baked clay. In one of the most interesting buildings con- 
nected with the Paris Exhibition, the Pavilion of the City of Paris, 
the outer doorways were designed on this principle and entirely of 
baked clay, so far as their surface decoration was concerned. Band 
within band the rows or orders of tiles succeeded one another, the 
whole being framed in an actual structure of light ironwork. If 
one may trust a recollection twenty years old, the outer band was of 
brown terra-cotta with pattern in relief, the separate tiles being at 
least 20 ins. square. With this, with only a slight border to separate 
the two, was a second band of tiles, also in slight relief, but these 
very highly decorated in color and thickly glazed so as to have con- 
siderable vitreous luster. There was no more affectation of archi- 
tectural details, of pilasters or pillars, in this 
case than in the Cairene portal before us ; 
but there was a great deal of relief, for the 
broad architraves of the Paris door were not 
flush with the wall which enclosed them one 
with another, but had here a splay, there a 
change of surface from a more projecting to 
a less projecting plane, and this play of 
shadow enhanced the portal-like character 
while it increased the chromatic effect of the 
whole. Within smaller limits similar variety 
of treatment is called for in our interiors as 
well. If one were to carry out an interior 
without many restrictions as to space occu- 
pied or expense incurred, he would probably 
demand that treatment of a door piece which 
would at once facilitate the use of the door- 
way considered as a means of exit and en- 
trance, and also suggest its purpose in this 
way. The treatment of the windows in the 
same room as the door in question would 
almost inevitably be akin to the treatment of 
the doorway, though in the case of 
the windows the same reason for 
splayed or rounded corners of the 
jamb would not exist. 

More formal architectural 
treatment may be given to the 
terra-cotta used in interior decora- 
tion, and this is made comparatively 
easy by the enterprise of some of the firms who are doing what they 
can to increase the familiarity of the public with the use of this 
inexpensive and convenient material. It should never be urged that 
any architect employ the patterns in stock except in so far as those 
patterns are of the very simplest character, mere bosses, nailheads, 
elements of moldings, and the like. Every designer worthy of the 
name will long for, and on occasion will insist upon, the privilege 
of designing his work afresh, even to the volutes of his Ionic capital ; 
and yet it is manifest that the familiarity of the workmen in the 
factories with the forms, the dimensions, and the general character 
of the blocks needed in an architectural composition has done much, 
and may do much more, to cheapen such material and to expedite its 
use. When a room is to be treated with an order of pilasters raised 
upon a dado, a familiar device but one of which the designers and 
the public seem never to weary, it would be as easy to carry it out in 
baked clay as in any other material. It would also be much cheaper 



than stone of any kind and 
much more valuable and 
permanent than in plaster 
or in wood. Moreover, 
there is nothing to prevent 
such an internal facing of a 
room from being built 
thoroughly well into the 
actual brick wall. The 
upper courses of the dado 


be built with the wall 

itself, and that would be an 
ideal plan, while the pilas- 
ters above would be keyed 
or anchored into the wall at 
frequent intervals, and all 
this semi-structural decora- 
tion would be in place be- 
fore the remainder of the 
wall surface, as any paint, 

quate method of heating which 
this stove represents has been 
done away with by more com- 
plete and far more costly mod- 
ern appliances, we can only 
look at the stove with longing ; 
but its suggestiveness as a 
combined piece of pilaster 
work, niche work, scroll work, 
of decorated moldings, of free- 
and-easy, semi-classical treat- 
ment of details still exists and 
is still considerable. In con- 
nection with this the obvious 
utility of painted and molded 
tiles in our modern fire-proof 
construction is to be consid- 
ered. The builders of 
the day, the owners of 
the day. the tenants of the 
day will 
not listen 

to omi tt i n g 
wood from 

leather, or any tapestry, should be applied. 

At the same time it is more easily suggested 
by the nature of the material which we are consid- 
ering that its parts should be father small, its or- 
namentation varied and fantastic rather than 
formal, its use more nearly like the use of wood- 
work than that of the wall masses themselves. 
The little pilasters of the Renaissance properly so 
called, Italian of the fifteenth or French of the 
sixteenth century, with their non-regulated, unre- 
stricted little friezes, capitals, and face moldings, 
are probably more in the way of the worker in 
baked clay than are the more academical designs 
of a later and less original school of designers. 
Fig. 2 shows this tendency toward 
the small and fantastic and the strictly 
decorative carried almost to an ex- 
treme. It represents a panel of six- 
teenth century German work, the 
original being in glazed and colored 
terra-cotta of great boldness of design 
and of relatively bold relief. The 
original may be seen by the curious 
in the well-known castle of Nurem- 
berg, the favorite place of resort of 
all artistically minded travelers. It 
may be well, perhaps, to add for the 
information of those who might 
Otherwise seek this panel and its fel- 
lows in wall friezes or dados, that 
this particular unit of decoration is 
taken from a stove, the work of the 
celebrated Hirsvogel. It seems even 
worth while to give the whole of the 
stove in a slight and sketchy fashion. 
It is so given in Fig. 3. Such a stove, 
standing 8 ft. high and glowing with 
color, enhanced in its effectiveness at 
once by its relief and the vitreous 
gloss of the surface, forms the chief 
decorative object in many an ancient 
German palace hall. Nowadays, that 
the inexpensive and certainly inade- 

FIG. 3- 

-rf^ !«.- 

FIG. 5. 

their build- 
ings, so great 

is the prejudice in America against any 
flooring, any door, any window sash that 
is not of the time-honored material. In- 
stead of omitting the combustible from 
the building, they prefer to protect against 
the possible effects of its combustion the 
iron which forms the main structure of 
the edifice. If now, instead of filling up 
our floors to a solid mass, we were to 
desire to regain some of the ancient pic- 
turesqueness, something of the vigorous 
light and shade given by an open ceiling 
with its beams showing from the under 
side, what more natural than that 
we should do as the Greeks did in 
Phidias's time and put a shell of 
decorated terra-cotta around each 
separate beam ? The whole ceil- 
ing — the whole top of the room 
— would then be cased in terra- 
cotta, glazed, richly painted and 
flat, or in relief, as might be de- 
sired, and all so put into place 
with tie joints and perfect contin- 
uity of surface that flame would 
be excluded and even excessive 
temperature kept out by the con- 
tinuous jacket of non-conducting 
material. There is no room here 
to insist on some most astonish- 
ing results of recent experiment in 
which the temperature of the 
space within a brick pier has re- 
mained at an inconceivably low 
figure while a deliberately made 
fire raged without and around it. 
It is enough to remind our readers 
of what every architect well knows, 
that nothing is so good a protec- 
tion for either wood or iron as a 
sufficiently thick and, above all 
things, perfectly continuous and 


2 9 

unbroken coating of earthenware with a certain amount of air space 
between this fire-proof shell and the material to be safeguarded. 

tectural setting, is that shown in Figs. 6 and ;, parts of the great 
doorway in the famous ioo ft. gallery (Gali'rie de 30 Metres) at the 

FIG. (>. 

Fig. 4 shows a study for such a ceiling freely adopted from a detail 
in a noble French chateau. 

In these ways we may try to line our rooms with ceramic ware: 
and, in this connection, it will readily be seen how important is the 
consideration of sculpture, whether colored or without the use of 
polychromy. Fig. 5 is an instance of a chimney-piece built of brick 
of unglazed brown terra-cotta and of enameled terra-cotta, the whole 
combined in one design by Mr. Paul Sedille, of Paris. It is very far 

FIG. 8. 

from being an ideal composition. Some of the plain mantelpieces 
in an office building in New York, the design of Mr. George 13. Post, 
in which a plain •' commercial" terra-cotta mantel is attached to the 
front of the chimney breast built of dark red brick, are more effective 
in design than this one. But this one contains a vast amount of 
applied decoration, some of it good in itself, though none of it 
seems to be exactly called for by the design or to be in any strict 
sense of the word constructional or even very appropriate. The 
most valuable part of the whole composition is probably the placing 
in the jambs of the fireplace two figures modeled by Mr. Andre* 
Allar. It will be generally felt, no doubt, that these figures are 
crowded on the ore side by the open hearth, where glowing coals 
may be expected to lie and a bright blaze Hash up for six months of 
the year, and on the other side by the projecting breast pieces 
against which they lean. They are too crowded; they will inevitably 
be broken by the servant who makes the fire; they are in the way 
of those persons who would gather round the fire, and in their veri- 
similitude of life form too much a part of the living group. At the 
same time, the whole of the composition is not without suggestion 
for those who would see at one and the same time free and realized 
sculpture, such as the men of our time are capable of producing, 
combined with architectural adornment of their interiors, and to see 
the whole of this varied effect produced in the material baked clay. 
A much better piece of sculpture, and a much more appropriate archi 

fig. 7. 

exhibition of [889. The architecture in itself is feeble enough, a 
forlorn little reminiscence of the weaker kind of Romanesque; 
but the use of its outlines as frames for the panels of sculpture is 
unobjectionable and the panels themselves are admirably fitted to 
their shape, size, and position. The little ceramists are at work : 
first, firing up and mixing clay; second, tempering and handling the 
clay and turning pots on the wheel; third, modeling more important 
pieces by hand and adjusting handles and sinking bas-reliefs ; and 
so on to the last panel in Fig. 7, where they are at work on a mosaic, 
— small in scale, as it must be admitted. Such intelligent use of 
sculpture in relief is really the most obvious of all the ways of deco- 
rating our interiors in a thoroughly artistic and thoroughly modern 
manner. At the same time, a word of suggestion from very ancient 
times indeed is always in place when the ancient times are those of 
artistical Greece, and it is worth while to look at the terracotta 
tablets shown in Figs. S and 9 for their composition, — for their treat- 
ment of relief on a ground of the same color and for the admirable 
combination of figure sculpture with purely decorative forms which 
they show. The conventionalized winepress and vintage festival 
shown in Fig. 9 is of extraordinary interest to any sculptor who 
would learn the secret of making his art serve the purpose of the 
architectural designer. Our modern tendency is that the architect 
shall do nothing but build, and appropriate his ornamentation ready 
made; that the sculptor shall do nothing but model with sole 
reference to his sculpturesque conceptions and disregarding all pos- 
sible application of it to a larger and heavier, a more constructional, 
piece of work. Six months' study of the terracottas in the Musre 

fig. 9. 

Campana, from which are taken these two friezes, would suffice to 
show those sculptors how they might be of some use to the architects. 
Some few of them have the instinct of decoration as well as the in- 
stinct of unapplied fine art of form, but not all have this gift by 



The American Schoolhouse. XV. 


WE have in the Newark High School and the Springfield High 
School interesting examples of high schools with the in- 
terior lighted by courts, and with the assembly hall placed within, 
gaining its main light from the ceiling. The Newark school pre- 
sents in its general features the better ordered plan of the two, but 
this may be observed 
without discrediting the 
architects of the Spring- 
field school, who had orig- 
inally designed a building 
with essentially the same 
arrangement as that 
shown in the Newark 
school, but who were not 
permitted to carry out 
their ideas by the com- 
mission in charge of the 
work. The Newark 
school, in a broad way, 
presents, therefore, a 
more satisfactory treat- 
ment of the high-school 
problem. It is interest- 
ing to note that in the 

Newark school the general arrangement of plan not only follows 
that of the continental schools, but the continental method of 
lighting the schoolrooms from one side only is followed, but appar- 
ently with the retention of the American width of schoolroom, 28 ft., 
which does not give adequate lighting. In the Springfield school 
the clothing is hung in alcoves adjoining the corridors from which 

Howard & Cauldwell, Architects. 

the schoolrooms give, thus following the latest German method of 
clothing disposal, an arrangement which is not advisable. In the 
Newark school the cloak rooms are in the basement, following thus 
the method found in the latest American high schools. 

The Springfield school has several large schoolrooms, in this 
arrangement approximating to that found in the English schools 
and in our normal schools, and such as was and as still is the 
arrangement in our old-fashioned academies. This system was also 
maintained in the district schools of this country before the German 

method of graded 
schools supplanted the 
English system. The 
Newark school has ap- 
parently schoolrooms of 
like si/e to those in our 
graded grammar schools; 
the plan being in fact 
almost that of a gram- 
mar school, except that 
the wardrobes do not 
adjoin the schoolrooms, 
but, as noted above, are 
placed in the basement. 

It is interesting to 
note the varying eclectic 
use of schoolhouse feat- 
ures derived from or an- 
alogous to examples to 
be found in other countries, an eclecticism probably to be ascribed 
in part to the varying ideas of the school authorities and in part to 
the preference of the architects. From whatever source they may 
come, the adoption of these varying features shows that our 
methods in high-school planning are not as rigid as they have 
become in our primary and grammar schools. This is fortunate, as 

N. J. 






3 1 

the high school, if we leave out of consideration the mechanic arts 
and the normal schools, is the highest of the schoolhouse types, and 
from the varying experi- 
ments in this type we 
may expect to derive the 
greatest advance in 
schoolhouse planning, 
especially in the manner 
of lighting. It is mainly 
in the high schools that 
the German method of 
excluding windows im- 
mediately in face of the 
teacher is seen, and it is 
from the adoption of this 
feature in the primary 
and grammar schools 
that the main future im- 
provement in the plan- 
ning of these graded SPRINGFIELD high S( 

schools will Come ; as Hartwell, Richard? 

associated with this change a less width should certainly be adopted 
for the class rooms in primary and grammar schoolhouses if they are 

to be properly lighted. 

The disadvantages 
of the undeveloped con- 
d i t i o n of high-school 
planning cannot be bet- 
ter illustrated than by the 
plans here presented of a 
high school in a city of 
the State of New York. 

The achievements of 
the architects of this 
building in other lines of 
their profession make 
this failure in school- 
house designing the more 
to be deplored. The 
practical requirements 
HOOL, SPRINGFIELD, mass. i iave been sacrificed for 

ion & Driver, Architects. exterior effect in an 









extraordinary manner when the general advancement of schoolhouse 
planning in this country during the past decade is considered. The 

Hartwell, Richardson & Driver] Architects. 

design does not show one properly lighted schoolroom. Two of 
these schoolrooms, with windows inade- 
quate for proper lighting even if on 
the outer wall, are shadowed their 
whole length by an arcade which has 
the sole function of supporting a balus- 
traded platform on the second story. 
The distance between the outer walls 
of the schoolrooms and the outer face 
of the arcade which shadows them is 
fully 15 ft. 

This schoolhouse is given a high 
pitched roof like that of a Louis XIV. 
chateau, which is apparently not util- 

The designers of the Newark school 
have also constructed a Beaux Arts 
projet, but they have used the architec- 
tural forms which they have chosen in a 
satisfactory manner, albeit in seeking 
external effect they have been led to 
injure the light by the use of transom 
bars. They have also given some of 
the schoolrooms of the first Moor less 
window surface than those immediately 
above them, a sacrifice of utility of 
purely academic origin, which is not 
justified even by any better external 
effect than would have been given if a 
more reasonable expression of the plan 
had been adopted. 

As originally designed, the building 
intended to accommodate the Springfield 
High School was larger, and al the same 
time more simple in plan, than the 
present building. It was to have ac- 
commodated one thousand pupils. The 
assembly hall was in the center upon 
the first floor, as in the building that 
was built, but the class rooms were 
grouped around this hall, forming four 
sides of a rectangle instead of three, as 
at present. 

Upon a review of the whole, the 
commission in charge of the construction 
of the building decided to reduce the 
number to be accommodated to eij;ht 

hundred, and to so arrange the building that the hall could be con- 
veniently used for other than school purposes, and that the building 
should be given a somewhat more monumental and 
costly exterior than was first intended. The result 
was the building as now shown, whose faults as a 
monumental plan are clearly recognized by its de- 
signers. Its merits as a practical schoolhouse plan, 
with the special conditions imposed borne in mind, 
are evident to all conversant with such work. 

The basement contains a large lunch room, and 
aquarium, bicycle rooms, toilet rooms, battery and 
storage rooms, and room for girls' gvmnasium. 

The boilers for heating are located outside the 

(pon the principal floor is the assembly hall, 
occupying the center of the plan. This is approached 
from the principal entrance, and through the corridor 
opposite ; also by a broad iron staircase, by means 
of which an audience may pass out upon the west 
side and down to the level of the grade surface be- 
tween this and the old high-school building, which 
still remains standing a short distance away. To the right and 

10 qiu rTT r i rn'rVr 1 P-, 

t". M ^r- |fi — if|- rr- 
eHBH!r " L — f*"TT 





i-I^rq pH"El", 

7^t£ tfj^f 


=1 d 









— \ 

- r 

■«— — *—b 



left of the main entrance are the office and the private reception 
room of the principal, the office of the secretary, and a room for 
delivery of stationery and a limited number of books. Eight class 

rooms and four recitation 
rooms are also upon this 

A broad covered 
passageway crossing by 
the west side of the hall, 
from which exit is made 
to the staircase p r e v i - 
ously mentioned, provides 
a thoroughfare between 
the front and rear por- 
tions of the building, 
which would otherwise 
have remained discon- 
nected by the removal of 
this section of the origi- 
nal rectangle. Similar 
connection is made in 
the second story, but in 
this case the passage 
becomes a loggia, from 
which in passing one 
looks down into the hall 
below. . 

The plan of the 
second story is much like 
the first, except that im- 
mediately over the main 
entrance is the library. 
Drawing rooms, labora- 
tories, and physical lecture room, with large storage rooms for 
apparatus occupy the third story, while a 12 ft. copper dome, pro- 
jecting into an inner light well, is used as an astronomical observatory. 
This dome is so placed as to be invisible from the ground level, except 
at a very remote distance, and does not essentially affect the archi- 
tectural expression of the building. 

The assembly hall is also used for concerts, lectures, and 
other entertainments not directly connected with the work of the 

The Latin School at Cambridge, Mass , is an interesting type of 
a high school, and demonstrates the fact that a plan in the form 
of a letter H gives a better opportunity for thoroughly lighting 
the wide American schoolrooms than is afforded by the courtyard 
type. In the letter H plan there can be eight instead of. as in the 
courtyard plan, four wide class rooms having light on two sides, an 
arrangement of windows which is essential for the proper lighting 
of a schoolroom 28 ft. wide; and further, the assembly hall may be 
made a much more cheerful and dignified room than is permitted 
by the courtyard plan when this hall is placed in the center of the 

This building shows coat rooms conveniently adjacent to the 
class rooms but less absolutely conforming to the •'wardrobe" 
arrangement of graded schools, as was noted to be the case in some 
of the plans given above. It must certainly be an error of a 
draughtsman which shows on first-floor plan a class room which is 
accessible only through the cloak room, for such an arrangement 
would neutralize absolutely the advantage of a separate enclosure 
for storage of outside clothing. The width of 30 ft. is given certain 
of the class rooms lighted from one side only, while rooms on the 
corner, and hence lighted from two sides, are given a width of 

2.S ft. 

This arrangement appears to be made to give the required 
dimensions for the exhibition hall, but the lighting of class rooms 
required that the excess of width should be given the corridor that 
runs between the class rooms. 





THE Aver Building illustrates what is now being done at 
Chicago in fire-proof construction and architecture in clay. 
Our half-tone illustration, through the kindness of the architects, 
Messrs. Holabird & Roche, shows how it looked in January, 1899. 
In the foreground is seen the superstructure of the Union Elevated 
Railroad with glimpses of the street below. The photograph was 
taken just after a snow flurry. The top of the sidewalk protection is 
seen between the railway structure and the building line, and is 
really about 8 ft. below the tracks. This obscures the first story, 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 

which is treated as a single opening, though two of the steel posts 
supporting the front are inside of the sash line. The building is So 
by about 150 ft. and nine stories high, being just within the 130 ft. 
limit of height, as now required by law. It is a good illustration of 
the result of the agitation against " skyscrapers " in the home of 
their birth, and still it is high enough to make a good investment ; 
and it might be added that it still provides a good field for steel 
skeleton construction. Situated on the best part of Wabash Avenue, 
which is second only to State Street as a high-priced retail thorough- 
fare, it is built so that it may be adapted to the varying demands of 
business for many years to come. It may be used for one retail 
business throughout its whole extent, or it may be divided into three 
retail shops on the first story and have a different business on each 
of the floors above, which may be subdivided indefinitely. It re- 
ceives daylight only from the front and rear, and has no light shafts. 



Steel skeleton construction is used throughout, supported on a 
foundation partly of piles and partly of caissons filled with concrete. 
The latter were used to satisfy the objections of the owners and 
occupants of the small building on the south. The wall on the north 
side, where the adjoining property is vacant, is a party wall built by 
agreement, consisting of Z-bar steel posts covered with hollow 
porous terracotta tile and connected by a 12 in. brick wall, which is 
continued around the posts on both sides, outside of the porous tile, 
and 4 ins. in thickness. This 12 in. wall on each story encloses a 
horizontal I-beam, which carries its weight, story by story. From 
this it will be seen that, used as a fire wall, it occupies only 6 ins. of 
each lot, and it could only be 
knocked down one panel at a 

The construction of the 
front wall is best shown in the 
detail drawing, which gives in 
section the second floor, any 
one of the intermediate floors, 
and the roof. The two inter- 
mediate steel posts set back 
from the front, which is carried 
on the 24 in. I-beam at the 
second story floor and brackets 
above. The posts are fire- 
proofed all around with hollow 
porous terra-cotta blocks, after 
their recesses have been filled 
with the same All horizontal 
beams in the front are also 
fire-proofed with porous terra- 
cotta independent of all other 
covering. The exposed front 
and mullions are entirely built 
of nearly white terra-cotta, the 
method of setting and fasten- 
ing being shown in the detail. 
The half-tone print testifies to 
the perfection and uniformity 
of this material, which the 
workmen are seen to be setting. 
The floors are all of I-beams 
and flat end-pressure hollow 
porous terra-cotta arches, with 
soffit plates under the beams. 
All girders (which are trans- 
verse) and interior posts are 
covered with porous terra-cotta 
independent of the floor arches. 

In the eighth floor the 
arches are seen completed and 
the centers are struck. In the 
ninth floor the arches in the 
picture are built and the 

centers are still in place. The centering planks are in place ready 
for the roof arches. The photograph was taken so as to show the 
method and order of the construction. The detail drawing shows 
how the work will be completed. The steel chimney in the rear is 
lined with fire brick and enclosed in a square wall of hollow tile. 
This is the method now in general use for the largest Chicago 

The Aver Building is on the site formerly occupied by a new 
seven-story building of mill construction, which was burned about a 
year ago, when many lives were sacrificed in the burning, which occu- 
pied about thirty minutes. It will have every element of protection 
against fire known to science, except covering for the front windows. 
This building is an open confession that where the fenestration calls 
for the greatest possible amount of daylight, the risk of tire from such 

an exposure must be accepted, and this will be so as long as tenants 
refuse to use rolling steel shutters even if they are provided. In this 
case, however, the street has a clear width of 100 ft. and the risk is 
greatly lessened thereby. In design the front is an illustration of 
what Holabird & Roche have so often done before, — showing that 
when windows much wider than their height set horizontal masses 
in opposition to vertical lints, the application of such a treatment to 
the high building problem gives more satisfaction to the eye than 
any other that has been attempted. The simplicity and refinement 
of detail in this street front is another illustration of the tendencies 
of architectural design at Chicago, especially where terra-cotta is 




K_*j>* axVJCBT 


1ILE engaged in our 
periodical hunt 
through a mass of second-hand 
books in one of our stores, we 
came across a copy of Harper's 
Magazine for December, 1865. 
containing a description of the 
printing and publishing estab- 
lishment occupied by Harper & 
Brothers in Franklin Square, 
erected in 1854. The con- 
struction of this building, 
which was then supposed to be 
fireproof, was so interesting, 
judged from our modern stand- 
points, and some features of 
the description thereof were so 
naively innocent of what we 
now call the principles of fire 
resistance, that the account 
would be of interest to any one 
who has followed the develop- 
ment of modern constructions. 
We quote : — 

"Hitherto no fire-proof 
building had been built which 
contained more than a single 
story wholly available for any 
practical use. The floor of 
this main story was upheld by 
a series of arches and columns, 
tilling almost all the space, and 
darkening what was not filled. 
There was no known means of 
making the flooring of the main 
story strong enough to support 
stories above without sacrific- 
ing a great portion of the space. For examples of fire-proof build- 
ings before the iron age, one needs but to look at the building at the 
corner of Wall and Nassau Streets, once used for the Custom House 
and now used as the Sub-Treasury, and the old Merchants' Ex- 
change, now the Custom House, on Wall Street. The architect of 
the former building gave up a third of the space to utterly useless 
porticoes, and in the latter case, besides giving up much space to 
the great portico, constructed the walls and windows in such a 
manner that nearly half of the rooms must be artificially lighted 
during a great part of the day. 

'• The whole interior structure of both buildings is supported 
upon a series of iron columns, rising from story to story. From 
column to column in each story extends a girder composed of a cast 
iron arch and a wrougklixaa tension-rod. This rod, about the size 



of a man's arm, is dovetailed at each end into the head of a column: 
the arch, of which it forms a part, can only be broken down by a 
weight at the top sufficient to pull this rod asunder. The iron which 
composes this arch is cast into shapes, which not only economize 
material by putting it just where wanted, but present an ornamental 

" Across the top of these arches are placed a series of beams of 
rolled iron to support the floors. These beams, shaped much like 
the _£_ rail of a railroad, lie four feet apart. The floors consist of a 
series of low brick arches turned from beam to beam. These are 
laid dry, grouted, and then filled up level with cement on the upper 
side, making a solid floor of brick and cement. Over this, for com- 
fort, is laid a covering of wood, which is really only a carpet." 

This was before the days of rolled I-beams. The structure still 
stands and has been in use for forty-four years ; but if it were to be 
replaced by a modern building, it goes without saying that the whole 
construction would be fundamentally changed, and as we look at 
such things now in the light of experience of the past ten years, a 
building of this sort would not survive a fire more than three or four 
hours. One of the hardest fallacies to overcome with the early 
developers of fire-proof construction was the idea that iron of itself 
would resist heat, and the combination of wrought and cast iron 
which was used in this case for the girders is one which is peculiarly- 
liable to give way under heat. 

This instance also suggests a cycle of development. The Post. 
Office and the Sub-Treasury Building to which it invidiously refers 

Mortar and Concrete and 
Mason's Department. 

were solid masonry constructions, guiltless of iron as a supporting 
factor. They can still fairly rank as fire-proof, and as architectural 
designs they are justly admired, even though not fully suited to 
modern commercial necessities. Iron, which in 1854 was just 
beginning to make its appearance, has passed through a whole gamut 
of development, until now we conceal it entirely and try to do with- 
out it, while in such structures as the Boston Public Library, which 
is probably as nearly absolutely fire-proof as any other type of 
construction, iron is as conspicuous by its absence as it is in the 
older New York buildings; which would seem to imply a return to 
a preference for masonry construction. 

THE following sample of fire reporting is taken from the Asso- 
ciated Press dispatches of February 2, from Columbus, Ohio. 
" A fire wall, 4 ft. thick, separated the fine block of Green, 
Joyce & Co., wholesale' dry goods and notions, from the others, but 
this was no barrier, and at one o'clock this morning the fire had 
eaten its wav through and was burning fiercely in the upper stories." 

FULLY 90 per cent, of the fire-proof buildings constructed dur- 
ing the past twenty years have been built of porous terra-cotta, 
and whenever such material has been adequately used and properly 
set (and when we say adequately, we mean that every particle of 
metal should be protected thereby) it has indicated its thorough 
efficiency when called upon. 

We advocate giving the manufacturer of hollow tile the privi- 
lege of setting his own material, grant him at the same time leeway 
to supply any petty deficiencies in the general fire-proofing which his 
experience teaches him is vital, and under these conditions you will 
secure a structure as thoroughly impervious to fire as the present 
appliances of science can furnish. — Insurance Press. 




SOUNDNESS refers to the ability of a cement to retain its 
strength and form unimpaired for an indefinite period. Sound- 
ness is a most important element, since if a cement ultimately loses 
its strength it is worthless, and if it finally expands it becomes a 
destructive agent. A cement may be unsound because of the pres- 
ence in it of some active elements which cause the mortar to expand 
or contract in setting, or the unsoundness may be due to exterior 
agencies which act upon the ingredients of the cement. Most un- 
sound cements fail by swelling and cracking under the action of ex- 
pansives, but sometimes the mortar fails by a gradual softening of 
the mass without a material change of form. A sound cement is 
both constant in volume and permanent in strength. 

The presence of small quantities of free lime in the cement is a 
frequent cause of unsoundness. The lime slakes, and causes the 
mortar to swell and crack, and perhaps finally disintegrate. The de- 
gree of heat employed in the burning, and the fineness, modify the 
effect of the free lime. Lime burned at a high heat slakes more 
slowlv than when burned at a low temperature, and is therefore more 
likely to be injurious. Finely ground lime slakes more quickly than 
coarsely ground, and hence with fine cement the lime may slake 
before the cement has set. and therefore do no harm. The lime in 
finely ground cements will air-slake sooner than that in coarsely 

Free magnesia in cement acts very much like free lime. The 
action of the magnesia is much slower than that of lime, and hence 
its presence is a more serious defect, since it is less likely to be 
detected before the cement is used. The effect of magnesia in 
cement is not thoroughly understood, but seems to vary with the 
composition of the cement, the degree of burning, and the amount of 
water used in mixing. It was formerly held that i'/£ or 2 per cent. 
of magnesia in Portland cement was dangerous, but it is now known 
that 5 per cent, is not injurious, while 8 per cent, may produce expan- 
sion. Since many of the natural cements are made of magnesium 
limestone, they contain much more magnesia than Portland cements, 
but chemists are not agreed as to the manner in which the different 
constituents are combined, and consequently are not agreed either as 
to the amount or effect of free magnesia in such a cement. Fortu- 
nately, it is not necessary to resort to a chemical analysis to determine 
the amount of lime or magnesia present, foi a cement which success- 
fullv stands the ordinary test lor soundness for seven, or at most 
twenty-eight, days may be used with confidence. 

The effect of lime and magnesia seems to be more serious in 
water than in air. and greater in sea water than in fresh water. 


Several methods of testing soundness have been recommended. 
Of those mentioned below, the first two are called cold tests, since 
the mortar is tested at ordinary temperatures, and the remainder 
accelerated or hoi tests. 

The Pat Test. The ordinary method of testing soundness is to 
make small cakes or puts of neat mortar 3 or 4 ins. in diameter with 
thin edges, upon a sheet of glass, and examine from day to day for 
twenty-eight days (if possible), to see if they show any cracks or 



signs of distortion. The test is usually made with neat cement mor- 
tar. The amount of water used in mixing (see page 165. The BRICK- 
BUILDER), within reasonable limits, seems to have no material effect 
on the result. The first evidence of bad quality is the loosening of 
the pat from the glass, which generally takes place, if at all. within 
one or two days. Good cement will remain firmly attached to the 
glass for two weeks at least. The cracks due to expansion occur 
usually at the edges of the pat. and radiate from the center. These 
cracks should not be confused with irregular hair-like shrinkage 
cracks, which appear over the entire surface when the pats are marie 
too wet and dry out too much while setting. 

the German standard specifications require the cake to be 1.5 
centimeters (0.5 in.) thick at the center, to be kept twenty-four hours 
in a closed box or under a damp cloth, and then stored in water. The 
French, to make sure that the pats do not get dry before immer- 
sion, recommend that the cakes be immersed immediately after mix- 
ing, without waiting for the mortar to set. Some really sound natural 
cements will disintegrate if immersed before setting has begun. 

Expansion Test. Various experiments test the soundness of 
cement bv measuring the expansion of a bar of cement mortar. The 
French Commission recommend either the measurement of the ex- 
pansion of a bar 32 ins. long by >/ z in. square, or the measurement of 
the increase of circumference of a cylinder. The German standard 
tests require the measurement of the increase in Length of a prism 
4 ins. long by 2 ins. square. The apparatus for making these tests 
can be had in the market, and it is not wise to occupy space here 
with a description thereof. The tests require very delicate manipula- 
tion to secure reliable results. 

Xccelerated Tests. The ordinary tests, extending over a reason- 
able period, sometimes fail to detect unsoundness: and many efforts 
have been made to utilize heat to accelerate the action, with a view 
of determining from the effect of heat during a short time what 
would be the action in a longer period under normal conditions. 
Some of these tests have been fairly successful, but none have been 
extensively employed. It is difficult to interpret the tests, as the re- 
sults vary with the per cent, of lime, magnesia, sulphates, etc., pits 
ent, and with their proportions relative to each other and to the 
whole. There is a great diversity as to the value of accelerated tests. 

Many natural cements which go all to pieces in the accelerated 
tests, particularly the boiling test, siill stand well in actual service. 
This is a strong argument against drawing adverse conclusions from 
a celerated tests when applied to 1'ortland cement. 

The warm-water test, proposed by Mr. Faija, 1 a British au- 
thority, is made with a covered vessel partly lull of water maintained 
at a temperature of 100. to 115 degs. Fahr., in the upper part of 
which the pat is placed until set. When the pat is set. it is placed 
in the water for twenty-four hours. If the cement remains firmly 
attached to the ijlass and shows no 1 rai ks. it is probable sound. 

The hot-water test, proposed by Mr. Maclay.-' an American 
authority, is substantially like Faija's test above, except that Maclay 
recommends 195 to 200 degs. Fahr. 

The boiling test, suggested by Professor Tetmajer, the Swiss 
authority, consists in placing the mortar in cold water immediatelv 
after mixing, then gradually raising the temperature to boiling after 

it an hour, and boiling for three hours. The test specimen con- 
sists of a small ball of such a consistency that when flattened to half 
its diameter it neither cracks nor runs at the edges. 

The kiln test consists of exposing a small cake of cement mortar, 
after it has set. to a temperature of 1 10 to 120 degs. C.| 100 to 24N de^s 
Fahr.) in a drying oven until all the water is driven off. If no edge 
cracks appear, the cement is considered of constant volume. 

The Jlame test is made by placing a ballot" the cement paste, 
about 2 ins. in diameter, on a wire gauze and applying the rlame of a 
Bunsen burner gradually, until at the end of an hour the temperature 
is about 90 degs. C. (194 degs. Fahr.). The heat is then increased 

■Trans. American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. XVII., p. 223: also Vol. \\\ . 

2 Trans. American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. XXVII., p. 412. 

until the lower part of the ball becomes red hot. The appearance Ol 
cracks probably indicates the presence of an expansive element. 

The chloride-of-lime test is to mix the paste for the cakes with a 
solution of 40 grams of calcium chloride per liter of water, allow 
to set, immerse in the same solution lor twenty-four hours, and then 
examine lor checking and softening. The chloride of lime acceler- 
ates the hydration of the free lime. The chloride in the solution 
used in mixing causes the slaking before setting of only so much ol 
the free lime as is not objectionable in the cement. The chloride of 
calcium has no effect upon free magnesia. 

As before stated, there is a great diversity of opinion as to the 
value ol accelerated tests lor soundness: for example, one reallv 
competent expert will defend some particular accelerated test and 
condemn all others, while another equally competent authority will 
commend some other hot test and condemn all others. Probably 
each is correct for the limited held of his investigation. Owing to 
this state ol affairs, it is not wise to discuss the subject further here. 
Fortunately, the pat test, as described above, when carefully 
ducted, is sufficient for most practical purposes, 


AN excerpt has been issued by the United States Geological 
Survey from the annual report of the director for 1897 98, 
Part V., Mineral Resources of the United States, giving the data for 
the production and consumption of hydraulic cement in this country 
in 1897, which contains some interesting figures in regard to the pro- 
duction of American Portland cement. In 1895 less than 1, 000,000 
barrels were made; in 1896 over 1 500,000 barrels was the output' 
while in 1S97 this had risen to 2,677,775 barrels, an increase of 
t, 1 34, 752 barrels over 1896, or nearly 74 per cent. The domestic 
production in [896 was only 34.7 per cent, of our entire consumption, 
whereas in 1S97 it had increased to 56.8 per cent. The increase in 
the production was, as in former years, largely in the Lehigh Valley 
region, where the product nearly doubled and amounted to 74..S per 
cent, of the entire output of the country. New York produced 14.7 
per cent., Ohio, 5.5 per cent., and all other sections. 5 per cent. 
These figures show that the increase in production outside of the 
Lehigh Valley has been very slow and has not kept pace with the 
consumption of Portland cement in those regions, this industry being 
still an insignificant one there. The Lehigh Valley is, therefore, the 
center of the Portland cement industry of the country and the increase 
in its production in seven years has been tenfold. 

The imports of Portland cement decreased in 1897 nearly 900,- 
000 barrels, from 2,9X9.597 to 2,090,924 barrels. 'The imports from 
Germany were 53 per cent, of the whole and decreased much less 
than those from other countries. The imports from Great Britain 
were less than one half of those made in 1X96. Knglish Portland 
cement has fallen into disrepute and is seldom met with except on 
the Pacific coast. Next to Germany, Belgium makes the largest ex- 
ports of cement to us, but these have fallen off from 742,237 barrels 
in 1896 to $29,686 barrels in 1897. Other foreign countries made 
insignificant exports. 

It is stated that during 1S97 the increase in the domestic pro- 
duction of Portland cement has, for the first time, greatly exceeded 
the increase in consumption in this country, more than one half of 
our consumption being of American manufacture. This is due 
largely to the very high grade materials produced by American manu- 
facturers, much of it having been found to show decidedly higher 
tests than the imported article. American Portland cements have 
also been superior in fineness of grinding, and Professor Newberry 
states that it is gratifying to find that an industry, so new to this 
country and one requiring so high a degree of technical knowledge, 
has already developed to a point beyond that which it has reached 
in German v. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — Having just completed the first year of our 
existence as " Oreater New York," it is a fitting time to pause 
and consider whether we are in a better condition now that we are 
banded together under one charter. To begin with we have an 
increase of $330,000,000 in the assessed valuation of real estate in 

rulers who are at once raising the salaries of office holders, piling 
new taxation on the people, heaping up funded indebtedness, and 


Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
Wyatl & Nolting, Architects. 

Manhattan and Bronx. Provision has been made for the issue of 

#35,000,000 of bonds, the margin for this increase of funded debt 
being created by the enormous advance in the assessed valuation, 
which in the whole city on real and personal property will be at least 

What is to be done with the 535,000,000 and more to be received 
for the new bonds? Is the vital pressing need of the people for ade- 
quate underground transit to be met ? Not at all. A third of this 
vast sum is set aside for parks and several millions for bridges, 
which, of course, are necessary and will be a great benefit to the 
city, but the crying need of the metropolis now is swift and comfort- 
able transit. 

As the conditions are at present, it is much more comfortable 
and convenient to live in one of our many beautiful suburbs, even in 
the neighboring State of New Jersey, than in the city of New York. 
As the Herald puts it, " What a spectacle we present, with a set of 


Wyatt X: Nolting, Architects. 
Elevation and plan shown in plate form. 

deliberately standing in the way of the improvement most vitally 
needed for the comfort of the citizens who foot the bills ! " 

Property owners and real-estate dealers alike insist that the 
increased valuations will seriously affect the real-estate market. 
They will hurt property because the property while taxed very 
heavily cannot produce any more rent than is produced now, because, 
in their judgment, the rental limit in the Borough of Manhattan has 
been reached. 

To give an idea of the enormous increase in the 
assessed valuations we cite here a few of the more im- 
portant of our public buildings, showing their assessed 
valuation this year and last : — 



Bowling Oreen Building 
Equitable Life Building 
Mutual Life Building 
New York Life Building 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel . 
Orand Central Station . 

* 1,500, 000 ;-2, 500,000 
4,150,000 6,000,000 




Executed by the Atwood Faience Company. 
Franklin H. Janes, Architect. 

Our only hope now is that there will be a re- 
arrangement of taxation on a more equitable basis. 
Many properties are taxed too high in comparison with 
the rest of the city; many more are taxed too low. 
This is unquestionably the chief reason why there 
has been so little dealing in large properties in the 
heart of the city while at the same time there has 
been considerable of a boom in property in the outly- 
ing districts. The auction sales of lots have been 
particularly successful, in one case a large parcel of 
property having been closed off in two hours and for 
much higher prices than was anticipated. This, of 
course, is encouraging and will mean a season of ac- 
tivity among architects and builders whose work is in 
the line of dwellings and buildings of medium cost. 



Among the most interesting projects now under consideration is 
a scheme to bring Cathedral Heights within easier access from 
down town by a viaduct connecting the crest of the hill with the 

warehouse to be erected on 125th Street near Park Avenue. 1 1 will 
he built of marble and light gray brick, and will cost $300,000. 

His reported that the People's Tabernacle is to erect a new 
building on I02d Street near Madison Avenue, to cost about $40,000. 


Kire-prooted by the Boston Fire-proofing Company ; front brick furnished by the Sayre 

& Fisher Company. 

Window .t Wetherell, Architects. 

it 6th Street Station of the elevated railroad. This has already 
interested many property holders on the plateau and promises to take 
form in an application to the borough board of improvements in a 
few days. 

It is an interesting sight to observe the clever way in which the 
burned and ruined front of the Home Life Building is being removed 
and replaced without disturbing the occupants. 

We are glad to be able to report that our new Hall of Records is 
to be begun at once. Judging from the plans of the architect. Mr. 
J. R. Thomas, it will be a fine building and a credit to the city. We 
can only hope now that the old structure in use at present will not 
burn down before the completion of the new one, which will probably 
be about May 1, 1900. 

The competition for the new building of the New York Yacht 
Club has been decided in favor of Messrs. Warren & Wetmore, a 
a firm of young architects hitherto unknown, whose design is in every 
way French. 

Among the few items of important new work are : — 

A new club house for the Union Republican Club is contem- 
plated. It will cost ?20o,ooo and will be erected on 164th Street, 
corner Third Avenue. 

Hugo Smith, archi- 
tect, has planned a S175.- 
000 office and theater 
building to be erected on 
Broadway and Flushing 
Avenue, Brooklyn. 

C. K H. Gilbert, ar- 
chitect, has filed plans 
for a twelve-story fire- 
proof office and storage 


CHICAGO. — A damage suit was recently tried in the Circuit 
Court here, which serves to call attention to a very bad and 
flimsy feature common to all local flat building construction. A 
tenant, who fell to the ground from 
the rear porch of a lower flat in this 
city, through the giving way of a de- 
fective or broken railing, brought suit 
against the parties who owned the 
building and was awarded damages 
in the sum of >!Soo. The evidence 
showed that the porch and railing 
were all of wood, and put together in 
the most flimsy and slipshod manner, 
like hundreds of others in connection 
with buildings of the same class, the 
horizontal rails being merely butted 
against, and " toe-nailed " into, the 
end supports. Not long ago an 
elderly woman fell from the second 
floor of a similar porch through the 
giving way of the railing and was 

So much for the dangerously 
flimsy nature of these eyesores, — 
these cheap makeshifts. As for their 
ugliness and poverty-stricken cheer- 
lessness, they are too familiar to us 
all, especially the patrons of elevated 
roads, to require further comment. 
They are simply an aggravated in- 
stance of the short-sightedness of the 
speculative builder and the ruthless 
investor, who strive (sometimes with 
the connivance of an " artchitect "1 
to make an imposing " front " on the 
street, forgetful that sides and rear in 
their cheap nakedness are nearlv as 
much exposed to the public, and quite 
as much lived with by the tenants. 
They are like the ostrich which buries 
its head in the sand and thinks to be 

Now it would not be so very 
difficult for a skilful architect to de- 
sign buildings of this class which would be agreeable to the eye 
from all points, with porches or loggias and stairs in the rear, con- 
venient and pleasant to the occupants, and so durable that the saving 
in repairs and paint, added to their attractiveness to tenants, would 
bring ample return on first cost to the investor, even with the cheap- 
est class of flat buildings. Brick, terra-cotta. and iron are the mate- 
rials which should be employed, and the " rear porch " should 
compare favorably in permanence and careful treatment with the 

Italian loggia or cortile. 

Fire has just de- 
stroyed the old building 
at the northwest corner 
of Madison Street and 
Wabash Avenue, which 
has been occupied for 
many years by the Mo 
Gurg bookstore. Many 
priceless volumes a n d 
m a n u s c r i pts were de- 




Executed in terra-cotta by the New 

Jersey Terra-Cott.i Company 

Kurt/.cr& Kohl. Architects. 



stroyed. A modern fireproof building will doubtless soon be erected 
on this, one of the best corners in the fashionable retail district. 

It seems a certainty that Marshall Field will erect a bank and 
office building on the northeast corner of 
Clark and Adams Streets, and that D. H. 
Burnham & Co. will be the architects. The 
proposed cost, as stated, is in the neighbor- 
hood of $2,000,000. Present prospects, 
therefore, indicate that there will be a re- 
newal of Chicago's normal activity in im- 
portant down-town improvements during 
the approaching season. 

Altogether, even the pessimists are be- 
coming convinced that capitalists and in- 
vestors have begun to weary of the wild 
speculative activity which has directly fol- 
lowed the return of prosperity, and are now 
ready to turn their attention to real estate 
and building as in days before the panic. 


ST. LOUIS. — There is a feeling of ex- 
pectancy in building circles, and some 
hopeful indications of improvement with the 
advancement of the season, which is doubt- 
less stimulated by the prevailing low rate 
of interest and the amount of money seek- 
ing investment. 

The chief center of interest lately has 
been Washington Avenue, where a number 
of large commercial buildings have been 
erected or are contemplated, among the 
most recent of which is a ten-story build- 
ing on 10th Street. It is to be of fireproof 
construction, and the contract was awarded, 
a few days ago, for $175,000, by the archi- 
tect, Mr. Isaac Taylor. 

No small interest centered in the recent competition for the deco- 
ration of the two assembly rooms in the new City Hall. Mr. W. W. 
Davis was the successful competitor, out of nine, the price being 

A movement to commemorate in 1903 the centennial anniversary 
of the Louisiana Purchase has been successfully launched, and an 
endeavor is to be made to eclipse all previous efforts at holding ex- 
hibitions. Should the scheme succeed, there will be much of interest 
to the architects and builders in due course of time, as there will 
doubtless be some unique problems to solve. 

The local chapter of the American Institute of Architects is 
trying to induce the leg- 
islature to pass a bill 
licensing architects. The 
bill seems to have the 
hearty support of the 
Master Builders. The 
purpose of the bill, of 
course, is the "elevation 
of the profession," by re 
quiring a standard of 
proficiency and prevent- 
ing incompetent builders 
and draughtsmen from 
preparing plans for build- 
ings. There is evidence 
of the necessity of some 
such protection for the 
sake of human life if 
nothing more. Only re- 
cently a building col- 
lapsed during construc- 

owing to overloaded column and girders, causing loss of 

rhe mayor has promised to commence the new City Hospital 
this spring. The old building was destroyed 
some years ago by the cyclone, and since 
that time the city has been occupying old 
buildings illy suited to such purposes, and 
the necessity has arisen for some immediate 
action to relieve the situation. 




COMPANY, page iv, details of 
main entrance St. Raymond's Roman Cath- 
olic Church, West Chester, N. Y. ; George 
H. Streeton, architect. The elevation is 
shown elsewhere in this number. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, page v, stock designs in terracotta, 
some of which were employed in houses 
illustrated in Plates 11 and 14. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., page x, detail of 
molded brickwork, Plymouth Building. 
Minneapolis, Minn.: Frederick Kees, archi- 

Ludowici Rooting Tile Company, page 
xxvi, Frances E, Willard School, Chicago, 
111.: Norman S. Patton, architect. 

seal over entrance new yokk botanical 
museum, bronx park. 

Exe< utcd by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 
R. W. Gibson, Architect. 




HE following-named architects would 
be pleased to receive manufactur- 
ers' catalogues and samples: Rockwell M. 
Milligan, Chemical Building, St. Louis. Mo. : 
Frank Elwood Brown, 61 Orange Street, New Haven, Conn.: Edgar 
B. Fox, 85 North High Street, Columbus, Ohio : James S. A. Mercer, 
1300 Broadway, New York City. 

Wallace <S: Stevenson, Architects. 


Tin-: Cleveland Wire Spring Company has recently closed 
contracts for over a million of their wall ties, for use in New York, 
Philadelphia, and Chicago. 

The Moore & Wyman Elevator and Mac him: Works 

reports business as ini 
proving, they having re- 
ceived contracts for a 
number of passenger and 
freight elevators during 
the past month. 

T H E architectural 
terra-cotta used in the 
new Hoxie Building, Fort 
Worth, Texas, and the 
new high-school building 
at Lincoln, 111., will be 
supplied by the St. Louis 
Terra-Cotta ( ompany. 

The Dagus Clay 
m \nuiactuking com- 
p \ vv 1 cports business 
as being good with them. 
They have recently made 



large shipments of brick to Philadelphia, New York City, and Pitts- 

The architectural terra-cotta for the new Sullivan Building at 
St. Louis, Isaac S. Taylor, architect ; also for the fine new residence 
for Corwin H. Spencer, Esq.. St. Louis, Barnett. Haynes & Har- 
riett, architects, will lie supplied by tin- Winkle Terra-Cotta Com- 

Tin, American Enameled Prick 
furnish, through their Boston agent. 
J. W. Hahn, the enameled brick for 
a new primary school building at 
South Boston. Mass., W. H. Besa- 
rick, architect ; also for the new 
Hecht Building. Boston, Mass.. 
Weisbein & Jones, architects. 

Tin: Celadon Roofing Tiles 
have been specified on the follow- 
ing new buildings: residence for J- 

D. Sawyer. Esq., Stam- 
ford, Conn., Mrs. 1.. 

E. Holman, architect: 
residence for Nathaniel 
Witherill. Esq., C.reen- 
w i c h . Conn.. N. C. 
Mellen, architect : resi- 
dence for E. B. Harvey, 
Esq.. Buffalo. N. V.. 
M. C. Miller, architect. 

The Powhatan 
( lav Manufactur- 
ing Company reports 
the following new con- 
tracts: Cream-white 
brick for the new resi- 
dence of W. H. Par- 
rish, Esq., at Rich- 
mond, Va., Muhlenberg 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 
Louis H. Gibson, Architect. 
Mi. Gibson chose Eor his motive, the arrow-shaped lily which gi 
^teat abundance in the ponds ol Indiana. 

Bros., architects ; silver-gray bricks for the 
Petersburg Savings and Insurance Company's new building at 
Petersburg. Ya.. Peebles & Sharpe. architects: front bricks for a 
new office building at Newport 
News. Ya.. H. VV. Silsby, archi- 

The White Brk k a n q 


closed new contracts as follows : 
Residence, New Rochelle, N. Y., 
for John G. Agar, Clinton & Rus- 
sell, architects: residence, 105th 
Street and Riverside Drive. C. H. 
P. Gilbert, architect: apartments, 
loSth Street and Central Park, 
West, Angell & Higginson, archi- 
tects ; apartments. 103d Street and 
Boulevard, I). W. King, architect: 
laboratory. Northampton. Mass.. 
Herts & Tallant, architects. 

A 1 the recent convention of 
the National Brick Manufacturers' 
Association, held at Columbus. 
Ohio, Chambers Bros. Company 

placed on exhibition a full-size automatic side-cutter, ol their new 
design, which attracted a great deal of attention, and is a novelty in 

this class of mechanism. They also exhibited a working model of 
their automatic end-cut brickmaking machine, running the machine 
with the aid of an electric motor. 

Tin; Ameru an Enameled Brk k and Till Company is now 

prepared to fill orders 
in enameled brick 
made up on the old 
German standard si/.e, 
the enameled bricks 
being 3 by 6 by 3. 
These bricks can be 
used most advantage- 
ously for kitchen hearth 
work, or for lining 
kitchens themselves. 
They have adopted 
this line because of 
having been requested 
by several architects 
to offer a brick of 
these dimensions. 

II. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzolan Cement is being 
supplied for brickwork at the following buildings by- 
Waldo Brothers, agents: Hotel, Beacon Street. Boston, 
W. T. Sears, architect ; Adams House, Boston. W. 
Whitney Lewis, architect; Back Bay Station, Boston, 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; Proctor Build- 
ing, Boston. Winslow & Wetherell, architects : school, 
Groton, Mass., Peabody & Stearns, architects: house, 
Thompson. Conn., Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. architects. 

The fine new Union Station at Kansas City, Mo., 
designed by \'an Brunt & Howe, has all stairs fully 
equipped with Mason Safetv Tread. The new build- 
ings of the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. 
James Windrim, architect, and the new Hochelaga and 
Montmorency mills at Montreal, T. Pringle & Sons, 
engineers, are also provided with these treads, furnished 
by the American Mason Safety Tread Company, of Boston. 

Guastavino enameled tile ceiling. 
M. Kim. Me, id \ White, Architet 

THE COLUMBUS FACE Brick Company, of Columbus. Ohio, 
presents its card to the readers of 
The BRICKBUILDER in the adver- 
tising columns of this issue. This 
company is incorporated under the 
laws of Ohio, with a paid-up capi- 
tal of $ 1 00,000, and is making a 
specialty of mottled brick in gold, 
bronze, and ivory shades. The 
plant is a perfect one from the 
most exacting brickmaker's stand- 
point and has at this time a capac- 
ity for making 7,500,000 per an- 

The property of the company 
contains within its own borders a 
wide variety of clays and several 
great veins of coal, so situated 
that both are transported by grav- 
ity from mine to machine. 

The mottled brick is made 
from a natural composition which 
they have named the " Ironclay," 
and the effects produced are said 
to be quite unsurpassed for beaut) of finish and perfect coloring. 

Mr. J. I'. Hazelton, the vice-president, a competent and experi- 


4 1 

as compact a wall as do many of the odd blocks and rubble 
so frequently thrown together with a plentiful cement between, 
which constitutes the average modern sea wall and esplanade. 
We go farther, and state that the use of superabundant ce- 
ment, which must be employed when odd blocks of variable 
size are the chief substances in the wall, is a direct invitation 
to these deleterious molluscs. For though 
they may not be able, conveniently, to bore 
into the rubble stone, they can deal with tin- 
cement, unless this latter contains much carbo- 
nate of magnesia. In short, although bricks 
are already used to a large extent for sea 
walls, in our opinion they should still further 
supersede stone for that purpose. Where the 
hydraulic cement is of first-rate quality, the 
bricks are bound together quite as firmly into 
large blocks as when Nature does the work. 
Indeed, a good cement is, as a rule, much 
more durable in the atmosphere also than the 
cement binding together grains of sand to 
form sandstone, and oolitic spherules as in the 
formation of an oolite. Good, sound, heavy, 
vitrified bricks only could, of course, be per- 
mitted. British Uriikbuilder. 


Wheelwright & Haven. Architects. 


enced brickmaker, is in charge of the plant, and Mr. David C. Meehan 
is the secretary and general manager. 

The company is now engaged in providing a large stock for 
ready distribution, and will be prepared to 
meet all demands in ample time for the com- 
ing building season. Agencies are being 
established in the principal cities and cor- 
respondence is invited. 

EMPHIS, TENN.— Thanks to the 

strictest of quarantines and addi- 
tional sanitary precautions, yellow fever has 
been kept out of Memphis during* 1.S9S, and the many projected 
improvements that were started in 1.S97, but postponed by the scare 
in the fall of that year, will be realities in [899. A new City Hall 



T is well known that many stones em- 
ployed by the engineer for marine works 
decay rapidly from the action of boring mol- 
lusca. Plymouth and Portland breakwaters, 
amongst numerous other works, have fre- 
quently been cited in this connection. The 
reason stone is preferred to any other sub- 
stance commonly employed for constructional 
purposes is because it is found in such large 
blocks, which give the sea more work to do in 
breaking them up than if the stones were 
simply of the size of bricks. At Portland the 
method is to feed the marine molluscs with 
odd blocks of Portland stone, which are 
tipped over the breakwater to the seaward 
side, and which thus afford protection to the 
main structure. Such stone is composed 
almost entirely of carbonate of lime, and 
the boring mollusca find no difficulty in 
dealing with it. It would be otherwise, 
however, if bricks were employed; and the 
enormous expense attending the feeding al- 
luded to would be considerably minimized. 
We are not aware that Saxicava, Lithodo- 
111 us, or P kolas has ever been able to get 
through a really good, substantial, heavy, and 

compact vitrified brick. In marine walls and the like these can be 
very readily laid in thin courses of hydraulic cement, and form quite 


Terra-cotta work executed by the Excelsior I erra-Cotta Company. 

George H, Streeton, Architect, 

and Union Depot are to be erected at an early date, which with 
the new Telephone Exchange will mean the expenditure of nearly 

4 2 


a million dollars for buildings public and private during the coming 

Mississippi has finally laid hands on sufficient funds for her 
much-needed new capitol building to be erected at Jackson. Texas 
has enjoyed a phenomenal year of abundant crops and the outlook 
for building has never been brighter. The same can be said of 
Georgia, Arkansas, Alabama, and Louisiana, where colleges, schools, 
churches, and residences are beginning to spring up on every hand, 
and a most decided improvement is noticeable in the architectural 
handling of buildings of every class all over the South. Especially 
is this true in the employment of brick, terra-cotta, and stone where 
wood was formerly used. 

This mill is shown with open top, but is so designed that the 
top may be covered, say one half or two thirds of the distance back 


from the discharge end. It is a double-geared machine, with all 
bearings outside the tub and away from the material to be worked. 
It has two 5 in. diameter shafts, carrying forty-eight steel knives — 
twenty-four in each shaft — so secured that they can be set at any 
desired angle. The driving shaft is zfj ins. diameter and is fitted 
with friction clutch, pulley, 36 ins. diameter by Sy£ ins. face, with 
starting lever located at a convenient position for the attendant. 
The whole machine is on a framework of steel channels, and all the 

driving gear is journaled in one solid casting. Width of frame, 
3 ft.; length, exclusive of driving pulley, 13 ft. 6 ins. From bottom 
of frame to top of tub. 2 ft. Weight, unboxed, about 5,500 lbs. 

\\ . P, GRATH, secretary and treasurer of the Illinois Supply 
and Construction Company. St. Louis, has invented a gas-producing, 
consuming, and coking furnace, which can be applied to brick kilns, 
boilers, annealing furnaces, etc. A public test of this furnace was 
recently held at the plant of the American Hydraulic Pressed Brick 
Company, for the benefit of a delegation of St. Louis brickmakers. 
The results were extremely gratifying and even more successful than 
Mr. Grath had claimed they would be. 

In this furnace nothing but the cheapest grade <>f slack coal is 
used, from which the gases are first extracted and consumed, leaving 
a mass of red-hot coke, which is then shoved over on the grates and 
burned. The incandescent heat from this coke ignites and burns 
the gases from the fresh supply of slack, which is then put on the 
gas or coking tables. Sixteen of these furnaces were used to a kiln. 
After the fires in these furnaces were once thoroughly ignited, no 
black smoke whatever came out of the stack, showing that the gases 
generated were consumed and the combustion perfect. 

These furnaces are now for sale in connection with the Grath 
Patent Down Draft Brick Kiln (invented 1895). 

The American Hydraulic Pressed Brick Company have six of 
these Grath Patent Kilns at their plant at Collinsville. 111., and state 
that they have given the best of results in burning pressed brick. 
In burning red pressed brick these kilns burn a clear No. 10 shade 
on top, and a No. 3 and No. 4 shade on the floor ; the burning is 
also uniform from side to side, and front to back. The results are 
even more remarkable in burning colored bricks: buff, gray, etc. 
From a kiln of gray brick just burned. 99 per cent, were sent directly 
to the building for first-quality face brick. 

One concern, the Hunter Brick Works. Thurber, Texas, who 
have eight of these kilns, say that provided the brick are properly 
made in the first place, every one of them comes out of the kiln 
good enough to deliver as first-class front brick. 

Parties interested in burning brick should write to the Illinois 
Supply and Construction Company, St. Louis, Mo., for information 
regarding this kiln and coking furnace. 

Artistic Mantels. 

Showing modest but very 
effective results at small cost. 

'rice $26* 




■fc r1 j- 

■ Ifc * 

if -*■ 

Prices given are for the Face and Molded Red Brick necessary to set up the mantels as shown (includ- 
ing lining, underfire, and tile hearth), carefully packed in barrels and delivered to cars or steamer at Boston. 
Scale setting plan furnished free. Our mantels are the newest, most stylish, and best of all kinds in every 
way. Our customers say so. Our Sketch Book tells all about 59 designs of charming mantels costing 
from $12 upwards. Send for it. 

Phila* & Boston Face Brick Co* - 2J5 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 


VOL. 8. NO. 3. PLATE 17. 




T— —1 1 _ I I ' 


Ji . ___ JL 

>r I » 'I « H ~t IN VIA CA^PAN5l-5ir- 



VOL. 8. 


NO. 3. 

&1*. - 


OQl.s c^l^NAMi'^ 

Fir I 





PLATES 18 and 23. 

Second Floor. 

i DRIVER, Architects 

T 1 1 E B R I C 

VOL. 8. NO. 3. 

Third F 




** r 






PLATES 19 ancT22. 






























VOL. 8. NO. 3. 


South E 




PLATES 20 and 21. 

lea asBiJoBBE 

a w m — a 

Porte cochere 

=CJ = iO= 

^ M ® 

o. ■[]■ ■ r 


)GE, Architects. 



VOL. 8. NO. 3. PLATE 24. 












































1 1 




































Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3.50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


WE seem to be having more than our share of experience this 
year. The fire in the Windsor Hotel, New York, is one 
of those regrettable features of modern civilization for which it is 
hard to find any excuse. There is no good reason why structures of 
that sort should be tolerated at all in any community. It requires 
no special constructive knowledge to appreciate that the hotel was 
a mere fire-trap, and that it would go like a flash if fire once got 
started. The various stories which have appeared in the papers 
hinting at a possible incendiary origin are by no means necessary to 
satisfactorily account for the origin of so destructive a conflagration. 
The building itself was all ripe for ruin, and the conditions have 
been exactly the same for years. The so-called fire precautions in 
the way of standpipes or sprinkler service when installed in a struc- 
ture of that character would be of doubtful efficiency in saving the 
building or in preventing loss of life. We had occasion a short time 
since to examine a hotel which was in process of demolition, after 
having been occupied for a period of sixty or seventy years. Dur- 
ing that time the floors had probably never been wet down, and we 
found the beams and the interior woodwork generally in such a 
highly inflammable condition that it would not have needed the 
efforts of an incendiary to set the whole ablaze in a twinkling. The 
wooden floor beams of the Windsor were undoubtedly in the same 
condition, and once the fire got in between the timbers there was no 
hope for the structure, while with the antiquated arrangements of 

stairs, fire escapes, and the absurdly inadequate dependence upon 
ropes for means of fire escape, the fate of a good many of the tenants 
was a foregone conclusion. 

A catastrophe of this description sets every one to thinking, es- 
pecially every one who lives in or even casually occupies a hotel. 
Whether this suggested thought will crystallize into any action tend- 
ing to lessen the liability of such danger for the future is a conun- 
drum which will probably have to be answered in the negative. 
Vested interests are hard to molest, and when one thinks of the 
number of hotels built on exactly the same principle as the Windsor 
and every bit as dangerous in case of fire, and how utterly impracti- 
cable it is to make these hotels over as they ought to be made, one 
can easily appreciate that we are likely to have repetitions of exactly 
the same horror. The danger to be guarded against is not from 
hotels which may be built in the future, — that is locking the stable 
door after the horse has been stolen. There is no question about 
what constitutes good construction nowadays. We may not be able 
to build a hotel which is absolutely fire-proof, but we certainly can 
build a structure wherein nothing but the contents can be consumed, 
and wherein the fire can be localized so effectually that the danger 
to life if not to property is very slight. Our laws relating to new 
structures are in thoroughly good shape, and the danger from future 
hotels or from hotels which have been built within the last few 
years is not to be feared. It is from the old hotels, which cannot 
be reached by existing laws, which grow worse every year, and in 
which the chances of carelessness resulting in disaster are yearly 
becoming larger, that we are to apprehend the most serious danger. 
There have been at times spasmodic attempts to remedy this mani- 
fest incongruity of our modern civilization. The city of Boston 
some years ago had a very admirable law to the effect that whenever 
any existing hotel building was added to or altered the whole struc- 
ture, including both old and new, should be made thoroughly lire- 
proof. This was a practical prohibition of adding to or alteration 
of existing hotels, which was precisely what was intended by the law, 
the evident hope being that by discouraging alterations to old build- 
ings the owners would be encouraged to tear them down entirely and 
build new. The property interests, however, were too great and the 
law was repealed. So far as we know, the provision was never ap- 
plied to any hotel, and as a result thereof we have to-day in this city 
one hotel in which a fire would result in far greater catastrophe than 
was the case in the Windsor, a hotel which would go like a flash, and 
in which the occupants, even in broad daylight and with no confu- 
sion,' are not always sure of finding their way out straight. Besides 
this, there are other hotels of less note which would undoubtedly be 
totally destroved by a chance fire. Indeed, so far as we know, there 
is only one of the down-town transient hotels in this city which can 
fairly be called fire-proof. Nor is the condition in any of our large 
cities very much better. We trust to luck and the insurance com- 
pany instead of compelling our property owners to build in such man- 
ner that a building cannot be entirely destroyed, and then when a fire 
like the Windsor occurs we can only shudder and regret. 

In this connection we want to call attention to the absurdity of 
some of the building laws whicli make the height of a building a 
measure of the degree to which it should be fire-proofed. Just as 
though a four-story building could not burn down as easily as a 
fourteen! As a matter of fact the Windsor was not a very high 



building, as high buildings go nowadays, and yet in several of our 
cities fire-proof construction is not mandatory for constructions of 
this sort if kept below a certain limit of height. We believe the 
time is coming when a wise public policy will demand that not merely 
hotels or apartments houses, but structures of every sort in the heart 
of a large city, shall be constructed on the principles of so-called fire- 
proof construction : when good brick and good terra-cotta will be 
depended upon rather than insurance policies and hazards of fate ; 
and when the rights of all will be considered rather than the rights 
of the few who have inherited estates covered with inflammable 


M. R. Hurriih'ks, architect, has opened an office at Sarnia, 

W. G. Eckles, architect, has opened an office in the Citizens' 
Bank Block, New Castle, Pa. 

Kurt \V. Peuckert, architect, Philadelphia, has removed his 
office to 259 South 4th Street. 

Arthur Peabody and William Jean Beauley, architects, have 
formed a copartnership, with offices at 1649-50-51 Monadnock 
Building, Chicago. 

Louis Mullgardt and J. Morrison Dunham, architects, St. 
Louis, Mo., have formed a copartnership, under firm name of Mull- 
gardt & Dunham, offices 415 Commercial Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

'■ Municipal Reconstruction," a lecture illustrated by lantern 
slides from original drawings and photographs, was delivered before 
the Civic Club, of Philadelphia, on Saturday, March 4, by Mr. Albert 

The Brooklyn chapter of the American Institute of Architects, 
on the evening of March 15, gave a luncheon and press view of its 
forthcoming architectural exhibition, which is to be held at the 
Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

A 1 the regular monthly meeting of the T Square Club, held on 
February 1 5, the subject for competition was a gentleman's stable 
for a country place. Before the criticism began, Mr. Wm. M. Baily, 
of Baily & Truscott, gave an illustrated lecture upon the subject. 

The result of competition was as follows: First mention, Weth- 
erill P. Trout; second, B. Edward Hill; third, Alfred Morten 

The 523d regular meeting of the Society of Arts was held at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, on Thursday, March 9. 
Mr. Theodore II. Skinner. S. B.. '92, superintendent of construction 
at the University of Virginia, for McKim, Mead & White, presented 
a paper on " The Construction of the University of Virginia, Old 
and New." Views of the original plans made by Thomas Jefferson, 
with the buildings as formerly constructed and now rebuilt and 
extended, were shown on the curtain, and a full description given of 
the unusual structural problems involved. 

The interesting events of recent date at the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club are as follows : Monday evening, February 20, Mr. J. 
H. Vanderpoel addressed the club on '< Reminiscences of a Trip 
Through Holland." Monday evening, February 27, a comedy by 
Mr. E. C. Hemmings, a member of the club, entitled "The New 
Draughtsman," was given. Monday evening, March 6, Mr. Frank 
L. Wright addressed the club on the " Practical Nature of the 

Artistic." Monday evening, March 1 3, Mr. James R. Willett addressed 
the club on " Heating and Ventilation." Monday evening, March 
20, Mr. John K. Allen addressed the club on " A Trip Through Nor- 

The regular dinner and meeting of the Society of Beaux-Arts 
Architects was held on February 20, at Flouret's, 18th Street and 
Fifth Avenue, and was exceptionally well attended, forty members 
and guests being present, including several from Boston and Phila- 

Under the head of new business Mr. Charles Morris introduced 
the following resolutions: — 

Whereas, The Society of Beaux-Arts Architects fully appreciates 
Secretary Gage's public-spirited enforcement and wise application of 
the Tarsney Act, and the splendid results which are now beini; 
obtained under the same by Mr. James Knox Taylor, Supervising 
Architect of the Treasury, in his endeavor to elevate the standard of 
artistic merit of the United States Government buildings; 

Resolved, That in the judgment of this society it is much to be 
desired that the rules of competitions established by the Supervising 
Architect's office, especially for important buildings, such as the pro- 
posed New York Custom House, should be instituted so as to permit 
of the participation in those competitions by the largest possible 
number of competitors, as was the case under conditions generally 
regarded as most satisfactory in the competition for the New York 
Public Library ; 

Resolved, That the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects hereby 
petition the Supervising Architect, and through him the Secretary 
of the Treasury, to modify the rules governing competitions for 
United States Government buildings in such a manner as to permit 
of the accomplishment of the above object. 

The Boston Architectural Club will conduct an architectural 
exhibition at the St. Botolph Club, 2 Newbury Street, Boston, from 
May 15 to May 27, [899, inclusive. Contributions not previously 
exhibited in Boston are requested. Drawings, models, and photo- 
graphs of architectural and landscape design, drawings, models, 
photographs, and examples of executed work in mural decorations, 
mosaic, stained glass, interior decoration and furniture, wood and 
stone carving, metal work, and the applied arts generally will be 
received, subject to the approval of the jury of admission. The 
committee are especially desirous of exhibiting photographs of exe- 
cuted work accompanied by plans. 

Drawings should be marked " For the B. A. C. Exhibition," 
and sent either to the Boston Architectural Club, 5 Tremont Place, 
Boston. Mass., or to the agents in New York or Philadelphia, on or 
before the date of collection in these cities. Drawings from the 
League Exhibition which go on to Chicago or St. Louis will, subject 
to the consent of the exhibitors, be forwarded to Boston and returned 
from there without expense to exhibitors, or can be sent direct from 
League Exhibition. 

Collections will be made in Boston on Friday, April 28 : in New 
York, by Messrs. W. S. Budworth & Son, agents, 424 West 52d 
Street, on Wednesday, April 26; in Philadelphia, by Messrs. James 
S. Earle & Sons, 816 Chestnut Street, on Tuesday, April 25. 

Contributions must be received on or before May 1, 1899. 

Each work must bear a label giving its title, the name and 
address of the exhibitor, and explicit directions for its return. 

All drawings and photographs must be framed. 

Entry blanks properly filled out must be sent on or before 
May 1, 1899, to the Exhibition Committee of the Boston Archi- 
tectural Club, 19 Exchange Place, Boston, Mass. 

Special Exhibition Committee : George E. Barton, chairman ; 
R. Clipston Sturgis, Irving T. Guild, Albert Chapman Fernald, and 
J. Randolph Coolidge, Jr., of the Boston Society of Architects; 
Richard Howland Hunt, of New York; Wilson Eyre, Jr., of Phila- 



The American Schoolhouse. XVI. 


THE writer would say that when he has criticized the lighting 
of class rooms 28 ft. wide with windows upon one side only, 
that such criticism can be made concerning every schoolhouse which 
he has designed. The responsibility for this particular defect in 
American schoolhouse construction does not rest with the architects. 
It is the result of conditions imposed by school boards. 

In the last month's consideration of the Newark High School 
the writer spoke of the class rooms of that building, all of which 
were lighted from one 
side only, as " apparently 
28 ft. wide," and stated 
that with such width 
these rooms could not be 
adequately lighted. The 
plan of this building, 
which was before the 
writer, was a reproduc- 
tion of a drawing upon 
which the sizes of rooms 
were not given, and as- 
suming that the rooms 
were 32 ft. long, it ap- 
peared that the width 
was 28 ft. 

The architects of the 
building write that these 
rooms are but 23 ft. wide, 
and the writer is glad to 

correct his error and to commend this notable step towards the 
scientific lighting of schoolrooms. 

The writer was again misled by the reproduction of the plan in 
regard to the out-door clothing disposal adopted in the Newark 
school. Certain lines which appeared to be in the reproduction rep- 
resentative of partitions, he now sees are the letters " cloak room," 
and in addition to the large cloak rooms provided in the basement 
there is adjoining each class room a " wardrobe," provided with two 
doors from the class room, 
but with no door to the 
corridor. Each of these 
wardrobes has outside 

The writer prefers 
for the out-door clothing 
disposal in high school 
individual lockers in large 
rooms of the basement, 
but he recognizes the ar- 
rangement shown in the 
Newark school as prefer- 
a b 1 e to the grammar 
school wardrobe so often 
found in high schools, a 
feature which is designed 
to meet the requirements 
of discipline of a graded 
school, and which is not 
nicely adapted to the re- 
quirements of a high 

Until within the past 
few years the public schoolhouses of New York City have offered 
few, if any, worthy examples of such buildings; but within a com- 
paratively short time this condition has been changed to a marked 
degree. Under the present superintendent of school buildings of 


C. H. J. Snyder, Architect. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

New York, radical and interesting innovations in schoolhouse archi- 
tecture have appeared in that city. These may be briefly described 
by the following quotations from a letter of Mr. C. B. J. Snyder, the 
architect of these buildings : — 

It must be admitted that the conditions which we have to confront 
here in New York are entirely different from those presented by any 
other city in this or any other country. The density of population 
and the number of children coming from the blocks and acres of five- 
story, four-family tenements in various parts of the city is simply 
appalling. School buildings accommodating 2,500 children are num- 
erous in the lower East Side, but new ones are being erected all the 

time, and yet there is a 
demand for further ac- 
commodations. That 
this population is some- 
what cosmopolitan can be 
judged from the fact that 
frequently twenty and 
more languages and dia- 
lects have been repre- 
sented in one class of the 
lowest grade, 50 per cent, 
of which could not speak 
a word of English beyond 
the words "yes "or "all 
right," "no" being usu- 
ally a scowl and shrug or 
a scream. 

These conditions, 
which are without par- 
allel, beget large build- 
ings, especially since it has not been unusual to expend ^250,000 to 
#300,000 for a plot of ground, of say 20,000 sq. ft., secured not by pur- 
chase, but through condemnation proceedings, conducted by com- 
missioners appointed by the Supreme Court. Such large cost, as well 
as the limited area of the block fronts, precludes the possibility of 
allowing one inch of ground area to go to waste; indeed, it is almost 
the same problem as an office building where the fronts must be 
placed on the building line and land being only reserved at the rear 

to insure light. Even 
this at times has been 
most difficult where the 
plots are only 1 00 ft. deep, 
while the building of 
necessity must occupy 62 
to 65 ft. of this depth. 

That such districts 
are not slighted in the 
kind of buildings can be 
seen by the cut of Public 
School No. 20. All build- 
ings now being erected, 
one story or more in 
height, are of fire-proof 
construction. Those of 
four stories and more are 
of the steel "skeleton " 
type used in office build- 
ing and other work, the 
adoption of the system 
being due to the building 
laws, which exact certain 
thicknesses of wall over 
and above a specified amount for every 10 per cent, or fraction 
thereof in which the openings in a bearing wall exceed 25 per cent, 
of its area. 

As our window frames arc usually 10 ft. 6 ins., or 11 ft. by 

4 6 


\<< ft., or 17 ft. 6 ins., our walls would be 36 ins. or so in thickness 
in the first story, instead of the 16 ins. permissible under the steel 
" skeleton " type of construction. 1 believe that a schoolroom should 
be lighted from one single source of light stretching as nearly as may 
be from the rear to within 4 ft. or so of the front of the room at the 
left side of the pupils, and not by a series of windows alternating 
with brick or stone piers, which means light and shadow for each 
alternate 4 or 5 ft., hence cross lights. 

Your published work would not indicate that we are agreed 
on this point, but I trust you will kindly admit of an honest differ- 
ence of opinion, as it occurs to me that you have not had to meet 
such hard conditions as we have in striving to properly light a room 
from one side only, it not being possible to have corner rooms but 
in a few instances. 

Photographs are sent of Public School No. 165, the first-story plan 
showing indoor play room and outside play courts, and second story 
plan, which shows the typical arrangement and design of all buildings 
of this type. Girls' high school, plans and perspective of which are 
sent, is also of this type of schoolhouse plan. 

This H type of building has been designed to meet the needs 
when avenue property is 
expensive and the traffic 
so great, either by trolley, 
elevated, or otherwise, as 
to render it practically- 
impossible to open the 
windows at any time, and 
in fact to hear with the 
windows closed. 

It must be borne in 
mind that all our blocks 
are about 200 ft. in depth 
from street to street and 
about 600 ft. between the 
avenues. Ground being 
costly and there being 
often stables, horseshoe 
shops, factories, etc., in 
the near neighborhood, 
the plan provides for a 
blank wall on the party 
line, excepting a slight 
recess at the center of 

C. K. J.Snyder 

the block, which is seldom built across by the adjoining owners. All 
noise and nuisance are cut off, while good clean available spaces are 
provided by the courts fronting on the streets, which have also an 
evident advantage of improved light and air. The height of our 
class rooms is 14 ft. 3/^ ins. in the clear. The tops of the windows 
are within (>< 2 ins. of the ceiling. 

In each of these buildings, the cellar, which is below grade, is 
given over entirely to the heating and ventilating apparatus, for as 
we must build on our party lines, we must, in order to protect our- 
selves, excavate and carry our walls to a depth of at least 1 1 ft. below 
curb, and as the sentiment here is opposed to basement play rooms, 
even one step below grade, we are obliged in most cases to give 
over the entire first story for an indoor play room, which is paved 
with asphalt and wainscoted with glazed brick 5 ft. 6 ins. high, and 
lighted so as to be used for evening lectures, for which portable 
seatings are provided. Occasionally a quiet corner of the first Moor 
is set aside for a kindergarten. The second, third, and fourth stories 
are divided into class rooms, six or eight of which are arranged by 
means of sliding doors as to admit of their being used as an 
assembly room, as is shown in second-floor plan of Public School 

No. 165. 

This we are obliged 
to do, as property is so 
expensive we cannot 
afford to form an as- 
sembly room which can- 
not be used for any other 

The fifth story is 
given over to manual and 
physical training, cook- 
ing room, and a gymna- 
sium. In each of the 
examples here cited, the 
high-pitched roofs are 
utilized for obtaining 
head room for the gym- 
nasiums and other rooms, 
the space above being 
devoted to the necessary 
vint flues. The fifth 
stories also afford accom- 
modations for clay model- 


, Architect. 

■% il 






, ", Ft dl==»- - -j 

L_! I 

-J ' * 



r 1 - 

- 1 














ing, sewing rooms, and a large 
library. Toilet accommoda- 
tions are provided in abun- 
dance on the first and fifth 
stories, with a limited number 
on the intermediate floors. 

The smallest building we 
have yet been called upon to 
erect is Public School No. 
• S3) which is, however, fire- 
proof throughout. 

The heating and ventila- 
tion of all our buildings is by 
steam or hot water, engines 
and blowers of a capacity 
sufficient to supply 30 cu. ft. 
of fresh air per occupant per 

All desks and seats are 
of the single adjustable type ' 

All work is let through 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

rooms ; the fifth for manual 
and physical training, and in 
some cases the roof for a 

Therefore, in the case of 
the last-named school, which 
covers on the second-story 
line 15,480 sq. ft., has 48 class 
rooms, physical and manual 
training rooms, and roof play- 
ground, the cost of which, 
without heating and ventila- 
tion, excepting the galvanized 
iron ducts, and exclusive also 
of the furniture, was $253,1)42, 
1. e. 1 5^4 cents per cubic foot, 
the cost per class room 
figured at 48 would be 
$5,707, while at 48, plus one 
third, would be $3,968, with- 
out deducting anything for 





_q «ia a 

1 ■ 




public advertisement of two weeks, the contract being awarded to 
the lowest responsible bidder. Ten sets of % in. scale plans, com- 
plete details, and three hundred copies of printed specifications are 
provided prior to advertisement of a job, and absolutely no drawings 
are made after the contract is awarded, the number of sheets of de- 
tails running at times to over one hundred for one building. 

I hold that the only correct method of estimating is on the basis 
of cubical area. In making our calculations all figures are taken 
from the level of the cellar floor, which averages 1 1 ft. below grade, 
although the footings are generally 1 5 ft., and in the case of School No. 
1 54, St. Ann's Avenue, they were 32 ft. below grade for two thirds 
of the building. 

In comparing the number of class rooms with the cost, con- 
sideration must be had of the fact that the entire fifth story of each 
building is devoted to manual and physical training purposes, and in 
order to obtain the true cost per class room, the total cost should be 
divided by the number of rooms given, plus one third, since the cellar 
is never used but for the heating plant ; the first story only for an 
indoor play room; the second, third, and fourth stories for class 

the cost of first story or roof playground. Further costs are as 
follows : — 

Rivington, Forsythe, 
and Eldridge Sts, 

147th St. and St. 
Ann's Ave. . 

1 igth and 120th Sts. 
near Third Ave 

80th St. near Amster- 
dam Ave. 







U 3 


* ■•$% 



■ nX 








Manual and physical training rooms, 

roof playground. 
Manual and physical training rooms, 

foundations 32 ft. deep. 
Manual and physical training rooms, II 

Manual and physical training km, ins, 

cellar excavated in solid rock from 

above grade line. 

The contracts for two buildings on the II plan have been let re- 
cently. They provide for 48 class rooms, etc., and the cost per cubic- 
foot for the one last put under contract was i 5 ,' ; „ cents per cubic foot. 

Space does not permit the writer to comment on the foregoing 
in this issue. Such comment will be given in the April article, which 
will be the last of this series. 



Church Architecture in Materials of 


IN tlie opening paper of this series we gave some account of two 
churches in which the Gothic revival of sixty years ago was co- 
incident with the revived use of burned clay as a constructive building 
material. The style chosen for one of them belonged to an early, 
and for the other to a later, period in the fourteenth century, thus 
affording the architect a wide range wherein to test the possibilities 
of this plastic medium in which he afterwards had reason to repose 
unfaltering confidence. In the former he had, in addition to many 
items of a peculiarly exacting character, long stretches of open para- 
pet, and that wonderful spire of pierced curvilinear tracery — in it- 
self a truly remarkable piece of self-supporting terra-cotta construc- 
tion, with a test of fifty-five years to its 
credit. In the latter case, he constructed a 
tower and spire 170 ft. high, supported and 
embellished by flying buttresses springing 
from an embattled parapet. He did not 
shrink from the introduction of clustered 
shafts, floriated capitals, and five-light win- 
dows filled with flowing tracery, all of which 
were executed without stint or compromise. 
The difficulties incident to work of this 
character were not discovered by accident, 
or, as often happens, after he had gone too 
far to turn back. They had all been dis- 
counted before his arduous undertaking had 
been entered upon ; for, in addition to being 
a man of wide practical experience in build- 
ing, Mr. Sharpe was a high authority on 
every phase of Gothic, from its earliest ap- 
pearance to its latest development. 

An American architect of much promise 
and some creditable performances in other 
styles of work favored us a year or two ago 
with some thoughtful remarks on the princi- 
ples of terra-cotta treatment. In one of the 
less thoughtful, he questioned the applica- 
bility of that material to " English Gothic 
architecture." We did not have time to 
reason this point with him just then, but as 
he is a diligent reader of The Brick- 
builder, we may now be able to dispel his 
misgivings through that medium. To this 
end we would merely refer him to the fore- 
going recital of accomplished facts, in opposition to the cursory ex- 
pression of a necessarily theoretic opinion. The term " English 
( iothic." though a very palpable, is likewise a very comprehensive 
one, therefore a somewhat ambiguous expression. It would include 
everything from the simplicity of Salisbury to the fan-tracery of 
Henry YII.'s Chapel, and onward to the end of the Tudor period, 
not to mention the changes that have been rung on most of these 
phases of Gothic during the present century. We have already- 
given two distinct types of purely native growth, in both of which 
the utility of terra-cotta has been demonstrated to a degree that can- 
not be gainsaid. 

The first church, and one of the first buildings of importance on 
which structural terra-cotta was used in New York, is situated on 
West 57th Street, and is now illustrated from a recent photograph 
at Fig. 5. This church was built in 1885, a year or so prior to the 
introduction of terra-cotta manufacture in any part of New York 
State. The color is a medium shade of red, with brick of fairly 
even match, these materials being used exclusively above the base- 
ment level. It was designed by and erected under the direction of 


Mr. F. H. Kimball, and, though one of the least pretentious, is con- 
sidered one of his happiest efforts. 

The governing factor in this case lay in a frontage of 50 ft., 
situated about the middle of a block, and hemmed in by an abutting 
tenement of six stories on one side and a residence of five stories on 
the other. How to obtain sufficient light with the least sacrifice of 
space, at the same time to devise a plan that would admit of a 
seemly exterior, was surely enough to test the ingenuity of any archi- 
tect. A similar task has often been essayed in the building of small 
city churches, but we doubt whether it has been accomplished with 
a greater degree of success than is to be found in the present 
instance. In it the central idea took shape under very exacting 
conditions ; progressing on lines of logical continuity, the final 
development is such that no interpreter is needed to tell the tale of 
its inexorable environment. Our own humble opinion, thus com- 
pressed into the briefest space, is sustained by that of many and far 
more competent critics, among them Montgomery Schuyler, who, in 
reference to style and treatment, avers that 
" There is no more scholarly Gothic work 
in New York." This, from one who is him- 
self considered a scholar among contem- 
porary writers on architectural topics, is 
praise indeed. 

The author of the observation just 
quoted has likewise remarked with approval 
the extent to which the detail throughout 
this building has been adapted to the ma- 
terials of which it is built. On this aspect 
of the subject we feel rather more at home : 
and speaking from a manufacturing point 
of view, his commendation in that regard 
can be indorsed without reservation. The 
need for such adaptation as would tend to 
facilitate the processes of manufacture was, 
of course, more urgent at the time this 
church was under way than it would be at 
present ; yet the architect was not forced 
to modify, much less abandon, his original 

x :m conception on that account. Indeed, the 

■^ f main features of the design need not have 
been changed had stone been used instead 
of terra-cotta, yet no attempt has been made 
p ' <«^ J? *™ E5 to give it the appearance of stone in color, 
jointing, or surface finish. While the plas- 
ticity of the material is recognized, it was 
not allowed to tempt the designer into a 
display of his entire stock in trade, or to 
lure him from the path of architectural rec- 
To the technical reader, who craves a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with the things that facilitate execution and therefore affect 
the cost of production, we shall point out such of them as occur in 
the work now before us. A vertical line drawn through the center 
of this frontage divides it into a right and left counterpart, on both 
of which blocks from the same mold can be repeated. In other 
words, the molds that would have been necessary in the case of one 
entrance will produce a sufficient number of blocks for two, the 
second doorway, therefore, being obtained at less than half the cost 
of the first. This applies equally to the windows above, to those of 
clearstory and transepts; likewise, and more especially to the four 
pinnacles, in all of which the needful variety resolves itself into the 
fewest number of separate shapes. So, too, with the individual 
components of these and like features throughout the building, the 
analysis of which will become more intelligible if reference is made 
to them as they occur in Fig. 6, drawn chiefly with that end in view. 
On the inner jamb of doorways a mold would be required for 
the plain starting blocks, of which there are only four. But then 
between these and the springing line we have twenty-eight others 




with panel and rosette, which, being uniform in size and ornament, 
are all pressed from the same mold. A similar arrangement is made 
in the radius blocks, of which there are thirty-two. all of them inter- 
changeable save those at the springing and apex, which receive the 
necessary adjustment after they leave the mold. The same thing 
holds good in the outer archivolt and in the hood molding. The stilt 
on the two right and left springers, in which the lines change from a 
curve to a tangent, is formed by hand on two newly pressed blocks 
taken from the regular mold. In the apex blocks, which are larger, 
an extra piece must be "slipped " to each of four regular blocks and 
cut so that on coming together the joint will be in the center ; this 
vertical joint, by the way, being considered orthodox in Gothic 
arches. By making a mold for the largest quoin, all the other sizes 
could be wire-cut or pressed to correct size by using a series of 
stops, on the principle that the greater includes the less. In much 
the same way a mold can be made for a base or capital of this 
description, which, in 
te c h n i c a 1 parlance, 
would " work right 
and left." 

The blocks used 
in receding courses, 
shown in section at 
AA, are much shorter 
than was at all neces- 
sary. There was no 
reason, economical or 
otherwise, for making 
them less than 2 ft. 
As it is, there are 
sixty-two of them, all 
of which were pressed 
from two molds, the 
return miters on lower 
course being made by 
hand. The same 
may be said of the 
buttress weathering 
and gablets, all of 
which, however, are 
cut up into unneces- 
sarily small pieces. 
So also are the jambs 
and mullions of a 
very effective five- 
light window. The 
shafts stand clear, 
and, like those of the 
doorways, are with- 
out joints. The joint- 
ing through cusps 
may be said to look 
constructional, — cer- 
tainly it does preserve a uniformity of scale, — but beyond that every 
four blocks, of which the rosette forms the center, might have been 
made in a single piece. 

That most admirable rose window, the distinguishing feature of 
the whole composition, is likewise one of the best adapted for easy 
and successful execution. Considering that the combination con- 
tains sixty-four pieces, all of moderate size, in which there are only 
seven distinct shapes, the scheme of jointing is hardly susceptible of 
improvement. True, the cusping from the capital outward might 
have been jointed into sixteen, or half the present number of pieces, 
subject, however, to the qualifications admitted in regard to the 
jointing of window below. At the same time, it will be seen that 
these reasons are of less importance in the latter than they were in 
the former case, a further qualification and one worth considering. 
In the small medallions, all of which stand vertical, the cincture only 

would be molded in the block, thus allowing the heads to be modeled 
separately, therefore with different poses and expression-, : vide the 
cloisters of the Certosa, Pavia. 

The main archivolt is turned in three courses, for each of which 
a single mold will suffice, subject to the necessary changes at stilt 
and apex. These changes would be made in the way described for 
outer arch over entrances, where the need for special molds was 
easily obviated. The same principles of procedure would apply to 
most of the remaining items throughout this building, the dominant 
characteristic of which might be compressed into a single word — 
compactness. That quality permeates most of its members, enters 
into the individual blocks, and must have been of prime importance 
in determining the cost of manufacture. 

We have gone into these particulars because of their l>earing on 
subsequent examples; secondarily, in order to show that the purity 
of style need not be sacrificed out of consideration for the material. 

In the present case, 
a suitable phase of 
Gothic having been 
adopted as a settled 
fact, the scheme of 
jointing and construc- 
tion was simply mod- 
ified and arranged in 
accordance with the 
known exigencies of 
manufacture. In 
matters of this kind, 
Mr. Kimball seems to 
be actuated by the 
guiding pri nciples 
which we have, here 
a n d elsewhere, en- 
deavored to elucidate. 
That, aside from 
other considerations, 
is sufficient reason for 
selecting this interest- 
ing composition in 
brick and terracotta 
as an elementary ex- 
ample of what to do 
under like conditions, 
and how to do it, so 
as to obtain the maxi- 
mum of merit at a 
minimum cost. 

There is one ex- 
ception to be noted, 
and it applies to the 
dishonest and inar- 
FIGi 6. tistic stretcher bond 

in which no headers 
are permitted to appear. Against a practise so irredeemable we must 
continue to protest. The demand for honest artistic brick bonding 
now being made by architects of eminence ' may encourage others to 
"take up arms against a sea of troubles, and by opposing, end them." 
A brick and terra-cotta church of moderate cost, but highly 
attractive appearance, was built some years ago in what was then 
a residential suburb of New York (Fig. 7). Portions of the sur 
rounding territory are now passing through a period of transition, by 
reason of their absorption in the greater city's scheme of consolida- 
tion, together with a more rapid utilization of its Long Island water 
front. The immediate neighborhood, however, has not suffered from 
this march of progress as yet. There is enough foliage left to form 
an agreeable background to the church; and through it come glimpses 
of white colonial residences, built in most cases by the ancestors of 
1 See article by Mr. Plagg, Brickbuildsr, December, 1898. 



those who now occupy them. In this setting, and on a sloping hill- 
side, stands a church of red brick, interspersed with terra-cotta of 
a lighter shade, from which focus a glow of cheerfulness and hos- 
pitality radiates throughout its vicinity. 

The only really remarkable thing about this otherwise simple 
exterior is the brick-built spire, with terra-cotta quoins and terminal. 
Judged by the favorable effect, directly traceable to the presence of 
this spire, the conception was certainly a momentary stroke of genius 
on the part of its designer. Compared with the framed and shingled 
or slated affairs that commonly do duty for a spire in small churches 
such as this, the present one conveys an idea of permanence and 
stability. These characteristics are in admirable keeping with the 
place, as we hope they are indicative of the congregation to whom 
this church owes its existence. 

In matters of minor detail there are many things that are crude 
and lacking refinement. Though simple and easy of execution, there 
are certain improvements that could have been made with a few 
strokes of a pencil, and the changes would not have added to the cost 



of production. These exceptions are confined to the design of capi- 
tals, the profile of moldings, jambs, voussoirs, etc., and like items, for 
which the architect is presumably responsible. A graceful contour 
with appropriate enrichment need not cost more than one that is un- 
couth or inexpressive. Given the requisite taste and technical skill, 
the one can be drawn as readily as the other, while a given number 
of pieces possessing artistic merit will be pressed, burned, and de- 
livered without extra charge on that account. From a thing of 
beauty to one that amounts to a positive eyesore is but a step, and 
in terra-cotta architecture that step is a far shorter one than is gen- 
erally supposed. Much of the detail in this church stands midway 
between these two extremes, while none of it rises above the com- 
monplace. One is inclined to regret such lapses, which, on close ex- 
amination, detract somewhat from the appearance of a building that 
is, in many respects, a master-stroke of its kind. The work itself 
was among the first contracts undertaken by a firm that has since 
produced highly creditable specimens of architectural terra-cotta, 
some of which we may have occasion to illustrate in greater detail. 



SOME natural stones are rapidly destroyed by fire; others resist 
for longer periods, and a few are but little affected by con- 
tinued high temperatures. What is the cause of these observed un- 
equal effects? Why is one stone broken into large fragments by the 
same temperature which reduces another stone to fine granules and 
only abrades the surface of a third ? 

In 1895 I prepared an elementary manual upon the principles 
and materials of fire-proof buildings. While engaged in this work I 
was struck by the almost entire absence of authentic records concern- 
ing our subject matter. The meager records of the behavior of 
various building materials in burning buildings were found to be of 
little value, and often carried their own refutation to any one ac- 
quainted with the chemical and structural constitution of such 
materials. Engineering and architectural literature were searched in 
vain for evidence of extended or systematic experiments for determin- 
ing the relations of stone, or of any other inorganic building con- 
stituent, excepting iron, to fire. 

As the results of my investigations were never published, I have 
thought it advisable to bring forward for public discussion one of the 
subjects therein treated, in the hope that it may aid in bringing to 
light some definite knowledge and guiding principles in place of the 
deplorable ignorance which now prevails. 

Tyndall once said: "Right or wrong, a thoughtfully uttered 
theory has a dynamic power which operates against intellectual 
stagnation, and even by provoking opposition is eventually of service 
to the cause of truth." 

It is in this spirit that we offer this desultory contribution to the 
subject under consideration. 

Let us first briefly review some of the published facts and 
opinions concerning great conflagrations which may shed some light 
upon the intricate problem before us. On the occasion of the great 
fire in Boston, Dr. Nichols, of the Boston Journal of Applied Chemis- 
try, commenting upon the fire, said that Pearl Street was lined with 
granite buildings, and that after their destruction " fine granitic sand 
from the disintegrated stone covered the pavement several inches 
deep." The editor of the Scientific A merit an of New York reprinted 
this statement, and added that "the granite front walls of which 
many of the burned buildings were composed cracked and exploded, 
falling in fragments upon the street." Much of the so-called granite 
destroyed in the Boston fire was Quincy syenite, containing horn- 
blende, but that does not affect the matter now before us. 

Mr. Edward Atkinson, president of the Boston Manufacturers' 
Mutual Insurance Company, states that he has seen -granite posts 
1 2 ins. square reduced to sand " by a fire in the lower part of a build- 
ing which did not entirely destroy unprotected wooden posts in the 
immediate vicinity. 

Mr. F. C. Moore, president of the Continental Fire Insurance 
Company of New York, says "granite yields to combined fire and 
water, . . . sandstones bear heat, but all stones are ruined by fire." 

The Universal Schedule of Fire Rates of the Associated Fire In- 
surance Companies doing business in the United States contains this 
clause (Sec. 109): " Stone columns subjected to fire and water are 
certain to disintegrate and wreck the building if in the interior of 
the building." 

Prof. R. II. Thurston, of Cornell University, in Vol. 1. of his 
work on the " Materials of Engineering." also condemns granite, to- 
gether with " gneiss, syenite, quartz, mica-slate, and other primary 
rocks. These usually contain some water. When exposed to tire they 
crack and even explode. Walls constituted of these stones are apt 
to crumble rapidly in a hot fire." 



Limestones, including marble and the magnesian limestones or 
dolomites, are almost universally carbonates. Professor Thurston 
declares that in the great fire of Chicago the carbonic acid of the 
limestones constituting the burned buildings "was expelled with 
violent explosive disruption." He adds: "Magnesian limestones 
are little if any better. Uncrystallized sandstones, somewhat porous 
and free from feldspar, are the most refractory of common building 
stones. Clay-brick, especially when approximating to fire-brick in 
composition, is perhaps the best building material now known." I 
predict that in future editions Professor Thurston will omit the " per- 

Major-Gen. C. W. Pasley, of the Corps of Royal Engineers, in 
his work on " Limes and Calcareous Cements," published in London 
fifty years ago, said : " Having attentively considered the effects of 
great fires on houses and other buildings of the usual construction, 
... I have invariably found that good brickwork seems to be a per- 
fectly fire-proof material. ... I have also observed that large stones 
when exposed to a strong fire are invariably injured and defaced by 
fragments detaching themselves from the surface." 

In the great fire of London (1666), Pepys, an eye-witness, in his 
diary tells that "even the very stones of the churches proved com- 
bustible"; and John Evelyn, writing upon the same subject, uses the 
following language : " The stones of Paules (St. Paul's Church) flew 
like granados. ... At my return I was infinitely concerned to find 
that goodly church of St. Paules now a sad ruin, and that beautiful por- 
tico, for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before 
repaired by the late king, now rent in pieces, flakes of vast stone 
split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the 
architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter 
of it defaced. It was astonishing to see what immense stones the 
heate had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, 
friezes, capitals, and projectures of massive Portland stone flew off, 
even to the very roofe," etc. ..." I did not see . . . many stones 
but what were calcined white as snow." 

The Portland stone of London is a limestone. The effects of 
heat upon the sandstones of northern New Jersey, fairly durable as 
regards weather, we have often observed, and have found them lose 
their coherence and afterwards crumble by heat that had left brick 

The influence upon stone of the lesser alternations of tempera- 
ture due to climatic changes, annual or diurnal, may aid us in our 

Dr. David Livingstone, when exploring the vicinity of Lake 
Nvassa in southeast Africa, observed the effects upon rocks of rapid 
but quite limited diurnal alternations of merely atmospheric temper- 
ature. In the valley of the Goa, or Gova, he was at first much perplexed 
by the large accumulations of freshly broken, angular fragments of 
the granitic mountains whose slopes formed the valley, as well as by 
strange sounds heard at night. Watchful investigation disclosed 
the fact that during the day the sun's rays heated the surface of 
exposed rocks to a temperature of about 137 degs. Fahr., while at 
night the rocks cooled rapidly by radiation; the contraction induced 
rupture, and angular fragments weighing from a few ounces to 200 
lbs. were separated and thrown violently off, producing the noises 
heard by Livingstone. This disintegration occurred, it will be noted, 
at temperatures very much above the freezing point. 

Prof. James D. Dana, the late geologist, adduces as one of the 
causes of disintegration of fragmentary rocks like sandstone, " ex- 
pansion and contraction due to daily and annual changes of temper- 
ature." He does not limit this action to cold weather. 

All rocks are more or less porous, and absorb water from the atmos- 
phere. Collating such authorities as are at hand, Professor Thurs- 
ton, Gen. Q. A. Gillmore, General Totten, and some others,- the 
absorption of water by some building stones may be roughly stated 
as follows : granites, one tenth of 1 per cent, by weight ; limestones, % 
to 5 per cent. ; sandstones, ^ to 6 per cent. Besides this hygroscopic 
water, which varies in quantity with atmospheric and other condi- 
tions, some crystals of rocks contain water permanently confined in 

cells. Quartz crystals may contain at times as much as 5 per cent, 
of their volume. 

The hygroscopic water which in freezing disintegrates some 
building stones is asserted by some writers to be a principal, if not 
the only, cause of the destruction of certain stones in fires. Professor 
Thurston attributes the rupture of granite under heat to this absorbed 
water, or its steam. Prof. C. J. H. Woodbury, of Boston, in his 
pamphlet on " Conflagrations in Cities," expresses the same opinion. 
But all who discuss this subject, so far as we can learn, seem to over- 
look some of the conditions of the problem. Let us examine the 
expanded water hypothesis as an explanation of the destruction of 
building stone by fire. 

There are serious if not insurmountable objections to this 
hypothesis. The expansion of water, as such, through a range of say 
Fahr. o to 212 degs., is about one twenty-fifth, or 4 per cent., of its 
volume, quite insufficient, when the small percentage of water in the 
stone is considered, to account for the extensive disruption and disin- 
tegration observed. Above 212 degs. the new ratio of expansion is 
immensely greater, and sufficient to explain the phenomena, provided 
the generating steam is confined and cannot escape. But is this the 
case? I cannot admit the proposition. Stone or other solids 
sufficiently porous to admit the entrance of water from the atmosphere 
are likewise porous enough to permit escape of such water by the 
same channels as soon as pressure begins, whether it passes off as 
water or as steam. Why should there be any more hindrance to 
its outward passage than to its absorption ? But why then does 
freezing water within the pores of stone expand with sufficient force 
to disrupt it, as constantly observed? The explanation is simple. In 
these cases, the water is subject to no expansion or pressure until in 
the very act of congealing, when its condition at once changes from 
that of a liquid to that of a solid or semi-solid. Its expansion, too, 
instead of reducing it to a more attenuated condition, as in steam, is 
a thickening, solidifying process. The sudden increase of volume of 
about 9 per cent, in freezing water is an adequate cause for its de- 
structive effect upon rocks in cold weather. Building brick absorb 
water even more freely than any natural stone, but did any one ever 
know of well-burned brick disrupting or disintegrating in the fire ? 
Yet, structurally, there is no reason for any distinction, so far as the 
effect of expanding water in fires is concerned. 

Again, excluding the exceptional cell water of some quartz 
crystals, both limestones and sandstones on the average contain a 
much larger proportion of water than the granites. Observation 
informs us, however, that the destruction of granites in fires is equal 
to that of limestones and greatly in excess of that of the far more 
absorbent sandstones. Surely, the water theory does not agree with 
the phenomena. 

Then there is the carbonic-acid theory, supported by Professor 
Thurston. Many unreflecting writers have espoused this hypothesis 
in the face of its obvious refutation by the phenomena of every fire 
where marbles are exposed to moderate heat. In the first place, 
carbonic dioxide is not liberated from its base in limestones by tem- 
peratures below a full red heat, and that continued for sensible 
periods ; and in lime burning we find that many of the amorphous 
stones are not disrupted at all, but retain their shapes under red 
heat. This process of calcination necessarily destroys the struc- 
tural condition of a crystalline limestone like marble, and at once 
changes its external surfaces to a degree that is unmistakable. The 
crystals of lime carbonate disappear under the loss of nearly half 
their weight of carbonic acid; the bright, glistening surfaces give 
place to a dead white or a yellowish color, and atmospheric moist- 
ure and carbonic acid soon attack the resulting quicklime and 
reduce it to a crumbling hydrate. 

If any sensible portion of the standing walls of a marble front 
building have ever become heated to a full red heat during a conflagra- 
tion in our land, I have yet to learn the fact. In the hottest fires of 
New York, I have never seen any near approximation to such tem- 
perature in walls of any inorganic material. 

Immediately after the burning of the Manhattan Savings Bank 

5 2 


and other adjacent buildings at Broadway and Bleecker Street in 
November, [895, I made an exhaustive examination of the premises. 
On the white marble front of the Bleecker Street Savings Bank (ad- 
joining the Manhattan Bank) was a colonnade with massive marble 
columns. The bank front was exposed to merely radiated heat from 
burning buildings opposite, yet slabs were thrown off from the 
columns, one of which measured 6 ft. in length, 1 ft. in width, and 
2 ins. in thickness, while pieces weighing from 50 to 350 lbs. were 
detached from the marble cornice and other parts by the same heat. 
One of the battalion chiefs and some of the firemen who were 
present during the fire informed me that the temperature of this 
marble front was at no time very high, that there was no fire within 
the building, and that no water was thrown on the heated stone. The 
bank's wooden entrance doors and casings just behind and between 
the injured columns were not even burned through. A minute 
examination of all marble fragments and of stones from which 
they wore detached revealed in every case a fractured surface of 
bright, uninjured crystals, while the outer exposed surfaces, discolored 
by dirt and age, showed a like crystalline structure when cleaned. 

In the recent case of the partly burned Home Life Insurance 
Building in this city, I made a similar investigation, and with pre- 
cisely the same results. In neither of these buildings just mentioned 
was I able to detect any sign of calcination or decomposition of 
crvstals in these marble fronts, save in very circumscribed edges of 
some window sills of the latter building, where the escaping flames 
beat most fiercely. In the Home Life Building, also, 12 in. diameter 
marble columns were split from top to bottom by the heat, far above 
the reach of a stream of water. 

The alleged calcination of limestones in the London fire ob- 
served by John Lvelyn may readily be explained in another way. In 
London, all light-colored building- stones rapidly become discolored, 
even to blackness. Their freshly fractured surfaces in strong con- 
trast with their dark exteriors would easily mislead an observer at 
such an exciting time. Newspaper reporters are frequently deceived 
in the same way here. But if separated fragments of limestone fell 
into burning ruins they might easily be heated to calcination degree. 

In the instance related by Dr. Livingstone no argument is needed 
to show that neither expanding water nor carbonic acid were factors 
in the continual breaking of the rocks. We seem to be thrown back 
upon the hypothesis of rupture of building stones in the fire by un- 
equal expansion of different parts of the same block, consequent 
upon unequal temperatures of the different parts. But here, again, 
we are met by the fact that ordinary red sandstone has a rate of 
expansion by heat which is double that of granite and one and three 
quarters that of white marble, yet the sandsjone is more durable in 
the fire than either of the other two stones. 

Granites and marbles, tbe most susceptible among building 
stones to high temperature, are crystalline in texture. Whether of 
igneous or aqueous origin, their crystals are alike imperfect, irregular 
or deformed in shape, indicating restraint or coercion during the 
crystallization and solidification of the rocks. Resistance to per- 
fected normal crystalline forms by great external pressure would leave 
the solid under a stress. Such stones may reasonably he regarded 
as existing under a strained condition of their crystalline constituents, 
so that a slightly increased stress, under new conditions of environ- 
ment, may lead either to violent rupture or to rapid disintegration. 

All crystals except those of the cubic system expand by heat 
along their different axes in unequal ratios, and in such expansion 
their angles are altered, and each crystal undergoes a sensible dis- 
tortion of form. With rare exceptions, crystals of the cubic system 
are not found in quartz, feldspar, hornblende or limestones, including 
dolomites. This strain of unequalized expansion of each individual 
crystal of such stones as marble and granite, under moderate heat, 
may be sufficient in the aggregate to induce rupture : but there is 
also the possibility of a further stress growing out of the abnormal 
conditions of the genesis of the nicks, as just indicated. We leave 
the subject here for the consideration of those who are better 
equipped for pursuing this investigation to a final issue. 

Masons' Department. 



IT may be well to state that the use of the words "contractor" or 
" contractors " in these papers does not refer solely to contractors 
of the whole, but to all — both of the whole and " subs." — who con- 
tract for work of any kind ; and generally, the evils of the present 
systems, which I am considering, are of the sub-contractors rather 
than of the contractors of the whole. 

As to the nature of contracts per se, it would seem at first 
thought that the nature thereof needs no elucidation or explanation, 
and yet the general idea as to the full meaning and force of a con- 
tract is so vaguely understood and the obligations so lightly held, that 
xtended consideration seems desirable. 

It ma) be said with truth, I think, that all contractors would, 
individually, decidedly object to an own npi to beat the con- 

tractor out of from 1 to 5 per cent, of the contract price, and yet 
many contractors think it quite legitimate business to beat the owner 
out of from 1 to 5 per cent, of the work, materials, and labor which has 
been contracted for. Contracts generally are of two forms, oral and 
written (sometimes implied, hut implied contracts are rare, except as 
parts of an oral or written contract, so I will not deal with them 
separately), and usually both embrace some things implied and not 
specifically spoken or written. 

An oral contract may be and is just as binding as a written one, 
provided the terms are simple, direct, and made before two or more 
witnesses; for instance: if A agrees with 1! to furnish something in 
six months from date, for a stated sum or consideration, it matters 
not whether the value of the thing to be furnished by A goes up or 
down : if it LM>es up, A cannot plead that he cannot or will not fill 
his part of the agreement because he will lose money; and on the 
other hand, if the value goes down. B cannot plead that he will not 
fill his part of the agreement because the thing can be procured for 
less money : the original terms constitute the contract. A cannot fur- 
nish a poorer thing, and B must pay the full sum or consideration. 
The law will hold A and B to the bargain, if reputable witnesses are 
at hand to prove the terms of the contract. A contract per se is an 
agreement by and between two parties to do certain specific acts, 
each party agreeing to do or provide something which is to stand as an 
equivalent tor that which the other party is to do or is to provide. 
The nature of the specific contract (legally) may not imply, or provide, 
mean, or guarantee, that what one party is to do or provide is to be, 
or of necessity must be, a full equivalent for what the other party is 
to do or provide (morally, of course, it should be so ; and on the 
other hand, morally, a contract once made, its terms should be faith- 
fully performed whether they are equivalent or not, providing the 
making of it was not gained by fraud ). The contract is prima facia 
evidence that the things to be done or provided by the parties were 
considered, at the time of making the contract, as equivalent: and 
the terms must be fully performed by both parties. If X contracts 
with V to deliver a ton of beans, of specific grade and quality, for 
one dollar, the contrai t is just as binding as if Y was to pay the full 
market value of the beans. X must furnish the kind of beans s] 
lied, and Y must pay the dollar: and the same would be the case if 
Y had agreed to pay twice what the beans were worth. The law. 
rightly and judicially, cannot go back of the specific terms of the 
contract, providing said terms have not been modified, and have been 
strictlv adhered to : if Y ordered X to furnish two tons of beans and 
then refused to pay for them. Y can be made to pay, for the addi- 
tional ton. at fair market rate, provided it was not understood to the 
contrary, -the second ton of beans would be "an extra." so to 
speak; and on the other hand, X is bound to furnish too per cent, 
of a ton of beans, and not 99 or 95 per cent. 



So also, if a contractor duly agrees to erect a building for 
a specified sum, it matters not whether the sum to be paid is 
a fair market value for the building: either way; the execution 
of the contract is prima facia evidence that both parties knew 
what they were about and doing at the execution of the contract ; 
and the law will hold the parties to it, so far as it goes, taking into 
account the evident nature and use of the building and the evident 
intent and meaning of the contract, as applied to the particular 
building in question. 

A building contract, or one that pertains to a building, differs 
materially from all other contracts, because the very nature of it 
embraces and contemplates innumerable details of essential impor- 
tance, and many things which of necessity must be implied rather 
than specifically mentioned or illustrated. It is therefore needful 
that contractors should know and understand that the greater in- 
cludes the less; that the contract per se includes and governs the 
plans and specifications, and that the plans and specifications do not 
govern the contract, only in so far as they are specifically illustrative 
and explanatory of the contract. The contract goes further than the 
plans and specifications, for the contract may imply — generally 
does — things not specifically set forth in plans or specifications, but 
which are needful and requisite to the due and proper execution of 
the contract and the erection and completion of the specific building 
according to its class and destined use. Most contractors do not 
understand or realize this implied element of contracts, which is, 
nevertheless, an integral and essential part of all building contracts ; 
and herein comes the need of that technical training which I will 
refer to in a following paper. In illustration of the implied condi- 
tions I recall two separate cases, of parallel nature and effect. Con- 
tracts were made for the erection of two houses, which provided 
that said houses should be " built and completed," or words to the 
same effect; in the one case, 'the architect omitted to specify the 
finish flooring, and in the other, the architect specified the boards, 
but omitted to specify the laying. The contractors refused to furnish 
and lay, the cases went to court, and the courts decided against 
the contractors, and rightly, for in either case (without specific con- 
ditions to the contrary) the houses would not have been properly 
built and completed, or the contracts duly performed, without the 
finish flooring, properly provided and properly laid ; for the courts 
hold that a contractor cannot take advantage of an evident uninten- 
tional omission of the architect which is essential to the due and 
proper erection and completion of a building, which is general and 
customary in and for a building of its class. The extent to which 
details (not specifically set forth in specifications) may be carried 
depends of course upon the architect (if there is one, as there should 
be in all cases), and what one architect may or does require has no 
bearing upon what another architect may require, except in case of 
disputed contract being taken to court, when the finding will prob- 
ably rest on the testimony of competent experts; and in such case it 
would be a question of extent and quality and not of outright omis- 
sion. Nine times out of ten, contractors had best rest their case with 
a reputable architect rather than take it to the courts. The archi- 
tect's technical knowledge and his faculty of looking at all sides of a 
question best fit him to decide such matters. 

And herein comes the professional duty of the architect to see 
that his plans, contracts, and specifications are clear, specific, and 
technically intelligible. Architects are not responsible for lack of 
knowledge in contractors, as to the reading of plans or the technical 
terminology of contracts and specifications. Prans and specifications 
are prepared for the intelligence of the trained mind ; they are of 
necessity technical and scientific when properly prepared; all am- 
biguity and chance for misconstructions should be carefully avoided ; 
the architect should know what he wants, and clearly specify it, and 
require that and nothing else to be furnished. On this rests his pro- 
fessional reputation, and the solidity, finish, and economy of his 
work. Some architects err in the making of plans less full than what 
they should be, and in the attempt to "boil down" specifications. 
This is a mistake, both as regards clients and contractors; while 

brevity is the soul of wit, brevity is not the most desirable quality 
in plans and specifications. For as things are, competition will 
always be sharp, and the temptation " to get the job" sometimes gets 
ahead of the judgment of even the best contractors, while others 
figure to "get the job anyway," trusting to luck, persuasion, or other 
means to be "let up on" when the building is under way. Tin- 
architect will therefore avoid misunderstandings, trouble, and vexa- 
tion, by making his plans and specifications specific and careful in 
detail, so as to facilitate intelligent estimating, and avoid miscon- 
structions and "extras." 

Some contractors object to plans and specifications "too much 
in detail," as such plans and specifications do not allow 'chances for 
a lot of extras." This is a mistake on the contractor's part. Clients 
do not take kindly to " extras." The most satisfactory contract all 
around, and the strongest for both sides, is that one which is complete 
in itself, and under which a building is erected and completed with- 
out "extras." This is not always feasible or possible, but it is the 
best policy when possible. 

Another erroneous idea which many contractors have is that 
the provisions of one contract have a bearing upon another contract; 
and they try to enforce their argument by what they consider "ens 
tomary " or " my way of doing it." Now it needs to be clearly under- 
stood that such arguments have absolutely nothing whatever to do 
with a contract; the provisions of two contracts out of the same 
architect's office have no bearing whatever one upon the other. 
Each contract is of itself apart, separate from all others, and is to be 
considered and executed solely in respect to the individual case 
which it represents. Circumstances alter cases, and it does not 
follow, because an architect specifies a certain thing, or a specific 
manner of doing work in one case, that he desires or deems it ad- 
visable in the next. The trained architect learns something between 
one "job" and another which he did not know before; he keeps 
ahead of himself, so to speak. Contractors should, therefore, care- 
fully examine and read each set of plans and specifications and con- 
tracts, and thoroughly digest them, and not take things for granted, 
or "guess at the cost of it "; the time has gone by for such things. 

I recall an instance, back in 1873, which may be worth the tell- 
ing. At that time the city buildings were being done by two archi- 
tects: X would have one, then Y, then X, then Y, and so on, and the 
plans were not such as our best architects now prepare. Thev 
usually consisted of a barely necessary number of sheets, with little or 
no detail on them, more or less colored to make them "look pretty,'' 
and a few pages embraced the specifications. Scene : an architect's 
office; time, 11.45 A - M -'> bids on schoolhouse to close at 12 M. ; 
contractors around table making up figures. In walks " Uncle l!en," 
a tall, lank, familiar figure of those days. He lifts up the cover of 
the portfolio containing the plans, counts the sheets, eleven of them, 
reaches back to his hip pocket, takes out a tape measure, scales the 
plan and elevations, makes a few figures on an envelope which he 
takes from his hat, tears off a scrap of paper, writes his bid on it, 
calls for an envelope, directs it and deposits on architect's desk, and 
walks out. One of the contractors, who has watched the proceeding, 
gathers up his papers and leaves, remarking as he goes that "he'll 
be ' embalmed ' if he figures against a man who uses a tape measure." 
" Uncle Ben "got the job. The secret of the matter was that " Uncle 
Ben" had just completed a schoolhouse, to all intents and purposes 
just like the one being figured on. Architects were not over and 
above particular in those days, and the science anil demands of plan- 
ning and building were not what they now are. 

The immoral effect of profit or loss on the contractor and its re- 
action on the architect is another evil of the present system ; it may 
be argued that contractors need, must, take into account profit and 
loss; granted, but the time to take this into account is at time oj 
estimating, and before, the contract is executed, not afterwards. No 
law compels a contractor to take a contract at a loss; he is a free 
agent in the matter; but after the contract is executed, the question 
of profit or loss has absolutely nothing whatever to do with the 
matter, and should not be referred to or considered, either by con- 



tractor or architect. The altogether too prevalent custom of endeav- 
oring to influence the architect's judgment and requirements by 
reference to profit or loss is distinctly immoral and reprehensible, and 
lowers the tone of that integrity which should be the guiding rule of 
action in such matters. There may arise honest differences of 
opinion as to details : these should be settled per se, without reference 
to profit or loss, and by the determination of the architect, he being 
the only competent person to rightly interpret the plans, specifications, 
and contract. It may be claimed that "architects are sometimes ex- 
acting, over-exacting " : nevertheless I do not think that such claim 
can be substantiated, certainly not to any material extent, and cer- 
tainly not with any architect who is well qualified for practise of 
his profession. The difference lies in the different points of view of 
contractors and architects, and 1 think, as a general proposition, it 
may be said that there is more need of contractors advancing to the 
architect's point of view than the reverse. 

.Another consideration which should be taken into account is, 
that every architect who demands and requires the honorable and 
full execution of contracts in his hands is doing just so much to drive 
" low bidders " and irresponsible and incompetent contractors out 
of the field, and is doing just so much of good and benefit to every 
reputable and responsible contractor, and doing much towards estab- 
lishing honest work at a fair price. Architects should bear in mind 
that poorly prepared plans and loose, ambiguous, and carelessly 
drawn specifications and contracts are a boon to the low bidder and 
irresponsible contractor. 

Reputable architects desire to deal with reputable contractors, 
who can be depended upon to carry out the architect's plans and 
directions in a friendly spirit of honorable compliance, and take pride 
in doing so; and to such contractors, architects wish them a fair 
price with a fair profit. The best work is none too good, and is the 
only kind which will redound to the credit of the contractors and 
architects, and is the only kind which is for the client's interest. 

Editors The Brickbuilder : — 

Dear Sirs: — Will you kindly, through your journal, answer the fol- 
lowing question : — 

How should the headers be laid in a wall faced with press-brick, 
to comply with the following specification? Specification: " Tressed brick 
to be worked in regular bond and tied with full-face headers every sixth 
course, or less if common brick backing will so work." 

We should say that this specification calls for headers of pressed 
brick, laid in at most every sixth course. We are also of the opinion 
that a " full-face header," worked in regular bond, means a special 
header brick, made 8 ins square, so that when laid in the wall it has 
the appearance of a stretcher, while in reality it extends back 4 ins. 
into the common brickwork. Where regular or plumb bond is used, 
this is the best method of tying pressed 
brick to its backing, by means of brick, 
although a good metal tie may answer 
as well. 

As only a few manufacturers make 
square bricks, however, it would per- 
haps not be fair to put this interpreta- 
tion to this specification, unless it had 
been explained to the contractor what was desired. 

We would therefore say that by this specification the contrac- 
tor should be required to tie the pressed brick as shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. 




The Supreme Court of Michigan has ruled that sureties on a 
contractor's bond conditioned for his faithful performance of a build- 
ing contract, which provides that the consideration is to be paid to 
the principal at times therein specified as the work progresses, are 
released from all liability on the bond, if the payments are made 
before they are due under the terms of the contract. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 



NAPOLEON, so tradition says, upon his return from one of his 
frequent little surprise-party excursions into the country of his 
neighbors, the enemy, — and he had them on all sides, — was met out- 
side a frontier town by the mayor and dignitaries of the place. The 
mayor, with much bowing and scraping, began a long apology for not 
greeting him, as was the proper caper, with salvos of artillery ; going 
on. with much volubility, to give the impatient and hungry conqueror 
seventy-six reasons for not so saluting; the first was that there was not 
then nor had there ever been a cannon in the place. " Hold on, my 


boy." said His Emperorship, •■ skip the other seventy-five and bring 
on the savory viands," or words to that effect. 

This is a somewhat analogous case. I am volubly inclined, so 
truthful friends warn me, and I know of ninety-nine good reasons for 
not writing upon the above-entitled subject. The least important of 
these is that I know but little about the subject. And now the im- 
patient reader may turn to the next article if he, like the mighty 
Bonaparte, thinks that sufficient reason and hungers for meat: I can 
offer him but broth. 

It's not altogether my fault, however, for when The Brickbuilder 
invited me to contribute this paper I mildly protested that while I 
loved brick and appreciated its possibilities, force of circumstances 
had kept me, nearly all my life, in far closer touch with just mere 
granite and stone; and I ventured to suggest a learned treatise upon 
those, to me, familiar materials, or upon steel, or "The Ethics of 
Architecture as She Is Preached vs. The Observance Thereof," or 
"Twenty Reasons Why the Other Fellow Always Wins Out in a 
Competition," or anything of that sort; but these were all scorned by 
The BRICKBUILDER, who'd have nothing, of course, but brick, and 
" Prick in Washington " at that ! 

Now, Washington is one of the last places on earth one would 
select voluntarily to make a study of its brickwork. It was begun 
during a period of transition. Unlike the cities of Flanders, of 
Holland, and of continental Europe generally, where "in brick was 
wrought the perfection of their art," Washington blossomed forth at 




a time when the Americans had almost ceased to bring brick from 
England ; were manufacturing a rather imperfect article themselves, 

and invariably plastered 
over it, defects and all, a 
thick coating of stucco 
most painfully " poynted 
off to represent ye coigns 
and cources of ye solid 
stone." The trimmings 
were of real stone or coun- 
terfeited in wood, and the 
important buildings were 
entirely of stone, so Dame 
Fashion then decreed. 
Then, by a train of circum- 
stances over which no one 
seemingly has any control, our modern buildings of brick are, as a 
rule, costly, elaborate, but, with rare exceptions, generally worse than 
atrocious in design. Of these more anon. 

There is hardly anything in the brickwork 
of old Washington that compares with old Bos- 
ton, old Philadelphia, Alexandria, Annapolis, or 
Baltimore. Its suburbs of Georgetown, Arling- 
ton, and Bladensburg add but a few artistic 
touches to its faded charms, and I must tell you 
right here that I am not one to fall down and 
worship everything that is colonial merely be- 
cause it is of colo- 
nial times. 

If I could deal 
with the histories of 
our old buildings, 
other than structural, 
the great men and 
the stately dames 
who have lived in 
them, the tragedies, 
the comedies, na- 
tional and domestic, 
that have been en- 
acted within their walls, I might entertain you for 
a while ; but to describe them architecturally, 
the task, while an easy one, is neither pleasant 
nor interesting. And as for mere age, remember 
that the oldest house in our country dates only 
to 1 564, — the old coquina monastery, of St. 
Augustine, Fla., and it has not only no peer in the 
land, but not even a mate of the same century ! 

The Duddington Manor, the old Carroll mansion, was the first 
brick house of any importance built in the new capital. It stands 
to-day a dilapidated, uncared-for relic of the former grandeur that 

perched for a time on 
Capitol Hill. A broad, 
shallow house, nine win- 
dows wide and but two in 
depth, absolutely void of 
brick detail, two stories 
high, the home of Daniel 
Carroll, one of the three 
commissioners appointed 
by Washington to lay out 
the Federal city ; and it 
was the location of this 
house right in the middle 
of New Jersey Avenue, I 
believe, that raised the rumpus terminating in Major l'Enfant's dis- 
missal from the service but two months after his plan of the city had 
been approved, — a plan, by the way, that Jefferson had as much to 



PRIOR TO 1760. 


do with as did l'Enfant. What a genius was Jefferson! Sage, dip- 
lomat, President, scholar, architect, — verily the most versatile Amer- 
ican in our history! 
Washington owes much of 
its beauty to his taste, and 
not only did he design his 
own beautiful house and 
the College, but his letters 
would also indicate that 
most of the manors of his 
time and built by his 
friends here and elsewhere 
had their inception in his 
fertile brain. 

In 1S20 the Burns 
house was completed, — the 

David Burns who stood out so long against the blandishments of 
the commissioners, and of Washington himself, who tried to induce 
him to sell his farm to the proposed city. His 
daughter, a great beauty, married a Van Ness 
and became mistress of this stately old manor. It 
was designed by Latrobe — the Richardson of 
that day — and cost over $60,000; finished in 
costly woods and rare marbles, shaped like a thick 
H, five windows wide, it is one of the most pleas- 
ing designs of that time. But brick was of 
secondary consideration there, too, merely the 

plain wall surfaces, 
stone, wood, a n d 
metal, being the or- 
namental and beau- 
tifying mediums of 
the exter ior. ■ Its 
grounds were spa- 
cious and must have 
been beautiful. To- 
day we use a part of 
them for a running 
track, tennis courts, 
and field sports of 
the Columbia Athletic Club. It is with feelings 
of almost awe that I dry my sweater by the draw- 
ing-room grate, while I take a shower bath from 
the spray that drops from whence the grand crystal 
chandelier hung in the spacious dining room ! Yet, 
methinks, this is less of a desecration than its 
former use, for when we took it it was a beer 

About the beginning of the century Col. John Tayloe built the 
Octagon house, a near 
neighbor to the Van Ness 
mansio n, — a pretentious 
house with the savor of 
London about it: exter 
nally plain, three stories 
and basement, of a red brick 
with marble trimmings, and 
its interior spacious, artistic, 
and costly, as befitted the 
home of a man whose " in- 
come was princely, and 
whose artisans and slaves 
were so many that without 
calling upon outside help 
his own people felled the 
forest, wrought iron, worked 
the fields, and built and sailed his ships." The building, restored 
and rejuvenated, is now the home of the American Institute of Ar- 






chitects, but in transitu it too passed through unsavory repute. 
Near by are the abandoned Everett and Wirt mansions, as ancient 
and replete with history as the last named, but for our present 

purpose of little interest. 
Around Lafayette Square, 
neighbors to the White 
House, are grouped t h e 
later buildings of '-ye 
olden time," most of them 
built just after the War of 
[812: St. John's Church, 
still the fashionable place 
of worship, a good example 
of colonial ecclesiastical 
architecture, of brick, but 
stuccoed. Commodore 
Decatur's home, now oc- 
cupied by Mrs. .McLean, a very plain brick house, stands upon an- 
other corner opposite the square, and diagonally opposite this is the 
rather handsome Italian villa known as the Corcoran house; very 
large, well built of brick and stone, it is still one of the houses of the 
city. The late Senator Brice lived 
there for years in great pomp and 
splendor. The other Tayloe house, 
now occupied by Vice-President Ho- 
bart, is one of the most interesting of 
this octet of fine homes. Of yellow- 
brick, with plenty of green blinds, foli- 
age, and railings to relieve it, one never 
tires of passing by its cheerful front. 
Then there is the Dolly Madison house, 
now the Cosmos Club, brick, but stuc- 

In Georgetown are some fine old 
homes, not architectural beauties, 
merely brick and stone put together in 
more or less true colonial proportions, 
but surrounded by broad acres, high, 
commanding a splendid view, and with 
histories. The old Tudor place, built 
in the middle of the last century, and 
still occupied by the kin of the Father 
of his Country, and well kept up, with 
its stiffly laid-out rose plats, its box- 
wood hedges, and other colonial ac- 
cessories, is one of the best of its time. 
Washington, the Lees, and other nota- 
bles of the long ago have danced upon 
its waxed floors and eaten at its well- 
spread mahogany. Of later date and more pretentious is the I.inth- 
icum manor, once the Russian Legation, now the Blount home, of 
brick, interesting, very large, and well kept; the- Mackall house, the 
old Scott house, occupied by Grant during the war and more recently 
by yours truly, who can attest that there is no better nursery for 
seven riotous youngsters than one of these grand old baronial dining 
rooms, nor no better shade than these grand old oaks offer for the 
weary progenitor of those seven to swing his hammock under, and 
read and smoke and forget the cares of yesterday. 

In the same category may be placed other near-by old homes, 
such as the old Dumbarton house, near the Zoological Park, Dumblane 
on the Tennalytown road, and the old Lee home at Arlington, now 
the superintendent's headquarters of the great National Cemetery. 
All of these are of brick, most of it concealed, however, under stucco 
or paint, hut interesting, quaint, treated in a simple, dignified manner, 
and so restful to the eye after gazing at some of our modern, patchy, 
crazy-quilt efforts called designs. 

Two good examples of last century's brick structures were the 
old Presbyterian Church (Bridge Street), that vied with Christ 

' M^Hwvvl 

^***W. .L .„ 

25 <<=#& 

r* i" •'*..« 

" 1 ™ '•^^wy^JKf 


WW MT^l 


11 *■ M 

II 9 ■ ^51 

. \ 

• -. 

\ 1 


. — "ZZZ. \ 

• ^-^V,>.^ 

— ^," ^x " 

*v- 5. -3ti^^B 


Church, of Alexandria, in historical interest and in the beauty and 
simplicity of its design, and the Columbia Bank, reputed to have 
furnished the money for the defense of the country in 1S1 2. 

As stated before, some of these are kept in repair, are habitable, 
sightly, and, with the splendid old Capitol and departmental build- 
ings, give the dignity of age to our city that is one of its chiefest 
charms: but most of them, alas ! are mere crumbling ruins, relics of 
bygone grandeur, decrepit veterans of many wars. 

The older brickwork is, of course, in the good old " English 
bond." alternate courses of headers and stretchers, averaging 9 by 4^ 
ins. by 2% ins. thick, laid in lime mortar, that will still outlive much 
of our high-priced, high-test "cements." The facing bricks are 
generally gauged and rubbed to a pretty good surface, with clean-cut 
angles, " queen closers," and neatly laid. Naturally, when the 
"Flemish bond " craze was revived in England the buildings here 
of the same period followed suit, and we have several examples of 
alternate header and stretcher, followed in the later work by our more 
modern interpretation of " English bond," one course of headers to 
three, four, and five courses of stretchers. 

The Capitol, the Treasury, the White House, the Patent Office, 
and most of the government structures 
are of marble, granite, or other stone, 
— generally fine specimens of architec- 
ture, and some unsurpassed anywhere 
in beauty and stateliness, designed by 
master hands, and they stand out in 
sharply accentuated contrast with those 
built of brick. It seems strange that 
whenever brick was decided upon, or 
when appropriations would not war 
rant stone structures, the designing was 
left to inferior hands and minds, — a 
slight upon brick that we should resent, 
all who appreciate and realize the pos- 
sibilities of that splendid medium of 
expressing one's ideas. It remains for 
us to so impress our legislators with its 
advantages that past mistakes will not 
be repeated. Brickmakers. the editors 
of BRICKBUILDER, and all interested in 
the development of that material, should 
make it their business to see that their 
congressmen •• urged " the adoption of 
brick for a portion, at least, of the sixty 
odd United States buildings appro- 
priated for by this last Congress. Urg- 
ing is potent, oh ! so potent in such 
matters, and no one appreciates its 
potency more than the poor fellow who receives the urging. 

Walk with me down the " Mall." Note the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, a stone structure, graceful, daintv, almost poetic, a " symphony 
in form," it has been called. 
and without stretching the 
point. Then glance — ■ a 
glance will be enough — at 
its neighbors : the Bureau 
of Engraving and Printing, 
a great bleak, brick barn, 
but possessing one redeem- 
ing feature, in that it 
makes no pretense at being 
anything else than a fac- 
tor) : a little further on 
there is the National Mu- 
seum, with portals, pavil- 
ions, turrets, and other " accessories after the fact " in red brick re- 


ieved by beauteous spots of yellow and of black brick, a splendid 



foil to make one appreciate the charms of the Smithsonian ; the next 
member of the "conspiracy against brick," as I have heard our 
United States brick buildings termed, is the Department of Agricul- 
ture ; French in feeling, $300,000 worth, Mansard-roofed, its red 
brick also relieved with more spots, this time of black and of yellow, 
it puts one into a melancholy, despondent, Et ti/, Brute! feeling that 
almost prevents one's proper appreciation of the beauty of its sur- 
rounding trees, flowers, and verdure. But as a fitting climax, let us 
leave the " Mall " and stroll over to Judiciary Square, and there take 
in the charms, the very apotheosizing of brick in governmental archi- 
tecture, the Pension Bureau. A drawing even by Pennell or Gregg, 
or any of the other lights, would utterly fail to give the faintest idea 
of the reality, a camera fails more dismally still, and my pen. steeped 
even in gall, cannot give you a word picture of the' index to its de- 
scription. It has one of the best sites in the country, open on every 
side, second in location only to the Capitol, — verily a lost opportunity. 
Technically speaking, it is three stories high, surmounted by a 
clearstory ; it covers a space of 400 by 200 ft., and was finished in 
1885, and, as stated in an official report of that time, " is built to 
resemble the great Italian palaces " — ye gods ! Its greatest charm, 
apart of its being of pressed brick 
(and, unfortunately, of good work- 
manship), is its ornamental course 
of yellow terra-cotta over the first- 
story windows: a continuous line 
of that color and the only relief 
from the red there is about the en- 
tire — I was going to say composi- 
tion. This frieze represents either 
four or six infantrymen, I forget 
which, but it makes little differ- 
ence, marching on to war ; these 
are followed by two mules being 
furiously lashed by a darky, they 
(the mules) evidently carrying sup- 
plies through the mud to the ad- 
vance lines ; these mules followed 
by more mules dragging a field- 
piece, and again more mules sur- 
mounted by the general staff or 
just mere cavalry ; then the four or 
six infantrymen pursued by the 
aforesaid mules again, and so on 
for twelve hundred feet of frieze, 
containing, roughly guessing, about 
thirteen thousand feet of infantry, 
cavalry, and mules, — a miniature 
not over two feet high, a very 
rebus in feet ! 

One consolation we have is that that building was not per- 
petrated by an architect, but by an army engineer (eminent in bridge 
structures, water fronts, and fortifications, a great and good man, 
though, peace to his ashes ! he so cruelly wronged our art), and yet 
even that consolation is counteracted by the sad thought that being 

nearly all of brick 
it is practically 
fire-proof and al. 
most indestructi- 

is a city of 
churches. There 
are some rather 
handsome ones in 
stone, but those 
that are of brick 
are so close of 
Georgetown car barn. kin to those you 





see every day, everywhere, — so commonplace, — that they merit no 
special mention. Generally supposed to be Gothic, at least, they 
nearly all have ogival win- 
dows with beautiful wooden 
tracery in them, and real 
red, blue, and green stained 
glass here and there ; a 
pointed roof with a gold- 
leafed cross or finial at its 
apex, and one of the same 
brand surmounting its " tall 
and willowy " spire, that 
shelters — every blessed one 
of them — that hidden foe to 
our peace and contentment, 
a bell. Art they not Gothic? 

Of the other semi-public and commercial brick buildings, some 
are interesting, few are beautiful, and many neither interesting nor 
beautiful. Our schools are about on a par with our churches : you 
see them everywhere from New York to San Francisco ; they are 

excelled here in ugliness by the fire 
stations generally. The Metropoli- 
tan Club, a red brick, has the good 
taste to not be pretentious, and in 
that does not challenge criticism. 
The Columbia Athletic (lately 
gone under the hammer to the 
Y. M. C. A. — vale, old friend ! ) is 
pretentious, red, and ugly ; the 
Army and Navy is also red, not 
bad, weak in detail, but masses up 
pretty well. The Convent of the 
Visitation, red and black, is very 
ordinary. Our stores and office 
buildings (there are remarkably 
few of the latter ; this is not an 
office city, though a city of offices) 
merit hardly any notice. They 
are generally pretty well covered 
over with signs, a virtue in most 
cases, and would rank with those 
of a fifth-rate city. There is not 
even a savor of metropolitanism 
about them. Two or three have 
lately been erected, among them 
the Western Union Building, the 
Columbian Office Building, and 
the Inter-Ocean Building, plain, 
unremarkable affairs ; no one 
would ever stop to look at them, but true, too, there is nothing that 
calls for criticism : they are just mere buildings. 

The hotels and apartment houses, and they are legion, are 
mostly of brick ; generally old buildings kept well painted, but not 
architecturally important. The newer ones have suffered the same 
fate as did the governmental brick structures ; put mildly, they are 
not masterpieces. The Shoreham, the Grafton, the Cochran, the 
Buckingham, and the Richmond are much cut up, lack repose or 
style, and not one of them but could have been wonderfully bettered, 
and without additional cost, by the artistic handling of some one 
who did not design them. 

Two, however, merit particular anathematization : the Portland, 
that stands upon a rather trying lot, it is true, a triangular corner 
piece, and whose designer solved the problem by making an 
accordion-plaited affair of it on plan and gave it the semblance of an 
Indian pagoda in elevation,— a wonderful building in design, form, 
and color, and merits the worst you can say of it because its archi- 
tect boldly challenges you to it, courageous man ! The other is the 
Cairo, a great big thing, some twelve or thirteen stories high ; at 




least, you see it from all over town. It, too, asks you to hit it, — 
clumsy, pretentious, bad. Its designer saw one of Sullivan's daintily 
decorated, rather fascinating East Indian creations in brick and steel, 
and, like the speckled rods of old, it had a peculiar effect upon him, 

for he brought forth that 
thing, — a hat box with a 
projecting and very thick 
lid on it. with here and 
there Sullivanesque motifs 
judiciously spattered 
about it. 

The old Corcoran Art 
Gallery merits a visit just 
to note what we used to 
call a beautiful brick build- 
ing in 1S75. Look at its 
picture, then offer up a 
prayer of gratitude that 
the standard has been 
raised a bit. 

The hotels are receiving a new member that, however, does not 
belong to their class. The Raleigh is building an addition to its 
present quite old and ordinary structure that is very handsome in- 
deed. When the old building is replaced by a continuation of this 
new wing it will be one of the most ornate and handsomest hotels in 
the country. The lower portion and most of the ornamental work 
above are of stone, but the masses, piers, and plain parts are of a 
pearl-gray brick, so it is about as much of a brick building as most 
of the big fellows are. As near as I can judge from what has been 
erected it is a pre-Kenaissance treatment, tending to a German 
rococo, something on the order of the Waldorf-Astoria, and by the 
same architect, Mr. Hardenbergh,of New York, and goes far towards 
the redemption of brick building in Washington from the slough it 
seems to have fallen into. 

( H this same class of redeeming brick structures are the 
Lafayette Theatre and the Columbia University, good, plain, emi- 
nently respectable, light-colored brick, well designed, and welcome 
additions to our architecture. We have two railway stations, half a 
dozen markets, and other such buildings of brick, none of which 
merit any architectural attention, unless one were compiling a 
treatise on " Dont's " or " What Not to Do." 

One of the newest big buildings is the Georgetown street-car 
barn, a confection in gray stone and liver-colored brick, — -well built. 
really a good piece of engineering, and undoubtedly well fitted for 
its purpose, but of a most wonderful design, " surmounted by a tower 
of noble proportions." Whoever designed the thing, and I hope it 
was not an architect, has contributed liberally to the retarding of 
our progress in artistic brick structures. 

There are a couple of brick breweries whose positions upon the 
river front, high chimneys, towers, ventilators, and other minaret-like 
adjuncts make them quite picturesque affairs — from the great dis- 
tance one generally sees them. It might be different if one could 
get near them. 



page v, Dental Hall, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; 
Edgar V. Seeler, architect. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., page x, fireplace mantel: Henry B. Hall, 

Boston Fire-Proofing Company, page xxii, Hotel Touraine, 
Boston ; Winslow & Wetherell, architects. 

Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Ltd., page xxvii, Gate and ('.ate 
Lodge of the Woodlawn Cemetery, Everett. Mass.; William Hart 
Taylor, architect. 

NEW YORK. — The Fourteenth Annual Exhibition of the Ar- 
chitectural League has just closed, and the results are most 
gratifying. More interest has been shown by the press and public 
than during any former exhibition; particularly interesting notices 
with many illustrations having appeared in the Tribune, the Herald, 
Harper's Weekly, and the Art Interchange, and the attendance has 
been as large as at any of the contemporary exhibitions of paintings, 
which is saying a great deal. 

In regard to the present status in the real-estate and building 
world our hopes are being realized, with great satisfaction to those 
whose special efforts have been in the line of dwellings, apartments, 
etc., and there are a few buildings of more than ordinary importance 
under way, notably the large apartment house designed by Messrs. 
Boring & Tilton, to be erected on 43d Street. This building will 
be unique in many ways. It is planned primarily as a woman's 
apartment house, a field which bachelors have considered heretofore 
their own. A unique feature of this building will be a chapel in the 
center, an innovation which might be of use to bachelors. 

Another new building is the hotel designed by Messrs. Barney 
& Chapman, which is now being erected on 3.Sth Street, corner of 
Seventh Avenue. It is a ten-story, fire-proof structure, faced with 
brick and terracotta. It is designed in French Renaissance, and 
promises to be a most successful building artistically. 

The city is gradually being worked up into a frenzy of excite- 
ment over the attempt of the trolley companies to grab Amsterdam 
.\\enue. one of our finest thoroughfares, for their own uses, and to 
place four tracks on it. There have been protests from all the resi- 
dents, owing to the great danger which would surely follow the con- 
summation of such an act, and a bill has been introduced in the 
State legislature, which if passed, as seems likely at this writing, will 
prevent such vandalism. 

Among the more interest- 
ing items of new work are : J. 
B. Snook & Sons have planned 
an eight-story store and office 
building, to be erected corner 
of Broadway and Warren 
Street, to take the place of the 
Rogers, Peet & Co. building 
which was destroyed by fire. 
It is to cost $150,000. C. P. 
H. C iilbert is at work on plans 
for an elaborate residence to be 
built for Mr. F. W. Woolworth 
on the corner of 80th Street 
and Fifth Avenue. It will be 
semi-fire-proof and faced with 
brick and stone; cost, about 
590,000. G. Kramer Thomp- 
son has planned a seven-story 
steel construction warehouse, 
with brick and stone exterior, 
to be built on \iA Street, near 
Sixth Avenue; cost, $100,000. 
Stein, Cohen & Roth have 
planned a ten-story apartment 
to be built corner of 70th Street 
and Central Park, West. It 
will be of brick and terra-cotta, 
and cost about $700,000. John 
llauser has planned seven five- 
story brick and stone Hat build- 
ings, to be erected on Seventh 
Avenue, between 140th and 
141st Streets: cost, $300,000. 
Ralph S. Townsend has pre- 


pared plans for an eight-story „ . . . „ , _, 

° * Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta 

store and loft building, to be Company. 



erected on 51st Street. It will be built of light brick, Indiana lime- 
stone, terracotta, and granite, and cost $60,000. Henry Anderson is 
at work on plans for six five-story brick dwellings, to be built on 95th 

mond Street, or alley, as it is often appropriately called, should be 
widened, no one doubts; it would open up for business purposes a 
large tract in the heart of the city which at present is given up to 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Street, near Madison Avenue; cost, $104,000. A. H. Taylor has 
planned five three-story brick and terra-cotta dwellings, to be built 
on 118th Street, near Seventh Avenue; cost, $85,000. J. B. Snook 
& Sons have planned an eight-story brick and stone office building, 
to be built on Maiden Lane, near Broadway; cost, $50,000. Ralph 
S. Townsend has prepared plans for an eight-story brick store and 
loft building, to be built on Bond Street near Broadway ; cost, $60,- 
000. De Lemos & Cordes are planning 
an extension to the Siegel-Cooper Building 
at 18th Street and Sixth Avenue. It will 
be six stories in height, and will cost $100,- 
000. W. Wheeler Smith is preparing plans 
for a four-story brick and stone dwelling, 
to be built on 53d Street ; cost, $200,000. 
Lord, Hewlett & Hull are the successful 
competitors for the proposed hotel build- 
ing, to be erected by the Astor Estate at 
the corner of 130th Street and Lenox Ave- 
nue. The approximate cost will be $200.- 
000. The other competitors were Hoppin 
& Koen and Whitney Warren. Clinton & 
Russell are preparing plans for a twelve- 
story fire-proof office building to be built 
on the site of the present Chesebrough 
Building. The cost will be about $750,000. 

PITTSBURGH.— Almost every archi- 
tect's office here seems to have an 
unusually large amount of work on the 
boards, and if it should all be carried out 
our expectations for a busy year would 
certainly be realized. 

The annual agitation for the widening 
of Diamond Street and for the removal of 
" the hump " on Fifth Avenue above Smith- 
field Street has been renewed. That Dia- 


Executed liy the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
Edgar V. Secler, Architect. 

old shanties, which are mere fire-traps, and a menace to this part of 
the city. The removal of '■ the hump " on Fifth Avenue will be a 
great improvement, if enough is taken off to make an appreciable 
difference, but if, as seems now likely, but 8 or 10 ft. are removed, 
the difference in grade would hardly be noticeable. Most of the 
modern buildings here have been built with this in view, however, 
— notably the Allegheny County Court House and the Carnegie 
Office Building, — so that it is only the 
older buildings which will suffer. 

Most, if not all, of the schemes for 
new office buildings which were talked of 
earlier in the year have been abandoned 
for the present. A number of small apart- 
ment houses are being built, but as yet 
there is hardly to be found here what 
would in any other city be considered a 
first-class apartment building. There is 
scarcely a fire-proof building among them. 
It seems as if only those with small cap- 
ital are attracted to this kind of an in- 
vestment, and that those who could put up 
larger and more expensive buildings are 
either seeking better investments or are 
not interested in building operations. 

The following items of building news 
have been noted : Edward J. Carlisle. & 
Co. have prepared plans for a fourteen- 
room school building at Braddock; cost. 
$60,000. They are also at work on the 
Sterrett sub-district school building; cost, 
$100,000. Rutan & Russell are preparing 
plana for the Church of St. Augustine. 
U. J. L, Peoples is planning a new school 
for the eighteenth ward ; cost, $100,000. 
S. F. Heckert has planned a new building 
for St. Joseph's Academy, at Wheeling, 

I'loriA STREET, 



W. Va., and is at work on a new 
academy building at Gallitzin, Pa. 
T. E. liillquist has let the contract 
for a new residence at Sewickley. 
Alden & Harlow are at work on 
plans for four houses to be built at 
Homestead by the Carnegie Steel 
Company. The contract has just 
been let for a new residence on 
Fifth Avenue, East End, to cost 
5 1 00,000. A Pittsburgh paper de- 
scribed it as being built of •' Roman 
sized Pompeian brick." A New 
York firm are the architects. 

The Pittsburgh & Lake Erie 
Railroad will soon commence work 
on a new depot, to be built on the 
South Side. They will spend some 
$300,000 on the building, not count- 
ing the train sheds, but unfortu- 
nately have decided not to employ 
an architect, but to allow their engi- 
neers to make the plans. So we 
may expect another of our engineers' buildings, which are always 
structurally safe, but rarely good to look at. A new high-school 
building is to be built at McKeesport, to cost $100,000. 


Executed by the New N 'ml. 
tectural Terra-Cotla Company. 


350,000 iron mottled (lashed brick, Roman shape, were used in this building ; supplied by the Ohio Mining and 

Manufacturing Company. 
Edmund R. Krause, Architect. 

MINNEAPOLIS AND ST. PAUL. — Prospects in the Twin 
Cities for 1S99 
give promise of being 
ahead of any of the 
past ten years, which 
means much or little, as 
one views it. There will 
be an unusual amount of 
residence building, the 
bulk of which will be 
done without the assist- 
ance of the architectural 
p r o f e s sion. M uch as 
this is to be regretted, 
there is no apparent 
remedy up to date. 

The Tribune Build- 
ing was visited by a dis- 
astrous tire a week since, 
which completely gutted 
the structure, leaving only 

front and rear walls fit for further service. As the building was of 
"slow-burning" construction, and as it seemed to burn freely, — yes, 
fiercely, — there has been considerable fun poked at that form of 
construction. No doubt the construction prevented a much worse 
fire and enabled the several hundred employees who were in the 
building to escape without injury. The presence of a thick fire wall 
was all that prevented the adjoining Century Building from a similar 

The Boston Block, which was burned some twelve years since, 
was also visited a second time by fire within the past month, the 
damage being only slight. Electric wires are blamed for this. 
The fact that the roof was of fire-proof material saved the structure 
from a worse fate. 

Minneapolis will indulge in more brick paving this year prob- 
ably, the experience of the past three or four vears demonstrating 
forcibly its superiority from every point of view. Asphalt may be 
all right where there is a more even temperature, but for our climate, 
with its range from 40 degs. below zero to 100 degs. above, and the 
attendant frosts, penetrating this winter to a sufficient depth to freeze 

some of our water mains solid, there is too much certainty of fis- 
sures from the resulting contraction and expansion to insure any 
form of pavement from injury. There is a prospect that brick 
paving will be cheaper than ever before, in addition to its other ad- 

In Minneapolis a number of interesting projects are in the air, 
with a goodly prospect of eventually getting down to solid ground. 
Among them are a new Music Hall for the various societies, for re- 
hearsals, meetings, etc. : a new seven-story brick business building 
at Nicollet and 5th Streets; the completion of the city side of the 
new City Hall and Court House; the erection of a new Chamber of 
Commerce, to cost a quarter of a million dollars ; extension of our post- 
office building to extent of $50,000 ; a new hospital building for 
Asbury M. E. Hospital, to cost $100,000. Among architects the 
following: Court House at Balsam Lake, Wis.. $25,000. <>rtl >\ 
Guilbert, architects; school building, at Wells. Minn., eight rooms, 
$20,000, same architects; high-school building at Salina. Kan., to cost 
~3_:,ooo, same architects: school building at Marshall, Minn., faced 
with pressed brick, cost, $35,000. \V. B. Dunnell, architect; State 
Odd Fellows' Home, Northtield, Minn., to cost $25,000, H. W. Jones, 
architect; residence for F. B. Semple, at Vine Place and Franklin 
Avenue, to cost $50,000, Long & Son, architects; flats at Harmon 
Place and 12th Street, cost, $35,000, H. W. Orth, architect; flats at 
First Avenue and 10th Street: three double buildings, thirty fiats, 
faced with pressed brick, cost, $50,000. E. P. Overmin, architect. 
The parishes of St. Mark's and St. Paul's Churches have united, and 
will erect a fine modern church structure in another year, on a site 
further out than the present St. Mark's. 

In St. Paul there seems to be less projected in the line of im- 
portant enterprises than 
in her sister city, there 
being some important 
work, however, as fol- 
lows: School building, 
at Whe a ton, Minn., 
seven rooms, brick and 
stone, cost, $15,000, 
Buechner & Jacob son, 
architects: State Normal 
School, at St. Cloud, 
Minn., addition and im- 
provements, cost, - 
000, C. H. Johnston, ar- 
chitect; additions to 
Minnesota Club, to cost 
$15,000, Cass Gilbert, 

The City Market 
property has been trans- 
ferred to the Library Board, «who propose to transfer the property 
to a syndicate, which will erect a large business block thereon, and 

Executed by the White Brit k and Tem-Cotta Company. 
Waguer, Architect. 

in another part of the city a magnificent Public Library building, to 
cost $500,000. 




THE following-named architects would be pleased 
to receive manufacturers' catalogues and 
samples: M. R. Burrowes, Sarnia, Ontario; W. G. 
Eckles, Citizens' Bank Block, New Castle, Pa. ; E. 
G. Worden, Board of Trade Building, Scranton, Pa.; 
Wiskocil & Co., 107 Wisconsin Street, Milwaukee, 
Wis.; John Kiewit, Jr., New York Life Building, 
Omaha, Neb. 


Waldo Bros, are supplying Atlas Portland ce- 
ment to McNeil Bros, at Hotel Bellevue, Beacon 
Street, Boston. 

The Illinois Supply and Construction 
Company is adding new machinery to make orna- 
mental brick. 

The following-named buildings are being fire- 
proofed by the Boston Fire-Proofing Company : Lynn 
Library, Lynn, Mass., George A. Moore, architect; East Boston 
High School, John Lyman Faxon, architect; Dorchester High 


Boston High School, Herbert D. Hale, architect ; extension to 
Adams House, Boston, William Whitney Lewis, architect; new 


d^fl'^wy i'"- Kmim > £i# ....ii" 

>■'<" J, ' f, I 1 .,,.'' 

', M. 

Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, Architects. 

School, Boston, Hartwell, Richardson & Driver, architects ; South 


Built of Kittanning Roman gray brick. 
Georpe W. Maher, Architect. 

"Proctor" and South Street buildings, Boston, Winslow, Wetherdl 
& Bigelow, architects ; Hotel Bellevue, Boston, Pea- 
body & Stearns, architects. 

Waldo Bros., agents for Perth Amboy Terra- 
Cotta Company, have secured the contract for new 
building, South and Essex Streets, Boslon ; Winslow. 
Wetherell & Bigelow, architects. 

The Haunchvvood Brick and Tile Com 
I'ANV, England, is installing a Grath Gas and Coking 
Furnace; W. P. Grath, inventor, St. Louis, Mo. 

Waldo Bros, have been awarded the contract 
for Portland cement by the government at Fort 
Warren, Atlas having lite preference over several 
other brands. 

The St. Louis Tkrra-Cotta Company will 
supply the architectural terra-cotta for the new build- 



ing for the Frankel Improvement Companv 
at Des Moines. Iowa; Liehbe, Nourse & 
Rasmussen, architects. 

Tin Dagus Clay Manufacturing 

Company will supply 150,000 of their buff 
bricks for the new high-school building at 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y.; also 200,000 for a new 
building at Crosby, I'a. : and their flashed 
Roman tile for a new residence at Pittsburgh, 

The contract for front brick for the new 
Chesebrough Building, Pearl, State, and 
Bridge Streets, New York City, Clinton & 
Russell, architects, has been awarded to the 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company. 

The architect of the new office building 
at Newport News, Ya., reported in our Feb- 
ruary number, was stated to be H. \V. Silsby. 
This was an error, Mr. Silsby being the owner 
and J. Wyley Anderson the architect. 

SAMUEL CABOT is mailing to architects 
a large plate of the new Southern Terminal 
Station, at Boston, from a negative by Soder- 
holtz. advertising the fact that 62.000 sq. ft. 

of Cabot's Insulating Quilt was used in the station for insulating the 
heating and ventilating ducts. The quilt was specified by Prof. 
S. Homer Woodbridge, who has used it many times before. 

The following contracts have been closed for the roofing tile 

uted by the Standard Terra- Cotta Company. 
Thomas Creney, Architect. 


Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
I dgar V. Seeler, Architect. 

manufactured by th'e Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Ltd., by their 
Boston agent. Charles Bacon: Beaconsfield Terrace, Brookline. 
Mass. (10 in. red Conosera tile), S. Butterworth, architect; 
pumping station, Spot Pond, Stoneham, Mass. (10 in. red Cono- 
sera tile), Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

Within the last month, Charles Bacon, Boston represen- 
tative of Sayre & Fisher Company, has placed contracts for 
nearly 700.000 bricks, viz.: South Boston High School. Herbert 
D. Hale, architect: Hotel Bellevue, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, 
architects ; Spot Pond Pumping Station, Stoneham, Mass., 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; church interior, Lenox, 
Mass.. Peabody & Stearns, architects: high school, Brooklind 
J. A. Schweinfurth, architect. 

The White Brick and Tekka-Cotta Company will 
supply the architectural terra-cotta on the following new con- 
tracts: Apartments, .S3 Washington Place. New York. Quinby 
& Broome, architects; stores and lofts, Broadway and Canal 
Street, New York. Jordan & Ciller, architects; school, Fast 
Orange, N. J., Boring & Tilton, architects; apartmentSj^Sjth 

Street and Riverside Drive, Henry Anderson, 
architect; residence, Westbury, L. I., Wal- 
lace & Gage, architects. 

Tin Powhatan Clay Manufactur- 
ing Company, Richmond, Ya., will hereafter 
occupy the commodious offices, Nos. 507-S 
Townsend Building. The persistent efforts 
of this company have met with unprece- 
dented success during the past season, and, 
taking into consideration that this was an 
■ oil' " year, the record of their cream-white 
brick being used in fully 80 per cent, of the 
operations in which that class of brick was 
specified, is one of which the officers of the 
company can well be proud. Their gray 
brick is coming to be well known and liked 
by architects and contractors generally for 
its purity of color and general excellence. 
and has already been used in apartments 
and dwellings in the best portions of the 
city, although practically introduced only last 
year. Mr. Sol. Rosenbaum, second vice- 
president of the company and manager of 
the New York office, has been indefatigable 
in his efforts to place the product of the com- 
pany at the top, and has certainly met with 
an unqualified success. Mr. H. K. Terry, 
vice-president and general manager, is in charge of the companv's 
factory, and the perfection of the brick in regard to color and work- 
manship, and the prompt manner in which deliveries are made, 
prove that the management of this concern is in excellent hands. 
Noteworthy instances where the brick manufactured by this com- 
pany have been used are the Chesebrough Building, Pearl and 
State Streets : the apartments at 79th Street and Amsterdam Avenue ; 
The Livingston, at 86th Street and Central Park, West ; the stores 
and lofts, 5S0 to 590 Broadway; the Powhatan and Tecumseh 
Apartments. 34th Street, near Seventh Avenue : Christ Fnglish 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, Brooklyn: the Hammerstein Com- 
pany's new theater ; The Victoria. 43d Street and Seventh Ave- 
nue, and a hundred other representative buildings. — Rtcord and 

The LuDOWIl i ROOFING Tile Companv has been con- 
spicuously successful in its introduction in this country of the German 
system of interlocking roofing tiles. In the older Furopean countries 
where roofing tiles have been for many years so perfectly made and 
so generally used, the more primitive patterns requiring cement in 


Adolph Kinkier, Architect. 




their joints or the long shingle lap have been superseded by the 
modern effective interlocking systems. 

The use of nails in fastening a brittle material to structures 
where slight motion is possible, and dependence on perishable 


cement for joints in an otherwise imperishable roofing material, are 

radical defects, which are definitely avoided by the Ludowici system. 

Beside the highest class of glazed ware for expensive work, 

the Ludowici Company offers equally durable interlocking tiles at 
prices so low that they are extensively adopted for factories and 
warehouses. Laid directly on iron purlins without sheathing or 
book tiles, their T-i pattern affords thus a light, fire-proof, effective, 
and durable roof, and one which for ultimate economy is in advance 
of all else. The Carnegie Company, Illinois Steel Company. 
McCormick Company, Deere & Co., of Moline, 111., are using 
Ludowici tiles on their manufacturing buildings, and not for esthetic 
reasons. Those who appreciate substantial construction, and can 
afford to be truly economical, will be interested in looking into this. 

The accompanying illustrations of this use of tiles show them 
over dynamos where they have been in place four years. There is 
no drip of condensation from the Ludowici tiles. This most desira- 
ble feature is due to the fact that the Ludowici tiles are never 
vitrified, a condition in roofing tiles to which this company is 
unalterably opposed. The durability of properly made roofing tiles, 
hard burned, but not vitrified, they have established beyond ques- 



Artistic Mantels. 

Showing modest but very 
effective results at small cost. 

Price $25* 





Prices given are for the Face and Molded Red Brick necessary to set up the mantels as shown (.includ- 
ing lining, underfire, and tile hearth), carefully packed in barrels and delivered to cars or steamer at Boston. 
Scale setting plan furnished free. Our mantels are the newest, most stylish, and best of all kinds in every 
way. Our customers say so. Our Sketch Book tells all about 59 designs of charming mantels costing 
from $12 upwards. Send for it. 

Phila* & Boston Face Brick Co* 215 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 





Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ...... 

New York Agents, Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston . 

New York Agent, Philip Mckim Garrison, 160 Fifth Ave. 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company ......... 

2S7 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Evens & Howard Fire lirick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Charles Paeon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co,, 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 2S9 4th Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 South 7th St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ...... 

Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 134 1 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
St. I.ouis Terra-Cotta Co., 5801 Manchester Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 2S7 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. I.. McPherson, Building Exchange. 

The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 11 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. ..... 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y 

Burgy & McNeill, 531 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa 

Canton Sparta Brick Co., The, Canton, Ohio ....... 

Columbus Face Brick Co., S5 X. High St., Columbus, Ohio . . . . 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio . . 
Dagus Clay Man'f'g Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. ; Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... 

Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. .......... 

Home d Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Co., Duquesne Way and 10th St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Merwin. C. 1'.. Brick Co., Berlin, Conn. ........ 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 44 Pine St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw 

nee, Ohio ............. 

Penn Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. . 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Oaks, Pa. ...... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York. 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Marquette Building, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ...... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. .... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Oaks, Pa. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Si. Louis Terra-Cotta Co., 5801 Manchester Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Marquette Building, Chicago 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston ..... 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York .... 








Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City . 
Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelph 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Davis, James A. & Co. ........ 

Office, 92 State St., Boston. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York .... 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. 1 Broadway, New York City 
Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. 15th St., Philadelphia 
New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, Van Name & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

The J. S. Noble Co., 20S Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 




























CEMENTS.— Continued. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City xxix 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y xxix 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston xi 


Sturtevant Mill Co., Boston .......... xxxi 


The- Harrington & King Perforating Co., 224 Xorth Union St., Chicago, 111. . xxxvi 
The- Robert Aitchison Perforated Metal Co., 265 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. . xxxiv 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing-, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., 33 Erie Co. Savings Bk. Bldg., Buffalo, X. V xix 

Burgy & McNeill, 531 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. xix 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ...... xii 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia iii 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave.. New York City iii 

Meeker, Carter & Booraem, 14 E. 23d St., New York City .... xviii 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston x 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston xi 


Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., N. Y. xxx 

V. \V. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York ii 


American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... xxxvi 

A. F. Barron, 358 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. ....... xxxiv 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... xxxvi 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago . . . xxxvii 

Cleveland Car Co., 14S Scranton Ave., Cleveland, Ohio ..... xxxv 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... xxxvii 

Frost Manufacturing Company, Galesburg, 111. ....... xxxv 

Horton Manufacturing Co., Painesville, Ohio ....... xxxv 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. . . . xxxiv 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. . . . xxxiv 

Williams' Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Co. ....... xxxv 

Main Office and Works, St. Louis, Mo. 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... xxxvii 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston . . xxxii 


Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... xxii 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... xxv 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... xx 

Kawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., Bourse Building, Philadelphia . xxiv 

New York Agent, F. L. Douglass, St. James Building, 26th St. and Broadway. 

Boston Agent, James D. I.azell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... x 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... ii 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... xix 

Boston Office, iq Milk Street. 

Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City xxiii 

New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City xxi 

Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 151 5 Marquette Building, Chicago . . xxi 

Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. . xxii 

New York Office, Townsend Building, Broadway and 25th Street. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... xx.wiii 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 41 Cortlandt St., New York ..... xxi 


Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y. ...... ii 


Ilamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass xxxi 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ J 


Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. ...... xxx 

French, Samuel 1L, & Co., Philadelphia, Pa xxx 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Ludowici Roofing Tile Co., 419 Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago . xx\ 

For Agencies see advertisement. 
Merchant's Metal Spanish Tiles, Philadelphia, Pa. ...... xxxii 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited xxvii 

Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 

Chicago Office, Marquette Building. 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian-Building, New York City. 


The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... xxxii 


The Harrington & King Perforating Co., 224 Xorth Union St., Chicago, 111. . xxxvi 
The Robert Aitchison Perforated Metal Co., 265 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. . xxxiv 


Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 116 South St., Boston, Mass. .... xxxm 
Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. xxxiii 


Mosaic Tile Co., The, Zanesville, Ohio iii 


Merchant & Co., Philadelphia, Pa xxxii 


Cleveland Pat. Steel Wall Ties. Wason, Hamilton, and Dart Sts., Cleve- 
land, Ohio ... *«»» 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass xxxm 

Morse Patent Wall Ties, J. B. Prescott & Son, Mfrs., Webster, Mass. . xxxiii 


The Shull Overhead Window Pulley, 116 South St., Boston .... xxxm 

100 Park Place, New York. 
The Bolles Sash Co., 150 Nassau St., New York xxxm 



VOL. 8. NO. 4. PLATE 25. 







VOL. 8. NO. 4. PLATE 26. 


VOL. 8. NO. 4. 



^TIOM • 

.YN, N. Y. 
), Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 4. 

ItJ I L D E R . 

PLATES 28 and 29. 

or Plan. 












. 1 


























( > 









VOL. 8. NO. 4. 

PLATE 31. 


g * 

$ O 

j o 

w a: 

h CQ 




VOL. 8. NO. 4. PLATE 32. 

Detail, First-Story Window, West Front. 


BABB, COOK & WILLARD, Architects. 

_■•. ^— — :_>„ 


fjt VOL. 8 
NO. 4 






1899 iji 







Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-5° P er y ear 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


WE have been much interested in an editorial which appeared 
sometime since i n the British A rchitect under the above head- 
' ing. It involves a question which sometimes comes very close to the 
heart of an architect, especially when after long and persistent study 
he has evolved a successful design only to have it reproduced by 
some inferior architect, who seizes upon his good ideas and tries to 
transplant them bodily. As the publishers of a journal which pre- 
sents to the public the best work which is produced, we feel an 
interest in the subject, as the drawings which we offer are manifestly 
intended to be in certain directions of immediate and available help 
to architects who see our p?ges. It would seem at first thought as 
if by publishing a good design an architect were voluntarily surren- 
dering his rights; for while every architectural publication as a whole 
is copyrighted, it is pretty hard to protect all the features of a design 
so that an unscrupulous person might not help himself thereto. 
There is, however, another, and we are inclined to believe a fairer, 
way of looking at it. In the first place we have yet to know of a 
single instance wherein the same design can be used for more than 
one piece of work. The conditions are always varying, and even 
though an architect deliberately starts out to copy a design, it is very 
seldom that he is able to do so, and he will almost invariably find that 
he has evolved a new design, and that comparatively few features of 
the original have been retained. Also, we have noticed that the 
architects and designers who are most fearful of having their designs 

copied, who would be most prone to seek protection in a copyright, 
are the ones whose designs really have the least merit, and generally 
for no other reason than that they have been obliged to labor so 
hard over their evolutions they are most desirous of building a fence 
around them, while the leaders in the profession, the men whose 
work we should all be glad to emulate, are seldom troubled with any 
apprehension of piracy. As the British Architect very truly states, 
the general run of architectural design has hardly enough original 
merit to make it worthy of copying, and in the case of architects 
whose work is sufficiently individual and characteristic to render it 
liable of being copied, it is a question whether the architect so plun- 
dered is greatly injured. We feel that the broader spirit is the 
better one, that there are enough ideas in this world to go around 
and to spare, that a certain amount of architectural expression is 
common property, and that all of us, beginners and masters alike, 
gain by the freest interchange of ideas. We grow from without quite 
as much as from within, and a copyright or any restriction placed on 
the free exchange of thought among the members of our profession 
would operate both ways by restricting the borrower and the lender. 
There probably never has been a man in this country who made a 
more liberal use of his books than the late H. H. Richardson, but he 
was a most royal borrower, and from whatever source his inspira- 
tions may have started they ended by being thoroughly and truly his 
own. We do not believe that many of our successful architects 
would ever care to do the same thing twice, or to solve the same 
problem in design twice in exactly the same way, and our experience 
has been that those whose designs we most honor are most ready to 
have them placed where they will benefit their weaker brethren to 
the greatest extent. A copyright in architectural design is perfectly 
practicable, but it would do more harm than good : it would narrow 
the spirit of the profession which is so free and generous at present 
in this country, and, moreover, there would be but slight necessity 
for it. 

This brings to mind one feature to which we have frequently 
alluded in these columns which ought to be a settled custom with 
architects in good practise, namely, to have every one of their build- 
ings signed in just the manner that a painter would sign his pic- 
tures. If the architect feels his name is going to be cut on the 
building before all who want to see it, he will be much more careful 
what sort of creation he puts up, and less prone to try to excuse a bad 
design by vague reference to the limitations of the owner or the 

THE intelligent observer, if candid and able to dissociate senti- 
ment and patriotism from clear, unprejudiced thinking, 
cannot but admit that the painted wooden architecture of our subur- 
ban and country towns falls far short of entirely satisfying. Not 
that our shingle and clapboard houses are not comfortable and 
warm ; not that they do not meet the conditions of good living ; not 
that they are not frequently good to look at. All this must be 
granted; but that they do lack that great essential quality of 
good architecture, — namely, substantialness, permanence, — is un- 
deniable. Born as we are to the heritage of our wooden vernacular, 
we Are prone to think it good and all-sufficient, and we naturally re- 
sent criticism of it; but as our view broadens, as we know other 
countries better, we come to realize that our chauvinistic tenacity to 


this national custom is blind and illogical, and not commensurate 
with our advance in other lines among the nations of the world. It 
is too much to expect, however, that this state of things can change 
all at once. Wooden architecture must for a longtime — possibly 
always — be somewhat cheaper than any other, even if the present 
heedless slaughter of our forest trees be not checked, and a man of 
moderate means must either build a wooden house or no house at all. 
But architects have before them a wide field of missionary work in 
inducing their well-to-do clients to build in something more enduring 
than wood. Perhaps it is not to be deplored that the greater part 
of the building of the last few generations is destined to early decay. 
Peace to its ashes ! Our many wisely conducted schools of archi- 
tecture, and intelligent study and travel have now bred us a class of 
architects who are ready and able to change all this, and upon them 
depends the character of the work of the coming century. Brick 
and stone have always been, and always will be, the vehicles of the 
highest architectural expression of advanced civilization, as they are 
likewise the most indelible record of architectural progress. It is 
the especial province of Tick Brickbuilder to stimulate the use of 
brick and burnt clay products. It entered the field of professional 
journalism for this express purpose, and it is gratifying to us to see 
already a sure awakening of architectural sense and conscience, and 
to know we are in the company of the wisest and ablest architects. 
From our intimate touch with them we know that amongst their 
clients there still exists much prejudice against the use of brick. 
The taste for inch boards, clapboards, and paint dies hard, but it is 
surely waning. Not the least of the many virtues of brick is that, 
in substituting it for wood, much of the prettiness of our house ar- 
chitecture will become impossible, and the real beauty and pictur- 
esqueness of simplicity, reason, and permanence will perforce take 
the place now held by the ornate, the queer, and the ephemeral. 

NO argument is needed to establish the truth of the proposition 
that color-hunger is congenital in the human species, and that 
color-sense is one of the earliest that strives for gratification in all 
races. Man has never been satisfied with a shelter which simply kept 
out wet, wind, cold, and heat. As soon as these functions were sub- 
served he has felt the need of graceful form and pleasing color. 
In the matter of color, vegetable and mineral stains were obviously 
the first to be used, being ready to hand. But these do not stay 
fixed after exposure to the weather; like modern pigments, they all 
fade, more or less. In fact, few natural products can withstand the 
bleaching effect of sunlight or the disintegrating processes of damp- 
ness, frost, and heat. The tendency of all exterior painting is to 
lose its original color, and degenerate into a dull, lifeless, dusty, 
neutral drab. Any street of new, painted wooden houses will show 
this in a few years, however varied they may have been at first. 
When this stage is reached the house owner repeats the process of 
painting, and with characteristic national unrest he generally tries 
a new color or combination of colors, — and in a few years more, da 
capo. Now, if there is anything in our domestic architecture more 
distressing than a neglected wooden house, gone shabby, it is its 
smart neighbor in a fresh garb of spring paint upon which you can- 
not look without blinking ; but it must be confessed that there is 
still a preponderant liking for this brand-newness in the community. 
Compare such a house with one of the simple brick houses of last 
century, of which there are many examples in our seaboard States, 
North and South. This latter is still in vigorous health, is growing each 
year to be more and more an integral part of its environment. It 
has adjusted itself to its surroundings ; it belongs there ; it has grown 
soft and mellow, not faded, with years ; with decent care it is always 
clean, not shabby ; and it civilizes. Its little woodwork — window 
frames, etc. — must be painted, of course, for protection, but there 
is no periodical ruthless tearing down of vines in order to slap its 
walls with the paint brush. 

We believe that the wood and paint day has passed its meridian 
and that the twentieth century will see substantial progress towards 
a wider use of the most imperishable of all known building materials, 

brick and the allied burnt clay products. Never have they been 
so many and so varied as now. All possibilities of form, color, and 
texture are here, and the material that conies out of the kiln is prac- 
ticably everlasting. Born of tire, fire cannot harm it, and time and 
the elements make but small impression on it, unless indeed it be to 
beautify it. 


Elmer Gerber, architect, has opened an office in the Reibold 
Building, Dayton, Ohio. 

ALDEN & HARLOW, architects, announce the removal of their 
offices on April I, to 314 Fourth Avenue, opposite the Vandergrift 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

J. H. Coksidine and ORNAN Waltz, architects, of Elmira, 
X. Y., have formed a partnership, under the firm name of Considine 
& Waltz, and will continue in the same offices, 323 Carroll Street, 
Mechanics Building. 

H. E. Weeks, formerly chief draughtsman with H. Neill Wil- 
son, architect, Pittsfield, Mass., has been admitted to the firm, the 
new style of which is Wilson & Weeks; offices in Savings Bank 

The annual meeting of the St. Louis Architectural Club was 
held on the evening of April 4, at which the following officers 
were elected: President, K. M. Milligan; first vice-president, F. A. 
Seifert ; second vice-president, Ernst Helfeusteller : secretary, F. A. 
P. Burford ; treasurer, John C. Stephens ; advisory members of ex- 
ecutive board, William B. Ittner and Charles Pfeil. 

In accordance with his instructions at the regular monthly 
meeting in March, when the new T Square Club Fellowship was 
announced, Mr. Seeler, president of the club, has appointed Walter 
Cope, Prof. Warren P. Laird, and Albert Kelsey a committee to 
formulate a program and prepare a code of rules to govern this 
competition. It is further stated that these will be cast in a new 
field, so as to include an indigenous sociological problem for archi- 
tectural treatment. 

At a recently held meeting of the Washington Architectural 
Club the following resolutions were adopted : — 

To the Architects and Laymen of the United States : — 

We, the members of the Washington Architectural Club, a rep- 
resentative body of architects of the District of Columbia, in meet- 
ing assembled, believing that, 

While it is true that for a long time in the history of the office, 
known as that of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury, there 
existed a state of affairs which deserved the adverse criticism of the 
profession at large, those conditions have now been so altered for 
the better that adverse criticisms are unjustifiable and detrimental 
to the best interests of the profession, do hereby 

Resolve, That this club extend to the Supervising Architect and 
his staff its moral support, and desires to uphold them in their ear- 
nest efforts to improve governmental architecture; and 

Resolved, That this club resents the unjust and sweeping charges 
of incompetency and mismanagement which have recently been 
made in the legislative halls of the national Congress, and it is 
hereby further 

Resolved, That this club believes it unjust to hold the present 
Supervising Architect responsible for work executed under the 
direct supervision of his predecessors in office. 

Edward W. Donn, Jr., 

Arthur B. H EATON, 




The American Schoolhouse. XVII. 



THE work done by Mr. Snyder in the designing and construc- 
tion of schoolhouses for our largest and most cosmopolitan 
city, work which is typically illustrative of the part our 
people are playing worthily in the civilization of our 
time, is most interesting and instructive. 

The merit which this work has as a whole may 
make any criticism of it appear somewhat hypercritical, 
but in the treatment of a subject where the object is to 
collect and compare examples of schoolhouses that by 
such comparison the several types may be improved, 
some criticism of the buildings under consideration 
cannot well be avoided, and the writer believes that he 
should state his own preference for certain features of 
school buildings and his reasons for such preference 
when he finds such differences of opinion. 

Mr. Snyder gives preference to mullioned windows 
instead of evenly spaced windows distributed in the 
class-room walls. 

Except where the mullioned windows practically 
fill the whole wall whence the light is derived, the 
writer is of the opinion that the rooms would be better 
lighted if the windows were evenly distributed in the 
wall. He also maintains that for reasons previously 
given transom bars should be excluded from class-room windows, and 
that no architectural " style " should be chosen in the treatment 

provided with outside light and is not permanently a separate en- 
closure. The writer again expresses the opinion that economy of 
space in high schools can be gained, and indirectly a desirable free- 
dom be given such pupils, if individual clothing lockers in large 
rooms in the basement are provided instead of " wardrobes " on the 
several stories. It may be a small matter, but the former method 
appears to the writer indicative of a system in which due respect is 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

which would make such a feature necessary. This opinion is not 
simply a dogmatic assertion ; it is made with the conviction that a 
satisfactory expression can be given to a schoolhouse where even 
such minor considerations of utility are accepted as a governing con- 
dition. It is by the regard for such considerations that some approach 
can be made to what is being sought by some as an "indigenous" 
architecture, but which others look upon simply as architectural ex- 
pression of practical needs carefully considered and freed from tradi- 
tional forms foreign to the best requirements of a given building. 

As to the methods of disposal of outside clothing adopted in 
these New York schools, the writer recognizes the stern financial 
necessity that the problem of popular education in New York pre- 
sents; but he must assert his opinion that even when provided with 
special ventilation, as in these cases, that the separate " wardrobe " 
enclosure with outer light is far preferable to any method of outdoor 
clothing disposal immediately adjoining the corridors which is un- 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

shown the individual, and that it is best to treat the high school 
scholar more as an individual than appears to be possible to be done 
in the case of pupils of the lower grades. 

The later H plans adopted for these New York schools 
certainly present, under the conditions which Mr. Snyder 
describes, a better method of schoolhouse lighting than is 
shown in plans like that of public school No. 154. 

The larger amount of wall surface shown in the first floor 
of this latter school is justified because this floor is not used 
for class rooms but for indoor play rooms. The writer be- 
lieves that if the system of evenly spaced instead of mullioned 
windows had been here adopted, the design would have not 
given such broad wall surface in the central pavilions, and the 
class rooms placed in this section of the building would have 
been more satisfactorily lighted. 

It is to be noted that the Girls' High School presents the 
features of large study rooms which have been commended 
in these articles as differentiating the high from the grammar 
school type. 

It would appear better to have adopted a somewhat more 

expensive method of framing than that evidently used in 

■schoolhouse No. 154, so that the columns which obstruct in a 

measure the floors of the class rooms of this building would 

have been covered in the partitions. 

The introduction of the roof playground in New York schools 

is a most interesting innovation and one of practical economy where 

f . ' - ii i ii 


Sfij. . - M. ■ ■ - JL ■ 







C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

schoolhouses are built upon costly sites. In these New York schools 
the first floor is generally used for covered playgrounds analogous to 
like features usual in English schoolhouses. This arrangement ap- 
pears to entail a needlessly extravagant use of space, for with win- 
dows of proper height 
the basement play rooms 
serve the same purpose 
without danger to the 
health of the pupils. 

Some of the Ger- 
man schoolhouses are 
placed in pleasant park- 
like grounds, but as a 
rule the gymnasiums af- 
ford the principal recre- 
ation space for the pupils, 
and there the pupils are 
under as rigid discipline 
as they are in the class 

The French appear 
to attempt to a greater 
degree to give the play- 
grounds features which cultivate the sense of beauty. The play- 
grounds are usually enclosed by brick walls on which trees are 
trained, which, when in leaf, mass the whole wall in green, and 
further well-restrained landscape gardening effects are made. 

There remains yet much to be improved in American schools 
as regards arrangements for recreation and physical training as 
well as bathing facilities and in the more decorative treatment of 
schoolhouse grounds. 

In closing these articles the writer presents his general con. 
elusions on the most important consideration in schoolhouse con- 
struction, namely, the lighting and air capacity of class rooms. 

Class rooms of Europe and in the United States are usually 32 
ft. in length. A greater length makes it difficult for the teacher's 
voice to reach, without strain, the pupils in the last row of seats, 
and at a greater distance the pupils' work on the blackboards at the 
end of the room cannot be readily seen from the platform. On the 
Continent, as in Germany, for instance, the same length is generally 
adopted, although 30 ft. is that preferred by most of the European 
authorities in schoolhouse construction. In the German schools 
analogous to those of grammar grades, in the United States, the 
class rooms are generally 32 ft. long, 22 ft. wide, and 13 ft. high, and 
accommodate, upon forms seating four each, fifty-six pupils, giving a 
floor area of \2.% sq. ft., and an air enclosure of 163 cu. ft. for 
each pupil. In the schools more recently built in Prussia, as in the 
Gemindeschule No. 204 of Berlin, which has recently been seen by 
the writer, although there are rooms of greater capacity, because of 
greater length most of the class rooms are approximately 32 ft. long, 
20 ft. wide, 13 ft. high, and accommodate forty-six pupils, giving a 
floor area of 14 sq. ft., and an air enclosure of 182 cu. ft. for each 

The grammar class rooms in the schoolhouses built within recent 
years in Boston, and in many other cities of the United States, 
are 32 ft. long, 28 ft. wide, 13^ ft. high, accommodating fifty-six 
pupils, seated at single desks, giving a floor area of 16 sq. ft., and an 
air enclosure of 216 cu. ft. for each pupil. 

While the areas above noted are much in excess of those found 
in the latest and best Prussian schools, they fall far short of those 
advised by Dr. Risley, the most recent medical writer upon this sub- 
ject. Dr. Risley advises a schoolroom 32 ft. long, 24 ft. wide, 15 ft. 
high to accommodate forty-five grammar school pupils, seated at 
single desks, giving a floor area of 19 sq. ft., and an air enclosure of 
250 cu. ft. for each pupil. 

The seating of the pupils of American schools at individual 
desks, which elsewhere only maintains in Switzerland, and there, the 
writer believes, but in the upper grades, is not likely to be discarded 

in America. In the best practise the minimum floor area and the 
minimum cubical area of air for each pupil, 16 sq. ft. and 216 cu. 
ft. respectively, should be accepted, and with these factors deter- 
mined, the question of the satisfactory lighting of the class rooms 

remains the principal 

The code of rules 
established by the French 
government for the con- 
struction of schoolhouses 
fixes the minimum 
allowed height of a class 
room at 13 ft., and where 
the light comes from one 
side only, requires that 
the minimum height of 
the room shall be two 
thirds of its width meas- 
ured from the inner wall 
to the face of the outer 
wall of the building. In 
a brick schoolhouse fitted 
with double sash, a class 
room lighted from one side only, 32 ft. long, 28 ft. wide, accommo- 
dating fifty-six grammar school pupils, would require a height of 19 
ft.; a room of the same length, 24^ ft. wide, would accommodate 
forty-eight pupils, and would require a height of 17 ft.; a room of 
the same length, 21 ft. wide, would accommodate forty pupils, and 
would require a height of 14 ft. It will be seen that this French 
rule requires a greater height of ceiling than that recommended by 
Dr. Risley, i. e. 15 ft. in height for a room 32 ft. long, 24 ft. wide, 
accommodating forty-five pupils. It is probable that in the clear 
atmosphere of the United States, a room would have on the aver- 
age, throughout the year, much better lighting than would a room 
of like dimensions in any part of the north of the Continent or in 
England. Even rooms 28 ft. wide are fairly well lighted by the 


I'l BLIC school NO. 159, NEW YOKK CITY. 
C. B. J Snyder, Architect. 

four windows on one side of a room but 1 3 >^ ft. high. It is 
probable, therefore, that if the class rooms in American grammar 
schoolhouses were given a width of 24^ ft., they would be well 
lighted if given a height of \y/ 2 ft. The disadvantages of height 
are obvious, providing of course that adequate lighting can be 
given by other means; but it is possible that the stud of 14 ft. 3 
ins., adopted in the more recently built schools in the city of New 
York,' may be that finally adopted in the grammar schools of the 
United States, especially in those of several stories in height. 
With this ceiling height economy of space can be gained by plac- 
ing two tiers of toilet rooms in the height of a full story. In 




the United States, with ceiling height noted above, class rooms 
with windows on one side only and 28 ft. wide would probably be 
found not to be ill lighted; but American architects should not be 
content with the lighting which can be given a room, lighted from 
one side only, 28 ft. wide, with 13^ ft. of ceiling height, which are 
the customary dimensions given grammar grade class rooms in the 
United States. 

The dimensions given the best American class rooms for the 
grammar grade assure ample light 
only for the corner rooms, where, 
disregarding theoretical require- 
ments, a good diffusion of light can 
be gained by taking it from the 
backs as well as from the left-hand 
side of the pupils. The inside 
rooms, even in most of the best de- 
signed schoolrooms of the United 
States, are planned to accommo- 
date the same number of pupils 
as the corner rooms, under condi- 
tions of lighting which are ap- 
proved by no authority on the sub- 
ject. Dr. Colin says, " There 
never can be too much light in a 
schoolroom," and he has, in this 
opinion, the support of all who have 
given practical consideration to the 
lighting of schoolhouses. 

In writing exercises it is ad- 
vantageous to have the major part, 
if not all, of the light from one side 
only, and that on the left of the 
pupil, but otherwise the quantity of 
the light, and not the direction 
whence the light comes, is the 
most important consideration. It 

is, therefore, better with corner class rooms 28 ft. wide to have four 
windows in the long wall and at least two, if not three, in the other 
outside wall. A window directly opposite the teacher's desk is objec- 
tionable, for the preservation of a teacher's eyesight is no unimportant 
consideration. A constant glare of light directly in one's eyes is 
certainly not desirable, and hence, as is often done in France and 
sometimes in the United States, it appears desirable that the por- 
tion of the wall directly 
opposite the teacher's 
desk should be blank, 
and that the windows on 
either side of this space 
should be placed as near 
the corners of the room 
as the construction makes 
possible, or as may be 
advisable for the external 
appearance of the build- 


lighted from one side only, if their height is not increased to 14 or 
15 ft., should have in the rooms not more than 24 ft. of width, 
and in such rooms forty-eight instead of fifty-six pupils should be 

Class rooms in primary schools, if given a ceiling height of 13 
ft., should be 32 ft. long by 22 ft. wide, and thus furnish accommoda- 
tions for fifty-four instead of fifty-six pupils. 

In Germany light from the north is permitted at the backs of 

the pupils; in France additional 
lighting through the wall oppo- 
site that through which the main 
light comes is required ; while 
certain Swiss authorities con- 
demn, and the regulations of 
certain Swiss cantons forbid, 
lighting from two opposite sides. 
The common sense view of the 
lighting question appears to be 
that all possible light should be 
gained for a class room, provid- 
ing that if from a side of the 
building exposed to the sun the 
major part comes from the left- 
hand side of the pupils, that 
none comes in their faces, and 
that when on a side of the 
building exposed to the sun 
there should be no window di- 
rectly opposite the teacher's 

The conditions seldom exist 
w h i c h permit the construction 
of a schoolhouse with the orien- 
tation which its designer would 
give it if there were no other 
governing conditions. There is 
by no means an unanimous opinion in regard to the best method 
of placing such buildings in regard to exposure to the sun. Most 
authorities agree that the eastern exposure is that most desirable 
for class rooms ; but others whose opinions are also authoritative 
maintain that the northern light is preferable for these rooms, 
providing the windows are furnished with double sash and that 
the rooms are thoroughly warmed and ventilated. Probably most 

would agree that the 

„ . - ■ ■ ■"■■ 

w ' p • 

In the schools of the 
Continent, the class 
rooms are seldom more 
than 22 ft. wide, and the 
regulations generally pro- 
vide the lighting of class 
rooms from one side only, 
but this regulation is in 
the majority of cases re- 

From the foregoing it would appear that as far as the lighting 
of the corner rooms of American schoolhouses are concerned, they 
might retain their present large dimensions, but that,- in rooms 


C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

greater advantages 
would be gained in a 
building whose main 
faqade had a southeast- 
ern exposure, by which 
the sun can shine on 
three faces of the build- 
ing for the greater part 
of the year. There is 
a substantial agreement 
that, on the whole, a 
westerly is less desira- 
ble than a northerly 
exposure, providing the 
building is well heated 
and vent ilated. The 
question of the relative 
merits of the northerly 
and southerly exposure 
for class rooms may be 
left to be decided, as 
the advantages of a steady, clear northern light and that of the 
healthful and cheerful light from the south may be given the greater 


7 o 


The Formal Garden. I. 


THE scope of architectural design embraces much more than 
the planning and construction of buildings. The modern 
architect who has schemed out the general arrangement of floor space 
and communication, of plan and facade, has only begun his work ; 
while, too often, his province is considered to be limited to the de- 
sign of the actual structure, and he is debarred from the control of 
both interior and exterior matters, which are important factors in the 
artistic sum total of his labors. 

Of these, the most important, so far as exterior effect is con- 
cerned, is the proper consideration of the approaches to and the 
grounds about the building. 

That the varying conditions of site and surroundings exert a 
strong influence upon architecture needs no argument; and that an 
architectural design should i n 
some degree include its surround- 
ings is equally logical. 

A building, unlike a ship, 
does not change its anchorage ; it 
is a stationary structure, and if it 
is properly designed in relation to 
its environment and the design of 
that environment is in harmony 
with the building itself, there will 
be no suggestion of the possibil- 
ity of its removal to another and 
equally appropriate site. 

Too many buildings appear 
either to have been casually 
dropped on the ground or to have 
been towed in and temporarily 
anchored in the position they oc- 
cupy. That design, therefore, is 
not complete which does not take 
into consideration the approaches 
to the building and the character 
and detail of the grounds in which 
it stands. The architect is not 
always at fault, even in this mat- 
ter ; for the client, either singular 
or collective, too often knows ex- 
actly what is most desirable, and 
is too seldom restrained from 
" laying out " the grounds in close 
proximity to the building, — either 
leaving the matter to the engineer, 
who is a man of curves and 
grades, to the gardener, whose 

laudable ambition is to make a great many blades of grass grow 
where none are desired and to cause the earth and every portion 
thereof to put on foliage and flower, or else the client, grown exceed- 
ingly wise in his generation, leaves nature to design the surroundings. 
As if nature was to be depended on to curb herself into harmony 
with man's handiwork ! 

Nature does her own work, and usually does it much better than 
man does his; and it is just because she is inimitable in her own 
way that man's art, architectural or otherwise, suffers by contrast. 
Nature is free and unconfined, while architecture at its best is the 
result of careful and painstaking study of rules and traditions, of 
proportion and symmetry ; and when the freedom of the one is 
brought into immediate contrast with the studied forms of the other, 
incongruity rather than harmony is achieved. 

It is necessary, then, that the architectural plan should include 
the laying out of the grounds about the building, that the axis of 
the one should be the axis of the other, that the proportion of build- 


ing to grounds should be carefully considered, and that the details of 
each should be harmonious. These are basic principles and per- 
haps trite enough ; but we need to be reminded of basic principles 
occasionally, " lest we forget." 

The architect and not the gardener should design the grounds; 
the office of the latter being to execute the work of planting and 
pruning in accordance with the specifications of the other, just as 
the builder constructs the house from the architect's drawings and 
specifications; while the gardener's taste in design is no more to be 
relied upon than that of the mason or carpenter, to say nothing of the 
painter. The problem is not one of gardening or floriculture, but 
purely of design ; not one of raising flowers or fruits, but of esthet- 
ics ; and if the taste and judgment of the architect, in prescribing 
the style of architecture best adapted to a certain site, is conceded 
to be sufficient, how much more should he be consulted in the com- 
pletion of that design, by the planning of its immediate surround- 
ings ! The value of these approaches and accessories can hardly be 

over-estimated, and few of the 
great monuments of architecture 
in the world owe nothing to their 

The avenues of obelisks and 
sphinxes leading to an Egyptian 
temple convey an impression of 
distance and majesty unattaina- 
ble without their long perspec- 
tives. St. Peter's, at Rome, 
robbed of its superb approach of 
e 1 1 i p tical colonnade, fountains, 
and terraced platforms, would 
lose much in dignity and impres- 

St. Mark's, in Venice, be- 
longs to the piazza in which it 
stands, whose pavement is part 
of the ground plan on which it is 
built: and if this appreciation of 
plan be carried to its logical 
conclusion, we shall find Paris it- 
self a great city built on an ar- 
chitectural or formal plan, studied 
in relation to the monuments 
which mark its axes and accent 
its vanishing perspectives. 

It is probably too late to at- 
tempt the planning anew of our 
American cities, when the widen- 
ing of a single New York street 
for a mile costs millions of dol- 
lars ; but it is not too late to con- 
sider the individual building and 
its environment, nor to recommend the study of the subject to those 
who are, or shall be, responsible for the beauty or ugliness of our 
public arid private buildings. 

The architectural problem in our great cities is almost invari- 
ably limited to the area covered by the actual structure, and only in 
the case of public buildings has the town architect any opportunity 
to show his skill in bringing the edifice into harmony with its surround- 
ings. He may exemplify some appreciation of the matter by the slight 
platform on which his building stands, for even this will effect a 
gradation between structure and street; while if he is so fortunate as 
to have a few extra feet of area, this platform may be emphasized by 
columns, balustrades, or vases, thus echoing his vertical or horizontal 
lines, and adding the touch of beauty, it may be, to a utilitarian 
structure. But it is when architecture is really juxtaposed with the 
nature of woods and fields that the need is felt for something more 
than simply " building up." We must " build out " as well ; and when 
some suggestion of this sort is apparent, we shall find we are really 



building in harmony with nature, neither affronting her on the one 
hand, nor vainly striving to imitate her on the other. 

There must ever be a sense of the inharmonious in stepping 
from the threshold into a quasi-wilderness ; yet certain modern no- 
tions of landscape gardening seem to have for their objective the 
reproduction of natural growth and tangle, by the avoidance of 
straight lines in walks and planting, and the transparent and abortive 
attempts at the imitation of nature's subtle carelessness in lawn and 

It is pleasant to feel that we are not entirely at the mercy of 
nature as soon as we step from our habitation ; that we have sub- 
jugated her in some degree, and that the dwelling place is somewhat 
extended beyond the actual walls of the domicil. 

The porch or loggia, roofed and partially enclosed, should lead 
to the terrace, where, although the roof is no longer interposed be- 
tween ourselves and the sky, a sense of protection is still maintained 
by the wall or balustrade, and the pavement protects us from direct 
contact with the soil. If possible, the terrace should be placed on 
that side of the house from which may be obtained the best view of 
the landscape ; and if 
it is bounded by a 
balustrade or wall, this 
strong horizontal base 
line will be of great 
value to the picture. 

Indeed, no land- 
scape is seen at it sbest 
without some architec- 
tural line as a basis of 
the composition; for 
proof of this we have 
only to observe the 
great paintings of the 
past, where we shall 
find that the masters 
appreciated the princi- 
ple, exemplifying it in 
their works; while for 
the reality one may 
look across the Roman 
Campagna from the ter- 
races of the Villa d'Este 
at Tivoli ; over Rome 
itself from the Pincian 
Hill; at Fiesole from 
the Piazza Michelangelo 
above Florence, or on 
Washington from the 
terraces of the Capitol. 

The treatment of the terrace must depend largely on local con- 
ditions; and in the best examples of the past may be found the 
most valuable object lessons. It may be a simple walk, paved, grav- 
eled, or turfed, its dimensions in scale with the house. Its reason 
for being is no less practical than esthetic, as it raises the ground 
about the house and carries water away from the foundation walls, 
as well as providing the structure with a base commensurate with 
its mass. 

From the terrace we should descend into the garden; which, 
properly speaking, is an enclosed space of ground, separated from 
the outside world by a wall or hedge. It belongs to the house rather 
than to nature, and not until its boundaries have been passed should 
the restraint and conventionality of man's design and handiwork 
give place to the freedom and exuberance of nature's growth. 

The question of design in the garden is of the utmost impor- 
tance. What kind of a garden is it to be ? An English author says, 
" People with a feeling for design and order will prefer the formal 
garden, while the landscape system, as it requires no knowledge of 
design, appeals to the average person who ' knows what he likes,' if 

An attempt at the restoration of the garden has been made here, and the statuettes, fountains 
been erected as nearly as possible in their original positions. 

he does not know anything else." (How seldom it is that those who 
" know what they like " appreciate really good art ! ) 

The formal garden, then, appeals to those who appreciate order 
and design ; in other words, those who are not insensible to the 
beauties of classic architecture ; and the Italian villa, house and 
grounds considered together in one plan, that a classic plan, is the 
prototype from which all excellent formal gardening has been de- 
rived since the early Renaissance period, and to which the architect 
and amateur must look for the best knowledge and tradition now 

Formal gardens and villas were not invented in the Renaissance, 
for the Romans had appreciated the charm of out-of-door life to the 
utmost, and had built extensive and elaborate pleasure palaces in 
southern Italy, while the country about Rome was once a vast gar- 
den, composed of the villas of nobles and wealthy citizens. Pliny's 
description of his own villas and the ruins of that of Hadrian are 
evidences of the enormous labor and expenditure of the Imperial age. 
The awakened appreciation of the Greek and Roman classics 
exerted no small influence upon the arts of design in the fifteenth 

and sixteenth centuries, 
and architects, sculp- 
tors, and painters 
eagerly studied the re- 
mains and ruins of an- 
c i e n t art. That the 
antique was appreciated 
at a high value may be 
learned from the writ- 
ings of the time, in 
which the work of con- 
temporary artists was 
constantly comp a r e d 
with that of their pred- 
ecessors of ancient 
Greece and Rome. 

Michelangelo him- 
self made an imitation 
of an antique statue 
for the purpose of sell- 
ing it as a genuine an- 
tique, and, what is more, 
did so sell it through 
an agent ; and this, 
while not a particularly 
creditable example, is 
an instance of the value 
put upon works of re- 
puted antiquity. 

Many of the Italian 
villas of the Renaissance period remain to show how wisely they 
were planned ; and while some of these are perhaps more pictur- 
esque in their present ruined state, the majority have suffered 
severely from the tooth of time and the stupidity and vandalism 
which have robbed them of much of their ordered stateliness and 
tasteful decorations. 

The introductions to the tales of Boccaccio present charming 
descriptions of the villas of his time, and would not be out of place 
in an essay on formal gardens, although a technical review can 
hardly be expected to offer its readers quotations from the Decame- 

While the Italian artists of the Cinque Cento may have been in- 
fluenced to some extent by classic traditions, their own just apprecia- 
tion of the advantages to be derived from the intimate association of 
the works of man and of nature in architectural design was their 
strongest incentive in the planning of formal gardens; and exactly 
the same reason may be advanced in this country to-day, in pleading 
for the formal treatment of grounds and gardens. 

It may be said that our climate and landscape are so different 

tables, etc., have 



from those of Italy that Italian gardens would be incongruous here; 
but it is the architectural principle which remains the same, while 
details may be altered or adapted to the altered conditions. As a 
matter of fact, we have almost a Neapolitan summer as compensation 
for our rigorous Siberian winter; and while wt have no stone pines, 
or indigenous orange or bay trees, wherewith to form the perspec- 
tives of avenues, or to beautify our gardens, our American pines, 
firs, and cedars possess as much character, albeit of a different sort: 
while the bay trees and orange trees may be kept indoors during 
the cold and inclement season, to be brought out with the other 
summer paraphernalia to deck our gardens during the warm months. 
The charm of marble or terra-cotta columns and statues against 

Even in towns where the genius of improvement has removed 
all fences and walls, and everybody's lawn is nobody's lawn, where 
no house presumes to approach nearer to the street nor to shrink 
farther back therefrom than its neighbors, where all sense of privacy 
is lost as soon as we go out of doors, the wise man may contrive a 
bit of formal garden behind his house, where a brick wall or modest 
hedge will serve to bound his little paradise, within which graveled 
walks bordered with orderly box, a tinkling jet of water, a few orange 
or bay trees set in terracotta pots, and even a statue or two, with 
gay flower beds in their season, will all combine to make his peace 
secure and his happiness complete. 

The best inspiration for such simple efforts, as well as for more 


a background of glossy green is as delightful in summer in New 
England as under the softer blue of the Italian sky. At any rate, we 
live in America, not Italy, and if we cannot enjoy all the delights of 
that summer clime all the time, that is no reason why we should be 
debarred from their enjoyment while we may. 

The term " formal garden " has been a stumbling block to many, 
for we Americans dislike the notion of being formal anywhere, 
especially in our homes. But formality in garden design should be 
considered as relating to the plan and arrangement of the garden, 
not to our use and enjoyment thereof. The achievement of a ten- 
minute walk in a quarter acre of lawn by tortuous paths through 
clumps of shrubbery is not an artistic triumph, the landscape gardener 
to the contrary notwithstanding. This is the sort of art which 
clutters a drawing room with so much furniture and bric-a-brac that 
the visitor must tack and go about a dozen times before he finally 
moors alongside the tea table of the hostess. 

Nor should the lover of gardens be faint hearted because his 
domain is circumscribed and small, nor seek to magnify its area by 
the exaggeration of nature's unstudied designs. A large house with 
a correspondingly large garden is desirable ; but a small house with a 
small garden designed in harmony therewith is not to be despised. 


important and impressive schemes, may be found in the old gardens 
of the Old World; and for those who have neither opportunity nor 
inclination to go abroad to visit them, books have been written and 
illustrated on the subject ; the most suggestive of them being that 
called " Italian Gardens," by Charles A. Piatt, an American artist 
whose high reputation as a painter and etcher seems likely to be 
eclipsed by his triumphs in the planning of formal gardens in the 
United States. 

NOTHING more clearly marks the line which separates the 
good from the vulgar artist than the power which the former 
always retains to use and not abuse his material, or his opportunities 
for its free use. The good artist in brick values properly the use of 
molded brick and terra-cotta, and uses them whenever he can do so 
safely and artistically. The bad artist seems, on the other hand, to 
rejoice in the endless profusion of ornament with which the cheap 
reproduction of molded forms supplies him ; and the consequence 
is, that in some of the fronts of the later Italian churches we are 
annoyed and disgusted by the endless repetitions of features which 
would never otherwise have been marked at all. Such are the rich 
stringcourses, and eaves, and gable moldings, which are everywhere 
to be seen, and which ought never to be imitated. — British Brick- 






MANY excellent treatises have been written on the theory of 
the masonry arch and much concise information may be 
derived from them, but generally for the architect or builder who 
desires the needed information quickly these works are too complex 
and usually buried under a heap of mathematics. This article, like 

should not deviate from the center of the joint by more than one 
sixth of the depth of the arch ; that is to say, the center of resist- 
ance should be within the middle third of the depth of the arch. 
Fig. 3 shows where line of pressure should be in a properly con- 
structed and loaded arch. 

AB shows the line of pressures, and dotted lines show the middle 
third. From which follows the well-known theorem : The stability 
of an arch is secure if a linear arch balanced under the forces which 
act on the real arch can be drawn within the middle third of the 
depth of the arch. It is true that arches have stood, and still stand, 
in which the centers of resistance of the joints fall beyond the middle 
third of the depth of the arch, but the stability of such arches is pre- 
carious. To insure stability of friction between the mortar and 
blocks themselves, the normal to each joint must not make an angle 


FIG. 4. 

others of the same class, contains facts and principles that have been 
long and widely known combined with as little mathematics as 

Let us first consider the " flat arch." If a straight line be drawn 
through each joint of the arch " blocks " (voussoirs) representing the 
position and direction of the resultant of the pressures at that point, 
the straight lines so drawn form a polygon, and each of the angles of 
that polygon is situated in the line of action of the resultant external 
force acting on the arch 
blocks, so that the poly- 
gon is similar to a poly- 
gonal frame loaded at 
its angles with the forces 
which act on the arch 
blocks (their own weight 
included). A curve in- 
scribed in that polygon 

so as to touch all its sides is the line of pressures of the arch. For 

an example of the above, assume an elastic cord loaded as in Fig. I. 

Now let us reverse the conditions and superimpose the loads 

W p W.,, etc., upon the arch, and for illustration we have Fig. 2. The 

line of pressures 
would be as repre- 
sented by AB. But 
the smaller and more 
numerous the arch 
blocks into which 
the arch is subdi- 
vided, the more 
nearly does the poly- 
gon coincide with 
the curve ; and the 
curve, or line of pressures representing an 
ideal linear arch, which would be balanced 
under the uniformly distributed forces which 
act on the real arch under consideration. 
The points where the linear arch cuts the 
joints in the arch may betaken, without any 
great error, for the center of resistance. 

Now in order that the stability of the 
arch may be secure, it is necessary that no 
joint should tend to open either at its outer 
or inner edge, and so that such a condition 
exists, the center of resistance of each joint 

2. fig. 3. 

greater than the angle of repose (for the material in question) with a 
tangent to the line of pressures drawn through the center of resist- 
ance of that joint, but for our requirements under ordinary condi- 
tions, if blocks are used with a batter of one inch to the foot, the 
angle of repose for terra-cotta and mortar will not be exceeded. 

In our following deductions a resistance to compression of 208 
lbs. per square inch, which is considered safe by the New York 
Building Department, will be used, and introduced for convenience 

in the formulas di- 
rectly. Judging from 
numerous tests made 
upon the material, 
which vary from 1,000 
lbs. to 3,000 lbs. per 
square inch as the 
ultimate resistance to 
crushing, 208 lbs. per 
square inch would seem safe enough. It is further assumed that 
the arches are properly set with cement mortar, especially where 
they abut beneath the beams or supports as usually set. 

Assuming that we are to determine the allowable load per 
square foot upon an arch, let us take any arch, as Fig. 4, made of 
blocks of any given length, say one foot long, and through the middle 
third pass an assumed line of pressures (segment of circle) through 
the points abc. 

The concentrated loads W 1( W 2 , W.,, W,, W r> (placed as shown 
in the diagram ) which would produce this particular line of pressures 
may be determined graphically as follows: — 

Layoff (Fig. 5) AB = — 8 

Through A perpendicular to AB draw a line A.r any length. 

Now on the curve abc ( Fig. 4 ) draw a tangent to a point 
midway between W , and W,, and ascertain its slope, and draw a 
line with same slope through B ( Fig. 5 ) intersecting A.r at C. Then 
lay off DB = W, and OE = W,. Draw EC and DC. 

These two last lines will also be tangential to the line of pres- 
sures at points midway between the points of loading. 

Assuming that the area of a section of arch 1 ft. wide is A, then 
our total safe resistance to compression would be 208 A ; but the 
weakest points in our arch are the points a, b, and c (Fig. 4), where 
the line of pressures touches the upper and lower third of the arch, 
so the pressure at these points would therefore be equal to twice the 
mean pressure on the total block, or 





Pounds 50 

Ls*~ s' ^-'* ^"" m"" »-""" _ - --- 

y '£ y „ •« ' f *~ _ -- - _--"" .. - __-- 

J? / ^y 7 " ^"" a.-" ^"■"" ^~~~~"~ ^.-~~"~ Z ' ---"~~~L - ~~ 

4. _ A* -'"'' <* 9 *"" fi ■""'' "■■"'" ""■-■" """ ■ """"■""" -" ~~ 

/ / * s' y 7 + * *>•" -"'' ^■-"~' --"1. — -"" Z.—- "" " 

, 7 ^? 'y y* S+ ^ -- *" ^ e " " e: " " <= " "" *•""""" - ""Z " ~~ 

' / ' _a«_'' ■a 1 ' 3 *'' ? c"'2fi'2'""" S « """""-"""" - " 

Z z''- 7 - 7 - .-^' ' £."Z*'' ' < "" S ■* ^ " ^-"Z.-""" 

/ / ^x^ i y' ^'^ y 7 y'"L *"' -""'a"'"" 

tfl'/fi- zi$yA\*\'Ai zz^iV-VLZ : : : : 

ziiii/.z yAni'Av. niclz.1 : :::_:_: :__: 

:^?/ Z'liti'S ^*u" - : : 

ZZZ/ jAjC&£- lilt. — - - - - 

111 S-7/'S J\' _ ______ 

iiizzittiz r ^_ --- 

/A £_z^ 

2 ??___ Z' - - - - - 

i ///// // 

zAAi---'' __ 

tttt 7/ - - 

Alt // - - - 

tAi zY- _ _ _ 


17 7* 

tA A _ : : : "" ::::: 

t~ A _____ 


z if— _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ 

-A - 

ZT __ _ _ _ 

A z 


1 ::::::::::: 


Copyright, 1899. 

By permission of the Central Fire-Proofing Company, New V'ork. 

208 A 



2 ; 

equals greatest allowable pressure in pounds, or graphically in the 
case in question, equal to the line EC. Therefore, comparing EC 
and ED, we can obtain the value in pounds of ED, which would be 
the allowable safe load per square foot of arch. 

Let the rectangle cdhp ( Fig. 6) represent any " flat arch." 

•. r = r' and x'y — ao or 

r= V + 


2 V 
Or very nearly r = 

8 V 

Copyright, 1899. 

I'.v permission of the Central Fire-Proofing Company, New V'ork 

Let ct 


ad by construction, 
span of arch. 



D = depth of arch. 
Pass an arc of a circle through azb with x as the center. 


: S = 
:V = 


Also V = — , substituting value of V in (1). 

S2 (2) 

From the graphical demonstration previously described of the 
line of pressures in arches, we find that ax' is equal in magnitude 

Copyright, 1899. 

By permission of the Central Fire-Proofing Company. New York. 


Draw zx perpendicular to es. 

Draw ax, and ax' perpendicular to ax J .-. by construction ax' 

will be tangent to the arc azb, at the point a. 
Lay off ax' = ax, and draw x'y perpendicular to ay. 
Then by similar triangles and construction we have ax'y — aox. 

and direction to the maximum pressure when the arch is considered 
loaded uniformly. 

Let W = load per square foot in pounds. 

T = total resistance in direction of line of pressures. [ In 



A = the least cross sectional area of an arch i ft. wide. 
From equation (a) 

T = 1 04 A 

.-. Wr' = T (V in linear feet expressed as units) 

Substitute values in ( 4 ) of T and r' from ( 2 ) and ( 3 ). 
S 2 



104 A. 

2.7 D 

Reducing and transposing, 

280.8 AD 
W = ^ 

Or approximately, 
Formula: W = 

280 AD 


In which 

A = least cross sectional area of an arch one foot wide. [In 
square inches.] 

D = total depth of arch. [In feet.] 

S = span of arch. [In feet.] 

W= allowable load per square foot. [In pounds.] 

Plate 1 shows a series of curves obtained by means of formula A. 
The calculations were made on that style of arch which is generally 
used,/, e. parallel webs and shells of % in. thickness. The allowable 
load per square foot for an arch at any span will be found directly 
above the intersection of the line representing the span and the curve 
representing the arch. 

It will be noted in the diagram that two 9 in. arches are given, but 
this is due to the fact that the calculations were based on two different 
sections, of one and two horizontal webs respectively. It is not advis- 
able to use formula A for very small spans, as the error in the formula 
becomes excessive, but for all practical spans it is near enough. 

Anew style of arch, the "serrated arch " recently devised by 
Henry L. Hinton, of the Central Fire-proofing Company of New 
York, is here illustrated in Plates 2 and 3. These arches will be 
fully described in future articles and their adaptability to various 
requirements will be shown. 

A formula especially applicable to this style arch has been de- 
duced and is as follows: — 

From the demonstration of "flat arches" we have 
S 2 

8 V 



In this case V = — + x, in which .r= rise of arch in feet. 


Substituting this value of V in (1 ), 
S 2 

8 D 

h 8 x 


But W r = T. 
T = 104 A. 
WS 2 

8 D 

= 104 A. 

+ Sx 
Transposing and reducing, we have approximately 
280 A ( D + 3 x) 


S 2 


In the " serrated arch" x = — ,i.e.%\a. rise per foot of span. 


Substituting this value in ( 2 ), 

S N 
280 A ( D + -g ) 



Formula : 

S 2 


280 AD 35 A 
S 2 ~S~ 


The notation in (3) is of course the same as that used in the 
" flat arch " formula. In case a rise of other than yi in. per foot of 
span, formula (2) could be used by substituting the proper value 
for x, but it must be expressed in feet. However, it is advisable not 
to use this formula for a rise greater than 1 in. per foot of span. For 
greater rises and regular segmental arches a formula will be given. 

Fineness of Cement. 


M. Am. Soc. of C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois. 


CEMENT until ground is a mass of partially vitrified clinker, 
which is not affected by water, and which has no setting 
power. It is only after it is ground that the addition of water induces 
crystallization. Consequently the coarse particles in a cement have 
no setting power whatever, and may for practical purposes be con- 
sidered as so much sand and essentially an adulterant. 

There is another reason why cement should be well ground. A 
mortar or concrete being composed of a certain quantity of inert 
material bound together by cement, it is evident that to secure a 
strong mortar or concrete, it is essential that each piece of aggregate 
shall be entirely surrounded by the cementing material, so that no 
two pieces are in actual contact. Obviously, then, the finer a cement 
the greater surface will a given weight cover, and the more economy 
will there be in its use. 

Fine cement can be produced by the manufacturers in three 
ways: (1) by supplying the mill with comparatively soft, under-burnt 
rock, which is easily reduced to powder ; (2) by more thorough grind- 
ing ; or (3) by bolting through a sieve and returning the unground 
particles to the mill. The first process produces an inferior quality 
of cement, while the second and third add to the cost of manu- 

It is possible to reduce a cement to an impalpable powder, but 
the proper degree of fineness is reached when it becomes cheaper to 
use more cement in proportion to the aggregate than to pay the 
extra cost of additional grinding. 

There has recently been introduced an article called sand- 
cement, which is made by mixing cement and silica sand, and then 
grinding the mixture. The grinding of the mixture greatly increases 
the fineness of the cement. A mixture of one part cement and three 
parts silica sand when reground will carry nearly as much sand as 
the original pure cement, which shows the striking effect of the very 
fine grinding of the cement. This statement is illustrated by the 
following data, which came before the writer in a purely accidental 
way while this article was in process of preparation. 


Age when tested. 

( Ordinary 


Cemen r . 


Portland cement. 



f> days. 

39 2 



1 3 days. 





20 days. 





27 days. 





3 months. 




6 months. 





6 days. 





27 days. 





6 days. 





27 days. 





(> days. 





27 days. 





(1 days. 





27 days. 



The sand-cement employed in securing the results in the last 
column is the Portland cement, giving the results in next to the last 
column, mixed one part cement to two parts silica sand and then re- 
ground. The tests were made under identical conditions, and hence 
the results are at least relatively correct. The data is not the most 
striking that could be formed, but it serves to illustrate the advan- 
tage of fine grinding. On the average, the American Portland 
cements are considerably finer ground than the imported. 



Incidentally fineness is tested when in determining the tensile 
strength of a mortar a mixture of cement and sand is employed. 
However, it is wise to determine the fineness also directly by sifting 
through one or more sieves, since the results of tests with sand are 
liable to a wide difference due to the character of the sand, and con- 
sequently it is not always possible to know whether the difference is 
due to the sand or to fineness of the cement. 


The degree of fineness is determined by weighing the per cent, 
which will not pass through sieves of a specified number of meshes 
per square inch. In the past, three sieves have been used for this 
purpose, viz. : sieves having 50, 75, and 100 meshes per linear inch 
or 2,500, 5,625, and 10,000 meshes per square inch respectively. 
These sieves are usually referred to by the number of meshes per 
linear inch, the first being known as No. 50, the second as No. 75, 
and the third as No. loo. In each case the diameter of the mesh is 
about equal to that of the wire. The per cent, left on the coarser 
sieves has no special significance, and hence the use of more than 
one sieve has been almost abandoned. More recently in this coun- 
try a No. 120 sieve ( 14,400 meshes per square inch ) has been em- 
ployed, and sometimes a No. 200. On the continent of Europe the 
sieve generally used has 70 meshes per linear centimeter, correspond- 
ing to 175 meshes per linear inch ( 30,625 per square inch ). 


Nearly all Portland cements are so ground as not to leave more 
than 20 per cent, on a No. 100 sieve, and many of them will not 
leave more than 10 per cent, on a No. 100 sieve or more than 20 per 
cent, on a No. 200 sieve, and some manufacturers claim less than 
10 per cent, on a No. 200 sieve. As a rule, American Portlands are 
finer ground than German, and German finer than English. 

Most of the natural cements are usually ground so as to give 
not more than 20 per cent, on the No. 100 sieve ; and many of them 
will not leave more than 10 per cent, on the No. 100 sieve; and a 
few will leave only 10 per cent, on the No. 200 sieve. 

A common specification is that not more than 10 per cent, shall 
be left on a No. 50 sieve. Such a test simply prevents the adultera- 
tion of the cement with very coarse particles, but does not insure 
any considerable proportion of impalpable powder ( approximately 
that which will pass a No. 200 sieve ), which alone gives value to 
the cement. 

Since the natural cement is not so hard burned as the Portland, 
there is more impalpable powder in proportion to the per cent, left 
on the test sieve than with the Portland ; and consequently a severe 
test for fineness is not as important for natural cement as for Port- 
land. Farther, since natural cement is much cheaper than Portland, 
it is more economical to use more cement than to require extra fine- 
ness. Again, since natural cement is weaker, it is not ordinarily 
used with as large a proportion of sand as Portland, and hence fine- 
ness is not as important with natural as with Portland. 


It not infrequently occurs that several samples of cement are 
submitted, and it is required to determine which is the most economi- 
cal. One may be high priced and have great strength ; another may 
show great strength neat and be coarsely ground. If the cement is 
tested neat, then strength, fineness, and cost should be considered ; 
but if the cement is tested with the proportion of sand usually em- 
ployed in practise, then only strength and cost need to be consid- 

Table I. shows the method of deducing the relative economy 
when the cement is tested neat; and Table II. (repeated from page 
189, Vol. VII., for sake of comparisons ) shows the method when the 
cement is tested with sand. The data are from actual practise, 
and the cements are the same in both tables. Results similar to 
these could be deduced for any other age ; the circumstances under 

which the cement is to be used should determine the age for which 
the comparison should be made. 

The above method of selecting the most economical cement 
gives the advantage to a cement which gains its strength rapidly 
and which is liable to be unsound. Therefore this method should 
be used with discretion, particularly with short-time tests. 




Tensile s 










fii "Si 


£.= " 

g = 




5 > - u 




2 * 

2 3 

Cl, c 







ative fi 










I 00.0 







1 00.0 











95. 8 





1 00.0 





1 47-55 














Tensile Strength, 
1 C. to 3 S. 


Relative Economy. 




Pounds per 


Cost per 


i'roduct of 


Strength and 

Relative Cost 






95 4 


2 40 
2 45 



95 40 
*> 33 

7' 94 




THE Portland cement industry in 1898 will probably show an 
advance in production over that of 1S97 quite equal to that of 
1897 over 1896. It is conservatively estimated by good authorities 
that the output in the Lehigh Valley in 1898 was about 2,500,000 
barrels, or nearly 1,000,000 barrels more than in 1897, and that the 
American production in 1898 will reach 3,500,000 barrels. It is also 
estimated that the production in the Lehigh Valley will increase in 
1899 over 1S98 from 900,000 to 1,000,000 barrels, making the output 
of Portland cement in the United States for the present year ap- 
proach 4,500,000 barrels. The imports during 1898 and again in 
1899 will probably decrease, as the reports of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics of the Treasury Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1898, show a decrease in the first six months in 1898 over the im- 
ports for a similar period in 1897. 

Unfortunately, in the reports which are available, there are no 
statistics of the amount of silica or sand-cement and of the several 
kinds of slag cement which are produced in this country. These 
industries, however, do not turn out a sufficient output to be seriously 
considered. It is understood that the manufacturers of slag cement 
are turning their attention to the production of normal Portland, if 
possible, from their slags by amending their composition and burning 
them to a clinker. It is stated that the use of the rotary kiln has 
continued to increase in this country, 49 per cent, of the total prod- 
uct having been burned in this way in 1897. 

The production of natural cement increased in 1897 over 1896 
by 341,23s barrels, or 4.28 per cent. As the capacity for production 
exceeded the demand by about 25 per cent., prices were somewhat 
depressed. As the manufacture of Portland cement develops in this 
country it is probable that that of natural cement will gradually 

For the year the total output of natural cement was 8,311,688 
barrels, more than one half being made in New York State. 


Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 


BY F. W. fitzpatrick. {Concluded.) 


'ASHINGTON is famed for its homes; a city of homes per- 
haps more than a city of churches even. Statesmen during 
their terms of office reside here from necessity, become enamored of 
the place — and it is naturally and artificially a beautiful city — and 
continue to reside here from choice. Men of large interests come 
here on a visit, or to foster those interests, — it is also a great place 
for fostering, — fall a prey to the same charms, and build expensive 
homes. Men retired from business come here to acquire the social 
distinction their families crave for, and then others come to live with 
us because still others are here. Like a great snowball, rolled by our 
enthusiastic progeny, 
Wash ington keeps on 
gathering wealthy resi- 
dents, and she can boast 
of being second only to 
New York in the lavish- 
ness and number of her 
expensive homes. Many 
are built of brick, some 
have cost fortunes, some 
have broken their own- 
ers. The streets are 
wide, beautiful trees, fine 
vistas, elegant opportu- 
nities, but you can count 
the really artistic, beau- 
tiful exteriors on your 
fingers, and I'll not 
swear that you cannot 
count them on the fin- 
gers of one hand. And 
why ? It is one of the 
unsolved mysteries o f 
the times. Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, Minneapolis, 
Cleveland, Detroit, Den- 

McKini, Mead & White, Architects. 

F. P. Chandler, Architect. 

H. H. Richardson, Architect. 

ver, and Portland, in far- 
away Oregon, can show, 
not only proportionately, 
but, regardless of size, 
far more beautiful 
homes, tastily designed 
(and evidently designed 
for the places they oc- 
cupy) than can Wash 
ington ; and few homes 
in those cities, except- 
ing, of course, in New 
York, have cost nearly 
as much as ours. I can 
recall but two places 
where the domestic ar- 
chitecture struck me as 
being generally as unim- 
pressive, except for its 
ugliness, as that of our 
nation's capital, — Lon- 
don and San Francisco. 
There may be others, but 
those three places I 
think ought to be 
crowned as hors con- 
cours. There are ex- 
pensive homes on Mas- 
sachusetts, on Connecticut, and Rhode Island Avenues, Columbia 
Heights, and dotted all over the northwestern part of the city ; a 
great many of them of brick, and generally the most expensive ones, 
the aggressively conspicuous ones are chiefly conspicuous for their 
inartistic qualities. 

The middle-aged brick homes of importance are the English 
Embassy, the Pollock house (whose master and mistress went down 
upon the ill-fated Bourgogne), and the Blaine (now the Westing- 
house) home. These are large and quite ordinary in design, and that 
is all that can be said of them. The Stewart " Castle," as it is 
called, fortunately is stuccoed, so few know it to be brick, and for 
the sake of brick I am glad of it. The Leiter home is probably the 
most striking brick house here, a light cream brick with gray stone 
trimmings, rather attractive, well detailed, or, at least, not sinning 
very grievously; though if Mr. Chandler had it to do over again, I 
doubt if he would be satisfied with the same lines. It certainly occu- 
pies the finest site in town, an ideal lot for a mansion, and about the 
most conspicuous one, too. Allah be praised ! that the house is not 
only "good " but " quite good "; in fact, judged by the Washington 
standard, it is "perfect." 



F. I-'. Schneider, An h 

Thomas Nelson Page has recently finished a brick home by 
McKim, Mead & White 
that attracts a great 
deal of attention. A 
mottled gray Roman 
brick with white trim- 
mings, colonial in style, 
chaste, offending none 
of the canons, it merits 
attention and certainly 
represents one finger 
when you count up the 
really good houses here. 
That 1 do not like the 
style and question the 
propriety of using some- 
thing that one instinc- 
tively feels ought to be 
surrounded by a fine 
lawn, stately trees, foun- 
tains, and winding drives 
right on a town lot, 
bang up to the sidewalk, should not reflect against it — but one may 
express an opinion. 

The Hay-Adams double house (Secretary of State Hay), by 


Harvey Page, 


Hornhluwer & Marshall, Architects 

Richardson, shows what can be done in brick. It is a red brick, and 

nearly all the upper de- 
t a i 1 is in brick ; the 
lower story is of buff 
sandstone. There is 
some rather good brick 
carving, good window 
treatment, altogether 
one of the few really 
good brick structures, 
public or domestic, here. 
The usual gloom of a 
red brick is relieved by 
dashes of ivy, fern, and 
palms, accessories that 
are not to be despised 
by the architect. 

The other impor- 
tant brick houses here 
are shown by the ac- 
companying illustra- 
tions. There is really 

nothing in most of them that would justify more than a photograph. 

There are quite a number of narrow " fronts " of brick, 25 and 30 ft. 




Paul J. Pelt/. Architect. 

Ruach .S: Tilden, Architects. 



party-wall affairs, that are not bad ; but even among these only one 
or two merit a place in an architect's portfolio ; that is, if he uses 
his portfolio to browse in for ideas, or to gauge what is* being done 
worthy of note by his fellows. 

Brick has been made in and about Washington for many years. 
In the fifties there was a rather handsome red brick made here and 
in Alexandria. One or two moldings, an egg-and-dart, and a dentil 
were made ; the bricks used for face work were gauged and rubbed, 
and very good work indeed was the result. To-day there is but one 
pressed-brick works here, to my knowledge ; from 70,000,000 to 
150,000,000 of a very good common brick are made, and on Janu- 
ary 25 last nine of the fourteen plants combined under one man- 
agement, and their product sells for about $8.50 a thousand, 
" kiln-run." 

In glancing over this paper, in order to properly place the illus- 
trating photos (most of them and the views in Annapolis contrib- 
uted by Mr. Frank Upham, of Mr. Cobb's Washington office, a 
young camera as well as architectural enthusiast, and to whom I 

Furness & Evans, Architects. 

am greatly indebted for adding pictorial interest to matter that could 
not, by any stretch of courtesy or generosity, be considered as inter- 
esting per se), I am compelled to acknowledge that the impression 
they leave upon me, an unprejudiced reader, is that they are the handi- 
work of a dyspeptic. I assure you I am not, however ; my health 
and digestion are of the very best and my temperament, under ordi- 
nary circumstances, most seraphic ; nor am I generally hypercritical. 
But knowing the beauties that can be extracted from brick, and 
having seen that they have been taken advantage of elsewhere, it 
makes me exceedingly wroth, aye, willing to commit a breach of the 
peace even, to see how in this grand city, that every one visits, the 
cynosure not only of neighboring but of all eyes, and where there 
are so many such grand, such masterly works in stone, that nearly 
every time that brick has been used, or is used, all its beauties have 
been extracted — when the architects made their drawings! And one 
cannot lay all the blame at the doors of our local confrhes. While 
perhaps sharing in the guilt, they are not the worst offenders. Our 
buildings are cosmopolitan as far as architects are concerned. 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and even the West, all have sinned 
here in brick, and sinned most grievously, too. 

The causes leading to these sins are more or less evident, but 
for a remedy one will seek in vain through allopathic, homeopathic, 


Executed by the Ferth Amboy Terra- 

Cotta Company. 

Willis (J. Hale, Architect. 

or osteologic pharmacopeias. The mi- 
crobe and its eliminator are " wrapt in 
mystery," and I suppose for yet a little 
while we can but hold our peace and 
pray. True, there is a wee rift in the 
clouds here and there, and "in that sign 
may be our hope." 

EW YORK. — There is a sure and 
infallible sign that business 
among architects and builders will be 
more brisk this summer than has been 
the case for at least five years, and that 
this sign must prove of great interest to 
readers of The Brickisuilder we feel 
convinced. It is the constant demand 
for first-class draughtsmen, which we 
trust for the sake of the advance guard 
of the great army of draughtsmen will result in a return to the old- 
time good salaries which first-class men received some years ago. 
Upon investigation we find that this promised season of activity will 
be mainly among the architects, whose work lies in the direction of 
apartments and suburban homes, although many corporations who 
held off on account of the late war have become infected with the feel- 
ing of confidence and security which is abroad and are now ready to 

During the past year there has been a decided falling off in the 
number of large office buildings built, and in this column about a 


Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

year ago we expressed a fear that there was an over-supply of such 
large buildings, many of which are capable of housing the inhabi- 
tants of a city. We also expressed the confidence that we felt in the 
well-established corporations and shrewd business men who com- 



posed the syndicates by whom these buildings were erected. It has 
been abundantly proved that this last surmise was correct. Never 
has there been such a demand for offices in modern well-equipped 


Geo. E. Hallett, Architect. 

fire-proof buildings, and we can now safely say that there is 
room for more of them. Strange to say, the rents charged for 
offices in these buildings are the same or very little more than the 
rents charged for offices of equal size in old ramshackle buildings 
with no modern equipments. Even the enormous Park Row Build- 
ing, which we thought would be hard to fill, promises to prove a 
bonanza. In spite of the large floor area, owing to the peculiar advan- 
tages of the lot, it has not an office which is not abundantly lighted, 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

and as a step in advance there is a telephone in every office which 
connects with the public telephone on the ground floor. 

At the time of this writing there has been another fire horror in 
New York in which thirteen lives were lost. The fire occurred at 
2 a. m. in a modern four-story residence in the " millionaire "district. 
It seems as though American wealth and ingenuity should be equal 
to the task of constructing dwellings which are something better 
than fire-traps. The Windsor disaster has caused no end of bills to 
be introduced at Albany with the design of rendering hotels less 
dangerous; but what are we to do about the thousands of private 
dwellings ? We have a fire department of which we are justly 
proud, but when a fire occurs in the lower part 
of a dwelling the most heroic exertions fail to 
rescue the inmates. Even if the inmates contrive 
to reach the upper windows there is no way to de- 
scend, and unless rescued with difficulty from 
without they are doomed to horrible death. In 
case of fire the residences of the wealthy are in 
most instances more dangerous than the tene- 
ments of the poor, for the law compels the erec- 
tion of fire escapes upon these, while the owner of 
a private residence will not disfigure it with these 
contrivances and objects to the existence of a fire- 
engine house in his immediate neighborhood. It 
certainly should be possible to descend from the 
upper floors by ladders or stairways outside the 
house. These could be arranged on the rear, 
where they will not disfigure the appearance of 
the house, or one of the many patent fire escapes 
which roll up like rope ladders and are attached 
to the sills could be used. With the cheapening 
of iron and other non-combustible building mate- 
rials, future structures should be made safe. If 
they are not absolutely " fire-proof," the lire would 
be confined long enough to give the inmates a 
chance to escape. That the casual ignition of a 
curtain should lead to the heartrending casualties 
which we so frequently read about is too dreadful 
to be tolerated by a wealthy, ingenious, and intel- 
ligent people. 

The following items of new work have come to 
our notice: — 

I5abb, Cook & Willard are at work upon plans for 
a palatial mansion to be built for Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie, on Fifth Avenue between 91st and 93d 
Streets. Mr. Howard Gould has purchased a site 
for a handsome residence on the corner of Fifth 
Avenue and 73d Street. Howard & Cauldwell 

have filed plans for a twelve-story hotel, to be 

built of limestone and brick, and to be erected 

at Madison Avenue and 56th Street; cost, 

?25o,ooo. Albert E. l'arfitt is preparing 

plans for a new parish building and rectory, 

to be built for St. Augustine's Roman Catholic 

Church, at the corner of Park Place and 

Sixth Avenue. Brooklyn; cost, #150,000. 

McKim, Mead & White have prepared plans 

for a new hospital, to be erected on first 

Avenue and 27th Street; cost, $500,000. C. 

L. W. Eidlitz has planned a three-story brick 

building for the New York and New Jersey 

Telephone Company, to be erected on 58th 

Street; cost, $30,000. C. P. H. Gilbert is 

preparing plans for a six-story brick store and 

office building, to be built on Fifth Avenue; 

cost, $100,000. Harney & Chapman have planned a ten-story 

hotel building, to be built for the White estate on Seventh Ave- 
nue, corner of 3SU1 Street; cost, $450,000. Clinton & Russell 


A I PH I I. A - 
Executed by the Conk- 

1'trr.i 1 otta Company. 

Baker A Dallett, 


8 1 

Work executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Ralph Townsend, Architect. 

schoolhouses, costing respectively #260,000 and 
Wm. C. Hazlett has prepared plans for a ten-story store 
and loft building, to be built on 12th Street, corner Uni- 
versity Place ; cost, $160,000. 

are preparing 
plans for r six- 
story brick dwell- 
ing, to be built on 
East 84th Street ; 
cost, $40,000. 
The same archi- 
tects have 
planned three 
three-story brick 
dwellings, to be 
built on East 84th 
Street; cost, $45,- 
000. J. B. Snook 
& Sons have 
planned an eight- 
story brick store 
and office build- 
ing, to be built 
on Bro a d w a y , 
corner of Warren 
Street; cost, 
$150,000. Chas. 
C. Haight has 
pi anned a five- 
story brick dor- 
mitory building 
for the General 
Theological Sem- 
inary ; cost, $65,- 
000. C. B. J. 
Snyder, architect 
to the Board of 
E d u c ation, has 
planned two new 
25,000 each. 

ing the front are 
unusually wide, 
and the treat- 
ment is severely 
a lintel tre a t- 
ment: a steel 
frame simply 
c 1 o thed above 
the first story in 
modeled terra- 
cotta, finely de- 
tailed and de- 
cidedly geomet- 
ric in feeling, 
except in the 
case of the rich 
o rch i d-1 i k e 
bursts of foli- 
ated ornament 
beneath the 
cornice at the 

upper terminals of the intermediate pier ribs. The cast-iron cover- 
ing of the first-story skeleton is decorated with a remarkably beauti- 
ful interweaving combination of geometrical and foliated forms. 
All the upper sash are glazed flush outside with Luxfer prisms. 

The recently issued first triennial report of the State Board of 
Examiners of Architects gives in detail the results accomplished by 
the first State law enacted for the legalizing of the profession of 
architecture and the registration of practitioners. The first meeting 
of the board was held Sept. 31, 1897, and prior to Feb. 11, 1899, 
seven hundred and fourteen applications for license had been re- 
ceived and seventy-three rejected. This law, as well as the city 
ordinance, requiring that all plans submitted to the department of 
buildings for approval must be stamped by a State licensed architect, 
seems to be popular ; the violators are now few, and none are persistent. 



Executed by the Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 

Richards & McCarty, Architects. 

CHICAGO. — Sharp advances in the prices of build- 
ing materials amounting to at least 12 per cent, 
threaten to postpone for a considerable period the re- 
vival in building operations. Also, just now the usual 
uncertainty as to labor troubles tends to further retard 
the launching of new projects. 

The younger members of the profession are at pres- 
ent interested in the Twelfth Annual Exhibition of the 
Chicago Architectural Club, which opened on the 30th 
inst. at the Art Institute. An unusually large number 
of drawings has been received from other cities, and 
the average quality of the work is exceptionally high. 
A new idea has been adopted in the selection and exhi- 
bition of work from the various architectural schools. 
The number of designs from each school has been 
limited to fifteen, carefully selected by the several facul- 
ties, and all the school work is hung in one room. This 
should be an incentive to the students, as their draw- 
ings, when exceptionally good, are not only seen by 
many prominent architects, but they are likely to be 
selected for reproduction in the catalogues — always an 
honor for young draughtsmen. 

Louis H. Sullivan is the architect of the faqade of 
that portion of the new McCormick Building on Michi- 
gan Avenue to be occupied by Gage Brothers. Hola- 
bird & Roche are the architects for the rest of the 
work, for which piling is now being driven. This faqade 
is in Mr. Sullivan's best vein. The three units compos- 


Executed in gray terra-cotta by the Kxcelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

F. R. Comstock, Architect. 



The Chicago Architects' Business Association has been devot- 
ing much time and energy to secure the amendment of the present 
cumbersome and intricate lien law, and is seeking the aid and sup- 
port of the Chicago Real Estate Board and the various organizations 
connected with the building trades. The proposed amendments, if 
enacted by the legislature before the close of the present session, will 
probably restrict the operation of the law so that only architects, origi- 
nal contractors, and mechanical labor shall be able to establish a lien. 

The present law has worked grave injury to the building interests 
here, and early relief from some of its most objectionable features is 
greatly to be desired. 

An interesting alteration is in progress on Michigan Avenue, 
where the Hotel Richelieu, once famous for its rare wines and 
goodly ente r t a i n - 
ment under the rule 
of ''Cardinal" 
Bemis, is being con- 
verted into a furni- 
ture factory. The 
entire s t r ucture, 
floors, partitions, 
everything, has been 
demolished and re- 
moved, leaving only 
the exterior walls 
standing without tie 
or brace of any kind. 
The front portion is 
six and the rear 
eight stories in 
height. It looks as 
though a heavy gale 
from the lake would 
strike the front wall 
with dangerous 
force, but the con- 
tra ctors completed 
this demolition of 
the interior over a 
week ago and seem 
in no haste to begin 
the erection of the 
new, slow-burning 
construction, or to 
brace the outer walls. 

The buil ding 
record for March 
shows that the total 
cost covered by per- 
m i t s amounted to 
only 52,405,980. 
This is $722,240 less 
than the amount for 
March, 1898, and is 

the poorest record for that month during the past ten years in Chi- 
cago. The next lowest corresponding record is that of 1895, which 
was (2,628,890. 

Many store front alterations are in progress in the retail district, 
consisting chiefly of plate glass, Luxfer or other illuminating prisms, 
and light cast-iron work. .Most of the out-of-date commercial struc- 
tures which were rushed up after the fire seem destined to be thus 
freshened up to hold their own for a few years longer before being 
wholly demolished and replaced. 

Suburban home building promises to be quite active this season. 
The early completion of the Northwestern Elevated Road and the 
extension of the Lake Street Elevated through Austin, by the means of 
an incline and direct trolley connection west to Maywood, promises to 
give an impetus to residence work north and west. The long-con- 

tinued cold of the winter which has prevailed without a break into 
April, together with the scanty snowfall, leaves the ground still full 
of frost, and makes the season an unusually tardy one for suburban 
building operations. 


Terra-cottalexecuted by the 
Barnett, Haynes & 

ST. LOUIS. — The general improvement in business during the 
past two years has caused quite a demand for substantial 
business houses. As has been previously mentioned, Washington 
Avenue has become the center of the wholesale and light manufac- 
turing interests. When buildings were erected in the vicinity of 
9th Street a few years ago they were considered quite a risk, but 
almost the entire property to 12th Street has been built up with 
large buildings, and now Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge are prepar- 
ing plans for a seven- 
story building, for 
the Lindell Real 
Estate Company, 
which will cost 
$200,000 or more ; 
to be located on 
1 2th Street. 

The same firm 
has also prepared 
plans for a seven- 
story building for 
Judge Wilbur F. 
Boyle, to be erected 
on Washington Ave- 
nue, between 11th 
and 1 2th Streets ; 
cost, $55,000. 

The St. Louis 
University has com- 
menced another 
build ing on their 
premises on West 
Pine Boulevard and 
Grand Avenue. It 
is to be four stories 
high, and contain 
one hundred rooms. 
It will be of brick 
witli stone trim- 
mings, and in the 
Gothic style; cost, 

The Second 
Presbyterian Society 
is about to com 
m e n c e their new 
church, the chapel 
of which was built 
some years ago. It 
will cost $125,000, 
and is by T. C. Link. Music-loving people will soon have a music 
hall, which is being built on Grand Avenue, at a cost of $100,000. 
Albert Swasey is the architect. Mr. Swasey has also a ten-story 
building at New Orleans. 

Washington University some years ago acquired a tract of 
land in the vicinity of Forest Park, and is about to commence the 
erection of several buildings upon same, preparatory to moving the 
University there at as early a date as possible. A number of the promi- 
nent citizens have donated the five principal buildings at a cost of 
over half a million dollars, while other citizens have contributed to 
the endowment fund handsomely, increasing it at least by as much 
more. Landscape architects have been employed and preliminary 
studies made, but no architect has been selected for the buildings. 
Real estate has become quite active, much more so than during 

Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 
.Harnett, Architects. 



architecture in brick construction. As the number 
issued by the company is somewhat limited, those wish- 
ing a copy should request same at an early date of the 
Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Company, Duquesne 
Way and ioth Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Executed in terra-cotta by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

Isaac S. Taylor, Architect. 

the several past years, especially in down-town properties, many of 
these investments looking forward to substantial improvements. 

Doubtless the forthcoming World's Fair will have a tendency 
to stimulate prices and increase the amount of building, but it is 
believed that there will be no boom, with its evil after effects, such 
as has been under like conditions in other cities. The matter is 
as yet only in its preliminary state, but nevertheless the probable 
site and architects in chief are subjects of general discussion. 


THE following-named architects would be pleased to receive 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples: H. C. Evans, Wil- 
mington, Del.; Elmer Gerber, Reibold Building, Dayton, Ohio; 
Considine & Watz, Elmira, N. Y. 


THE Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
has just issued an exceedingly interesting and attractive 
catalogue descriptive of the various shapes, colors, etc., of the Kittan- 
ning Impervious Brick. In the compilation of this work care has been 
taken to illustrate and describe the product of the plant in such a 
comprehensive way as to give much valuable information on the sub- 
ject of the use of brick generally in connection with ornamental and 
molded brickwork. 

In the arrangement of the catalogue mention is made first of the 
character of the clays from which the Kittanning brick are manu- 
factured, and special stress is given to the soft, warm effects of the 
various shades of their buff and gray brick, which make them so de- 
sirable for use in the construction of municipal buildings. This por- 
tion of the work is rendered particularly interesting by a very fine 
collection of thirty or more illustrations of various types of buildings 
located in New York, Chicago, Boston, and Buffalo, designed by 
well-known architects, and constructed of the Kittanning brick. A 
wide range is covered in the character and style of these buildings, 
each one of which is selected as being of especial interest as an 
example of artistic rendering of brickwork. 

The main purpose of the catalogue is to show for the conven- 
ience of architects using molded brick the large assortment of shapes 
which the company carry in stock. To this end two hundred differ- 
ent designs of molded brick are illustrated by outline plate drawings 
reduced to one half scale. Considerable space is also given to scale 
drawings of details of arches and arch brick. 

We heartily recommend to our readers a perusal of this cata- 
logue as being a work of real interest and value in connection with 


The Bolles Revolving Sash Company has re- 
moved its New York office to 13-21 Park Row. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile 
Company has removed its New York office to the 
Metropolitan Building, I Madison Avenue. 

Meeker, Carter & Booraem, New York City, 
have removed to a larger suite of offices in the Metro- 
politan Building, 1 Madison Avenue. 

Waldo Brothers, agents for the Perth Amboy 
Terra-Cotta Company, will furnish the terra-cotta for 
St. Margaret's Church, Dorchester, Mass. 

Excelsior terra-cotta will be used in the new apartment at 
Roxbury, Mass., W. C. Collett, architect ; contract by Charles Ba- 
con, Boston representative. 

Increased business has made it necessary for the Brick, Terra- 
Cotta, and Supply Company, of Corning, N. Y., to add to its plant 
a new muffled kiln and a terra-cotta drier. 

John H. Black, Buffalo representative for the Akron Hydraulic 
Press Brick Company, will supply their impervious red front brick 
for the new public school, No. 19, at Buffalo, R. A. Wallace, architect. 

Sin 11 jftSjgSjt 

Bins II Hit JJJLEJli 



Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta, and Supply Company, of Corn- 
ing, N. Y., will hereafter be represented as sales agent in New 
York City by Mr. E. H. Thomas, of 874 Broadway. 

Tiffany white enameled brick will be used in the new public 
schoolhouse, No. 16, at Buffalo, F. C. Mohr, architect; also for the 



new No. 19 schoolhouse, same city, R. A. Wallace, architect. These 
orders were placed through John 11. Black, Buffalo representative. 

Waldo Brothers have the contracts for Atlas cement for 
Hotel Bellevue, Boston, Peabody & Stearns, architects: new build- 
ing, South and Essex Streets. Boston, Winslow, Wetherell & Bige- 
low, architects: Spot Bond Pumping Station, Melrose, Mass., 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

The Cleveland Car Company is required by increased busi- 
ness to add considerably to its plant. The company makes cars 'for 
hauling clay from the pit, and their increasing business would indi- 
cate a returning prosperity to the clay workers, and logically a re- 
vival of building operations. 

The St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company will supply the archi- 
tectural terra-cotta on the following new contracts: C. R. I. and P. 
depot at Council Bluffs, la.; Glovur Building, Joplin, Mo., Leon A. 
Hunter, architect: M. E. Church, Yicksburg, Miss., W. A. Cann, 
St. Louis, architect. 

The Reese-Hammond Fire-Brick Company, Bolivar, Pa., 
is running its four plants to their full capacity, and is doubling 
the capacity of its No. 4 plant by putting in new machinery, erect- 
ing a new drier and other buildings, adding twelve new kilns, and 
expect in sixty days to have the capacity of the No. 4 plant up 
to 75,000 brick per day. 

CHARLES BACON, Boston agent for Sayre & Fisher Company, 
has closed the following new contracts for brick : Mercantile Build- 
ing, Congress Street. Boston, Wheelwright & Haven, architects; 
houses, Beaconsfield Terrace, Brookline, Mass., S. Butterworth, ar- 
chitect: building for Edison Electric Light Company, Boston, Wins- 
low, Wetherell & Bigelow, architects. 

Brick-huilt cities suffering from the '• smoke nuisance " are 
finding relief from the results thereof in treating the injured walls 
with Cabot's Brick Preservative, which renews the color, and at the 
same time waterproofs the bricks, so that the soot does not collect 
nearly as rapidly as on untreated bricks when water-soaked. The 
preservative is made in red and cream. Pittsburgh is beginning to 
revel in it. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company has, during 
the past month, removed to its new factory in Lowell, a three-story 
building, 60 by 150 ft., with all modern conveniences. The increas- 
ing business of the company has rendered this large increase of floor 
space necessary, as well as the addition of several machines of 
special construction for various processes in the manufacture. The 
number of new buildings in which the Mason Tread has been speci- 
fied by architects insures an active season for the company. 

Chambers Brothers Company, Philadelphia, will ship this 
month to Porto Rico a complete outfit of brick-making machinery 
for the manufacture of ordinary building and hollow brick. The 
plant will have a capacity of over forty thousand brick per day, and 
makes one of several manufacturing enterprises to be conducted by 
a large company of Philadelphia capitalists that has obtained some 
valuable franchises in the city of Ponce. Mr. Frank IS. McAvoy, a 
well-known brick manufacturer of Philadelphia, is interested, and 
will give general direction to the brick-making end of it. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Ltd., have closed the 
following contracts for their roofing tile : Episcopal Church, La Crosse, 
Wis., Detweiler & Kesticeux, architects, Columbus, Ohio; First Pres- 
byterian Church, Fort Smith. Ark.. H.I. Goddard, architect: foundry, 
Moline Plow Company, Moline, 111., W. L. Paul, architect : United 
States Mint Building, Denver, Col., James K. Taylor, architect: 
Roman Catholic Church, Our Lady of Sorrows, Chicago, John F. 

Artistic Mantels. 

Showing modest but very 
effective results at small cost. 

Price $25. 

'rice $26* 

Price $22* 

Prices given are for the Face and Molded Red Brick necessary to set up the mantels as shown (includ- 
ing lining, underfire, and tile hearth), carefully packed in barrels and delivered to cars or steamer at Boston. 
Scale setting plan furnished free. Our mantels are the newest, most stylish, and best of all kinds in every 
way. Our customers say so. Our Sketch Book tells all about 59 designs of charming mantels costing 
from $12 upwards. Send for it. 

Phila* & Boston Face Brick Co, - 215 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 


VOL. 8. NO. 5. 



■•• . A. . -'.. , it , A A,X X A,X,J., J,, .'. . .', . .». . I , .(. 

East Elevation. 



■ I 


PLATES 33 and 40. 


North Elevation. 



VOL. 8. NO. 5. 


PLATES 34 and 39. 

















H ° 

uj 3 


















VOL. 8. NO. 5. 





PLATES 35 and 38. 

Steel koot comstf-uc 




VOL. 8. NO. 5. 

i; U I L D E R . 

PLATES 36 and 37. 













( - 































Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... #3-50 per year 



Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


WE have received copies of a letter which has been sent to 
each of the architectural clubs in the United States by the 
Chicago Architectural Club, with the sanction and support of the 
T Square Club, of Philadelphia, and the St. Louis Architectural 
Club, and with the informal approval of the Boston and Cleveland 
Clubs, calling for a convention of delegates from the various archi- 
tectural bodies to be held at Cleveland, Ohio, Friday and Saturday, 
June 2 and 3, the object of this convention being to promulgate 
reciprocity among the different clubs, to bring about a more friendly 
feeling through a better understanding, and to discuss such plans as 
will be of the greatest mutual interest, such as club organization, 
management, and work. To all acquainted with the management 
of architectural clubs the great benefit to be derived from such dis- 
cussion is too obvious to need mention, and this movement is cer- 
tainly deserving of the strongest moral support. 

The movement which has resulted in architectural club growth 
had its origin in 1880, when the New York Architectural League 
was organized by a few earnest junior members of the profession. 
Originally nothing but a mere association of draughtsmen, the Archi- 
tectural League soon recognized that it had a broader field and 
scope of action, and a reorganization, which was effected about 1883, 
threw open the membership to artists and art amateurs, and so 
broadened the possibilities of the League that it has since been able 
to grow into its position as a leading factor in art matters of not 
only New York City, but to a very considerable extent the 'country 

as a whole, while the fact that it is not merely an architectural asso- 
ciation, but rather an association of those who have a keen interest 
in architecture, has given to its deliberations and to its acts a value 
which a strict professional body might not be accorded. 

The League was followed by the organization of the T Square 
Club in Philadelphia, the Boston Architectural Club, and the Chicago 
Architectural Club, all of which have had a steady, persistent growth 
and have been emulated by clubs in Cleveland, St. Louis, and a 
number of other cities. Nearly all of these clubs have been upon 
practically the same general plan, namely, an association of those 
who were interested in architecture, making little, if any, distinction 
between the practising architect with years and experience behind 
him, the draughtsman fresh from school, or the artist amateur, the 
members uniting upon the common ground of interest in the profes- 
sion and cooperation of ideas with the painters, sculptors, and deco- 
rators. Incidentally, all of these clubs have been able to foster very- 
considerable social feeling among the members, and the amenities of 
life, as well as the niceties of professional practise, have been con- 
sidered to advantage. The strong work, however, accomplished by 
these societies has been strictly in the line of architecture, and all 
our readers know the great influence which has been exerted by 
these bodies, especially by the League and the T Square Club, which 
are recognized powers in their respective communities. 

The positions which these bodies have acquired carry with 
them responsibilities which we are glad to see are fully recognized 
by the leading men therein. The architectural clubs can take posi- 
tions that would not be within the province of the American Insti- 
tute and can take a part in the civic life which would not be in 
harmony with the dignified, conservative position of the strictly pro- 
fessional body, while the mingling of the architects and the repre- 
sentative of the allied arts gives a possible weight to the delibera- 
tions of the club, which we imagine would count for more with the 
average layman than the acts of a purely professional body. All of 
these clubs seem to have agreed upon making it one of their chief 
aims to hold annual exhibitions. This is something which was 
rarely attempted by any of the chapters of the Institute, and is a 
work which has naturally fallen to the clubs, and has, on the whole, 
been so worthily carried out that one can find little to complain of. 

The clubs also have very generally done a great deal in a field 
which has been too much neglected in this country, namely, the 
education of the draughtsman. Any one who recalls the conditions 
existing in this country twenty or twenty-five years ago and com- 
pares the average draughtsman of those days with what we can 
reasonably expect now, can readily appreciate that a tremendous 
advance has been made in the development of architectural educa- 
tion, and while of course the fundamental work has been done by 
our architectural schools, the clubs have been able to reach the class 
of young men who have not been able to profit by the opportunities 
of the technical schools. In their attitude towards public policy the 
Philadelphia and the New York clubs have been preeminently suc- 
cessful and each organization has counted very materially in mold- 
ing public sentiment. 

There is every reason, therefore, to expect that this convention 
may not only be fully attended, but that the representatives may be 
picked men from the various organizations, who will appreciate all 
the possibilities of this movement, and that the convention may 



result in giving new life to architectural education and the expansion 
of the club influences. 


WE referred in these columns some months since to a recom- 
mendation made to the State legislature by Governor Wol- 
COtt, of Massachusetts, advising a restriction of height of buildings 
to be built adjacent to the State House. This recommendation bore 
fruit in the shape of several measures which were presented for con- 
sideration, one of which finally reached the legislature in the shape 
of a bill, very far reaching in its scope, which was to restrict to ioo ft. 
the height of all buildings hereafter to be erected throughout the 
State. As the ISoston Herald very truly said, if this law had been 
enacted it would have been a decided advantage to Boston, and 
would have led to a more harmonious and artistic form of construc- 
tion. The difficulty in enactment of any such law as this, however, 
is that the real-estate values throughout the city have all been ad- 
justed during the past few years to the basis of the earning capacity 
of a building carried to the present legal limit of 125 ft. Boston 
is peculiarly constructed in that the greater portion of the city is 
occupied by buildings of so slight value in a commercial sense that 
in any transactions for the sale of the land the value of the building 
is practically disregarded. The attempt at this date to arbitrarily 
slice off 25 per cent, of the possible earning capacity of the land is 
too revolutionary not to encounter the strongest opposition, and very 
naturally the proposed bill was promptly and emphatically rejected 
by the legislature. It is rather doubtful if any such measure is pro- 
posed again in this Commonwealth, for while a building of 125 ft. 
seems very high by comparison with the average business structure 
of twenty or twenty-five years ago, it is small as compared with the 
towering structures of New York. As a matter of fact, few of the 
exigencies of modern business conditions lend themselves favorably 
to artistic success, and the argument that a high building, though a 
commercial necessity, is an artistic blot, is one which, however true 
it might be in principle, would not seriously weigh in the minds of 
many legislators, if we may judge by the fate of the recently pro- 
posed bill. 

There are other directions, however, in which the legislators 
can act to the greatest advantage, namely, in the extension and more 
rigorous enforcement of fireproof construction. The Boston Herald 
advised that no building not absolutely fireproof should be carried 
to a height greater than 70 ft., that no building to be used for a 
large number of families should be built of wood, and that no 
wooden building unprotected by brick walls should be constructed 
within a minimum number of feet of another wooden building. We 
have repeatedly advocated an even greater extension of fire-proof 
construction, and we hope the time will come when no building of 
what is called second-class construction, namely, without fire-proof 
floors, will be tolerated anywhere within the business districts. A 
bill is now before the legislature prohibiting wooden buildings within 
a large area of the city, or, rather, prohibiting the erection of wooden 
buildings anywhere except under special permit. This bill will un- 
doubtedly pass, and we believe will receive very little opposition 
from interested parties. As a whole, it is one of the most impor- 
tant of the many attempts which have been made within the past 
few years to amend the building laws of this city. 

iic Editor of The Brickbuilder : — 

The stand you have taken in your editorial in the .April number 
of The Brickbuilder on -Copyright in Architectural Design" 
ought to be satisfying to any candid observer of the progress of 
architecture in this country. There may be a few cases in which 
architects' designs have been copied for the sole purpose of getting 
something without paying more than a nominal amount to a draughts- 
man for the cost of copying, but even in these the first architect 

is not a loser, because the man who orders a copy made by an out- 
sider would be the last to employ any one and pay the full price for 
a copy or a new design. On the other hand, if the copy is a good 
one it is a compliment to the original designer, and he can claim all 
the benefits of the advertisement. 

A common cause for grumbling among young architects is that 
the owner sometimes erects a second house from the plans made for 
the first one, which he has paid for, without giving the architect 
additional compensation. In these cases the owner thinks it will 
not only be economical, but that he can avoid any dispute as to 
whether or not the plans should be paid for twice, by employing 
some one else to supervise it. The really mean thing he does is to 
secure a set of copies surreptitiously, and generally from a builder. 
I n the latter case the architect discovers too late that he has neglected 
to protect himself in a way that all know about, by stamping all 
copies as his property and to be returned. In every case the archi- 
tect discovers too late that he might have copyrighted his plans, 
and thereby protected himself in a measure, though there are many 
ways to get around copyright for architectural designs. His loss is 
generally only in disappointment and temper, and he has little cause 
for either, because any architect with business sense would only, un- 
der these circumstances, charge his client for additional copies of 
the plans and specifications, and his fee for supervision, if the latter 
were desired. But it is from the artistic side that the least objection 
to having buildings copied can hold ; and this can only be so in the 
case where a cheap imitation of a good design is made. The mate- 
rials of construction may be changed and the details indifferentlv 
executed. The author of the original design is under the necessity 
of protesting to his friends that the imitation is not his own, and 
to the public that his reputation is endangered by the possibility 
of being given the credit for it. But, as you say, the architect of 
reputation can afford to be indifferent to this. 

.Now, aside from all personal considerations, I hold that a dis- 
position to copy the designs of buildings already executed is one in- 
dication of a healthy architectural evolution. A copyist will not 
copy anything that he does not think to be good. If he makes 
changes, they will be either in the direction of omitting superfluities 
or adding what he thinks will be improvements. It was always so 
in the great periods of art; and why should it not be so now ? The 
many unfortunate attempts to display originality have done more 
than anything else to debase the arts of this century. Whenever it 
ceases to be considered as "bad form " or as showing want of natu- 
ral ability for an architect to copy or imitate the work of a rival, 
thoughtful and judicious designers will generally do so ; and it is 
only absurd notions of propriety and the false ethics of the profession 
in this regard that stand in the way. Instead of this being regarded 
as piracy, it should be considered as a compliment by the architect 
whose ideas are followed and developed. 

You have well said that no man of ability is likely to wish to re- 
produce his own works. The time between the making of a design 
and its final execution enables the designer to see many things in it 
which mijjht have been better done. If he were called upon to re- 
produce it, his second effort would be an improvement in some par- 
ticular, and thus the same evolution would be going on within him 
which others should be privileged to share with him for the good of 
their art. Should he prefer to make an entirely new and original 
design for the purpose of displaying his own versatility, he might not 
only make a worse one, but would stand in the way of the develop- 
ment of his own esthetic powers. He would be doing what — ac- 
cording to the ethics of the profession accepted by so many — it is 
expected that his neighbor should do, if called upon to reproduce 
or copy his work. Such are the ethics of selfishness and egotism. 
They are monopolistic as applied to an art which has no vitality 
unless it is free to all, and based on the natural and recognized laws 
of evolution. These views, once repugnant in the extreme to the 
writer, are now the result of many years of experience, study, and 

Peter B. Wight. 



The Formal Garden. II. 


HAVING considered some of the general principles of formal 
gardening in the preceding paper of this series, the subject 
may now be taken up in detail. 

Time and money are always matters of importance, and the 
formal garden, as a problem in design and construction, must be 
considered from both standpoints, and it may be said at the outset 
that fine gardens are not to be had cheaply, nor may they be brought 
to perfection in a short period of time. Good taste is, of course, not 
to be measured in terms of dollars and cents, but the gratification of 
luxurious tastes must entail considerable expenditure, and the ideal 
garden must depend in great measure on the intrinsic beauty of its 
constructive details, the materials employed therein, and the adorn- 
ment of that construction. 

The modern American architect is often as much of a necro- 
mancer as Aladdin's genie of the lamp, who created palaces in a 
night ; but even his magic touch is powerless to work the spells 
which Nature alone can accomplish, and no client, however insistent, 
can put her under forfeiture to complete her work by a certain date, 
nor will she put on an extra force of mechanics to gain any pre- 
miums which may be offered her. For while the garden may be 
properly planned, built, and garnished with statues, trees, and 
flowers, the alchemy of time is required to wed man's handiwork 
with that of Nature, and if harmony of effect is to be acquired this 
must be accomplished. 

The location of the garden may not always be a matter of 
choice, but when possible sloping ground is usually favorable for 
satisfactory treatment. The garden itself should be level, but charm 
of effect is best obtained where its level spaces are contrasted with 
rising ground on one side and a slope on the other. Such a location 
also permits the employment of water effects to a greater extent and 
with less labor and expense, and 
no one who has seen and appre- 
ciated the exquisite charms of old 
French and Italian gardens, where 
water is made to trickle from the 
brims of marble basins, to slip and 
ripple along tiny stone conduits, to 
flash gloriously in the sunlight 
from some great fountain, or to 
sleep unruffled in broad pools over- 
hung with shrubbery, — no one sen- 
sitive to such beauty would will- 
ingly lose the opportunity for real- 
izing in his own garden something 
at least of this sort. 

It would be fortunate if a 
grove of trees, already full grown, 
should be found where their mass 
would count as a background for 
the garden, shut out from it by 
the boundary wall, yet sufficiently 
near to compose properly w : th its 
architectural lines. 

After the location has been 
determined, the plan becomes of the greatest importance. Its scale 
has presumably been set by that of the house or building which it 
adjoins, and as its ground plan is a study of horizontal planes, in 
contrast with the vertical planes of structure and trees, the opposing 
effect of the other is thereby reduced or emphasized. If the rec- 
tangular masses of the house are contrasted with curved or rococo 
forms in the garden, the desired end of carrying the structural forms 
of the building out into nature will be thereby less successfully 

Simplicity and symmetry of plan are always admirable and 

especially so in a 'garden, for as the latter is situated so we may 
look into it from the house, the anatomy of its plan should be at 
once recognizable and uncomplicated. Its principal axis should be 
at right angles with the facade of the building, and preferably co- 
incident with some axis of the structure. The main axes of the 
garden are expressed by the principal walks which traverse it, and 

H - sHI 

"■♦"•* *i if * 

■ Ml 4 



as these bisect in the center of the garden, it logically follows that 
we have at once divided it into four parts of approximately the same 
area. Other walks follow closely the boundary walls, and the plan 
of the garden becomes in a word a cross laid in a rectangle. 

The four plats may be again divided and subdivided, that 
access may be had to the flower-beds, but the same system of sym- 
metrical division is so certain of accomplishing good results that it 
may safely be recommended as the best to follow. 

The intersection of the principal walks would naturally be 
accented by a circular central space, whose radius should be twice 
the width of the walks, and while in many examples the center of 
this circle is occupied by a statue, fountain, or similar object, it is 
desirable that it should remain unencumbered, leaving the axis un- 
broken from end to end. 

Some architectural form, as a 
casino or pavilion, should mark 
the further end of the garden, and 
by recalling the structure at the 
opposite end this will aid in fixing 
the bit of nature between walls, 
making it completely a part of the 
habitation, as it should be. 

The casino or pavilion should 
be open on the side facing the 
house, and its floor of marble tiles 
or brick should be raised some 
steps above the level of the garden. 
The interior may be plastered and 
decorated with painting or mosaic, 
and furnished with such tables 
and chairs as the Pompeians used, 
with bronze legs and marble and 
leather coverings, and in this de- 
lectable retreat " my lady " will 
preside at high tea on summer 
afternoons, with her court all in 
The fountain, for there will be at least one fountain, may be 
placed in front of the pavilion, its basin of marble or terra-cotta, the 
spray issuing from perforated pipes whose openings are just at the 
surface of the pool. For a small fountain nothing better has been 
devised than a shallow circular basin supported by a central shaft, 
into which the water flows silently and steadily until it brims over 
and trickles from the margin in plashing drops and tiny streams. 
The garden fountain is at its best when it is simply an obbligato, not 
a strident and uneasy thing, in haste to quit a quiet retreat. 

The Pompeian fountains, which consisted of a series of steps 



set in a niche, down which a thin sheet of water rippled softly into 
the basin beneath, were designed by men who appreciated the 
charm of falling water to just the degree to which it becomes a thing 
of beauty, and these mosaic fountains might be as readily adapted 


to the American formal garden as they were in the portico of the 
New York State building at the Columbian Exposition. 

The severity of our climate compels the most careful considera- 
tion of foundations for walls, walks, and all garden architecture, for 
these are to be as permanent as the construction of the buildings. 
Effect for a single season may be easily gained. Indeed, one enthu- 
siast whose patience and pocket were both limited built a garden 
wall in New England with wooden 
posts, lathed and plastered, and for 
one summer he enjoyed the pri- 
vacy which this afforded. A single 
winter's frosts and snow were suffi- 
cient to teach him the lesson that 
nothing is too good for a garden 
wall, for the plastering fell off in 
sheets, and the posts stood awry 
before the springtime came again. 

The wall goes a long way 
toward making the garden. It 
gives the sense of enclosure and 
protection and should be so studied 
that it may be architecture as well 
as building. 

Piers and proper divisions re- 
lating to the general plan of walks 
and beds, niches for statues or 
vases, and permanent seats should 
all assist in making it something 
more than simply a permanent 
fence ; but permanence it must 
possess, and this is to be gained 
only by excellent foundations. 

Frost delves deeply in this latitude, and the laying up of stone 
foundations is too often left to an ignorant or careless workman, 
without the constant supervision which is essential to satisfactory 
construction. The material of which the wall is built is of no little 
importance, for it forms a background for the whole scheme. Na- 
tive stone, where such exists, may be employed, but the surface 
should be reasonably smooth. Rubble work is not suitable for this 
purpose, as it is too "rustic " and characterless. 



Good red brick is the most acceptable material both as to color 
and texture, contrasting agreeably with the masses of green in the 
beds and the graveled walks. Trellises may be built against the 
wall, upon which climbing plants and roses may be trained, and these 
should be of bamboo poles fastened in the brick joints with copper 
" holdfasts." 

The walks are to be bordered with strips of marble, terra-cotta. 
or brick, and when expense must be carefully considered these 
borders may be of wood. 

Within the plats, closely following the borders, a hedge of small 
box trees emphasizes the walks and begins the plant motive. The 
box should be kept closely trimmed in formal fashion, rlat on top 
and vertical on both sides. 

In some old Italian and English gardens the box has grown to 
a great height, rising on each side of the walks as living walls of 
green, and needing only a roof to transform the garden into an 
actual structure for habitation. The Ouirinal Gardens in Rome 
have such hedges 30 ft. in height, giving a most unique and charm- 
ing effect, although they are decidedly out of scale and are to be 
admired less for imitation than for individuality. 

English landscape gardeners have long been enthusiasts in the 
art of "pleaching' - or trimming box and other trees into geometrical 
and fanciful forms, debasing a perfectly proper and valuable process 
into a bizarre and ridiculous caricature, for while it is allowable to 
trim a tree into a symmetrical form, one in which it is conceivable 
that it might have grown under natural conditions, it is absurd to 
pleach it to the shape of an animal or to the contour of an inverted 
cone or pyramid. The very acme of absurdity is reached in the 
gardens at I'ackwood, in Warwickshire, where the Sermon on the 
Mount is literally represented in clipped yew ! And at Kislev, in 
Derbyshire, two enormous doves are clipped out in green, standing 
on the hedge, their bills forming an archway over the walk. 

The foundations for the walks are almost as important as those 
for the walls, and must be deeply laid with large stones at the bot- 
tom for drainage. The walks are finished with gravel, which should 

be white, or as nearly white as 
may be obtained, well rolled and 
slightly crowned, that the water 
may be drained off at the side. 
Provision for carrying off this 
water must also be made, that the 
walks may dry quickly after the 
passing summer shower. 

Small trees of formal shape 
are of great value in the garden, 
and while indigenous pines and 
cedars are reasonably adapted to 
this purpose, bay and orange trees 
are much to be preferred. Their 
solidity of foliage and adaptability 
to spherical clipping, supported by 
slender and branchless trunks, add 
dignity to the garden, and in a 
way they give the sense of height 
that is needed to break the mo- 
notony of the horizontal plane. 
These trees must of course be 
placed in pots or tubs so they may 
be removed to protected quarters 
during the winter. They may be 
planted in wooden tubs with handles for carrying, but large terra- 
cotta pots should be provided into which the tubs may be set. 

The Neapolitan pots are of agreeable form and tradition, copies 
of which may now be obtained in this country. These copies are 
hardly as individual in modeling as their prototypes, but as they are 
made of better clay and are harder they are less liable to injury in 

As the placing of these trees plays an important part in the 





effect of the garden, their location should be determined by the 
architect who plans the villa, and he will naturally arrange them in 
such a manner that they will emphasize the symmetry and formality 
of the whole scheme, by placing them along the principal walks, at 
their intersections, and at the corners of the plats. 

In Italy, where almost every vineyard and garden produces a 
crop of archaeological or artistic treasures, it has been customary to 
utilize these fragments in the decoration of the gardens, and many 
Roman villas are veritable museums of antique art, where statues 
and busts, usually mutilated and frequently miserably restored, sar- 
cophagi, vases, columns, and capitals, bits of entablature and inscrip- 
tions are displayed against or upon the walls, and frequently are 
. built into them. 

These fragments, gnawed by time and discolored by the ele- 
ments, are peculiarly adapted to the enrichment of a formal garden, 
and we can only regret that the American aborigines could not have 
been more considerate of posterity, and left us a more plentiful sup- 
ply of antiquities suitable for the adornment of our gardens of to-day. 
The supply from Italy and elsewhere in Europe, although appar- 
ently inexhaustible, is yet unequal to the demand ; and while we 
should hardly be willing to deny ourselves the possession of Roman 
antiques, although not of our native soil, the lack of such excellent 
art should make us the more appreciative of the talent and wares of 
our own sculptors and manufacturers. 

We have successfully competed with European bridge builders 
and locomotive makers, and such material triumphs ought to incite 
us to further victories in both industry and art ; and if our people of 
refinement and wealth would encourage our artists and artisans to 
produce the best of which they are capable, offering them a certain 
market for their best productions, there would be both a revelation 
and a revolution in American industrial art, the sure and only founda- 
tion upon which would eventually arise a national triumph in the 
fine arts. 

It may be said that our eminent painters and sculptors are striv- 
ing for important public commissions, and that they place a high 
estimate on the value of their services; even so, there is a legion of 
young and clever artists, men and women of taste and talent, who 
would be only too glad to give their best efforts in creating beautiful 
things for the adornment of our homes, both within and without the 
house, for comparatively small remuneration, if they should receive 
the smallest recognition and encouragement from those whose cul- 
ture and wealth practically make them, under our form of govern- 
ment, responsible for the upbuilding of our national art. 

European gardens abound in sculpture, good, bad, and indif- 
ferent. It is an extremely poor statue that does not look fairly well 
framed in, or silhouetted against a background of living green; and 
a good statue seldom appears at better advantage than in associa- 
tion with verdure ; for proof of which see the annual Paris Salons, 
our own Sculpture Society and architectural exhibitions. Hut many 
of those who can afford to buy sculpture at all are inclined to 
buy it when in Florence or Rome ; where a few hundred francs will 
purchase a life-size " Marguerite" in white marble, with the loveliest 
plaited hair, blowing petals from the most natural looking daisy im- 
aginable, or some other equally smooth and smug "example of 

The Fiench and English artists of the last century used lead 
and zinc for garden statuary, painting it white or gray in imitation 
of marble; and where the paint has worn off, as in the fountain 
groups at Versailles, the effect is most unprepossessing and dismal. 

Good marble work is comparatively expensive, and save in rare 
instances, the finished work does not bear the impress of the sculp- 
tor's hand, who invented and modeled the figure, --it is a transla- 
tion of his work by a mechanic. 

Terra-cotta, however, is one of the most personal of materials, 
retaining the very imprint of the sculptor's hand; it is capable of 
receiving any texture, and while its natural color is very agreeable, 
it is now possible to apply to it a wide range of beautiful polychrome, 
rendering it the most pliant sculptural material in use. 

Church Architecture in Materials of 


THE last example given in illustration of this subject was a 
small suburban church whose chief claim to distinction lay 
in its very attractive brick and terra-cotta spire. We now turn to a 
group of ecclesiastical buildings in New York, of much greater 
magnitude and complexity, calling for a relatively high degree of 
technical and artistic skill in a successful execution of the architects' 
intention. These buildings cover ten city lots, or 25,000 sq. ft., and 
extend through the block between 13th and 14th Streets, a little easl 
of First Avenue. Brick and terra-cotta are the materials used on 
both elevations, from sidewalk to the finials on the turrets of the 
tower. The color is a light brown, not in simulation of any building 
stone with which we are acquainted, but possessing a degree of 
uniformity not surpassed by nature's own product. A general view 
of the 14th Street elevation is given at Fig. 8, and a few of the more 
important details are reproduced on a scale equal to the space at our 
disposal. The architects in this case, as in that of another and 
somewhat similar establishment in brick and terra-cotta, to which 
some attention will be given on a future occasion, are Messrs. Harney 
& Chapman. 

Starting with a handsome and well-arranged church as a nucleus, 
the scheme develops into a clergy house, parish house, club house, 
and a hospital; all of which, if not under the same roof, are covered 
by a series of adjoining roofs, and are under the same general man- 
agement. These institutions are again subdivided into apartments 
in which industrial trades are taught, with room for a gymnasium, 
kindergarten, etc., and — which is by no means the least important — 
a cooking school. Ready access and exit are provided to and from 
all these apartments by corridors and stairways, the main connecting 
link being a cloister running north and south parallel to the nave. 
East of this cloister is a large open court from which uninterrupted 
light and air, with a fair proportion of sunshine, enter three sides of 
the quadrangle at all seasons. 

The buildings comprising this compact vet comprehensive estab- 
lishment bespeak a practical as distinguished from a merely doc- 
trinal interpretation of the Christian religion. Faith and good works 
are evidently the keynote in this community. Churches conducted on 
these lines will attract many adherents from among those who 
believe that temporal well-being is not incompatible with eternal 
salvation. This center of missionary enterprise is, we believe, an 
offshoot from Grace Church, that unique but unobtrusive landmark 
that nestles in the bend of Broadway, punctuating with a full slop 
the easterly continuation of [ith Street. Though situated in the 
heart of a heterogeneous population, it is admirably adapted to the 
wants of the immediate neighborhood and will in time become 
assimilated with its surroundings. Like the parent church, in its 
relation to the great commercial highway, this really picturesque 
settlement is a welcome relief to the eye, in a region where the other- 
wise unmitigated double tenement holds high carnival. 

With a blending of religion and philanthropy, we have here an 
equally happy combination of things ancient and modern in point of 
architectural style and treatment. The two pavilions to the left of 
the picture constitute the hospital, that word being given its original 
English meaning — literally, a house of hospitality. The needful 
Gothic feeling has been infused into the contour of moldings, more 
especially into the design of dormer windows, etc., but this has been 
done without shutting out the light or in any way marring the cheer- 
fulness of these home-like habitations. Though approached from a 
cloister, — in this case, merely a convenient covered passage, — they 
have been adapted to the necessities of evcry-day life in the waning 
years of the nineteenth century. But now comes a bold Gothic tower 
with a^loopholed octagonal shaft on one of its angles that takes the 
mind back to the Middle Ages. True, the rampart, moat, and draw- 

9 o 


bridge are missing, and the smooth asphalt pavement 
has not yet been worn by the hoofs of prancing steeds 
carrying mailed and visored chieftains on missions of 
knight-errantry ; but the low arch in the center, 
through which a deep recess is dimly visible, sug- 
gests the possibility of a portcullis and the clank of 
armed retainers within the keep. Our train of 
thought, however, is broken as we approach, for in- 
stead of chains, arrow-headed spikes, and oaken bars, 
we see a partly open gate and hear the sound of 
music mingled with voices that bid us welcome. 
Any lingering illusion would now be dispelled by the 
presence of St. Paul in his hooded niche above this 
portal ( Fig. 9), were it not for his enormous sword, 
easily mistaken for a Scottish claymore. But this 
archway really leads to the cloister, thence to all 
parts of a free and estimable institution. 

The second of the two archways is the main 
entrance to the church ; and that ornate apsidal pro- 
jection, Fig. 10, is known as the Morning Chapel. 
In the little triangular space abutting the property- 
line, a fountain has been provided, at which thirsty 
wayfarers are invited to refresh themselves. This 
invitation is given on the scroll above in a text that 
may be taken literally as well as figuratively, though 
in words from Isaiah, " Ho, every one that thirsteth." 
An aggressive gargoyle on the salient angle of a 
buttress offers a challenge to every boy in the neigh- 
borhood, but, greatly to their credit, they have re- 
sisted that form of temptation up to date of writing. 
This immunity from mutilation may be out of respect 
for St. James, the son of Alpheus, who occupies a 

nic he 
on the 

PIG. 9. 


buttress, book in one 
hand, pastoral staff 
and bottle in the other, 
likewise the tradi- 
tional shell on his 
breast (Fig. 11). In 
addition to these two 
saints, there are eight 
winged cherubs on the 
four dormers of the 
belfry, yet we fear that 
these " angel s and 
ministers of grace " 
b ear but a small pro- 
portion to the sinners 
that pass each day 
along 14th Street. 
How different in Eu- 
ropean cities, especial- 
ly in those of Spain ! 
In Burgos, for exam- 
ple, Theophile Gautier 
assures us that on one 
tower of the cathedral 
— and it the smallest 
of three — the stone 
population must ex- 
ceed that of flesh and 
blood inhabiting the 

The fine rose win- 
dow in the gable is 
worthy of more than 

FI0. 8. 

a passing notice, in view of what was said in Tin-: BRH K.BUILDER for 
December, 1R98, on behalf of terra-cotta tracery in general. The 
present example is a reminder, in miniature, of the great rose win- 
dow in the west front of Notre Dame, which is rather more than 
twice its size. From the central hub to the first cusping there are 
twelve radial lines in both windows; but in Notre Dame an inter- 
mediate bar is introduced, dividing the outer periphery into twenty- 


9 1 

four lights. Of course, the sectional area of the bars is in propor- 
tion to the immense size of the window, otherwise there would be 
a want of lateral stiffness, with a consequent tendency to buckle at 
the joints under a strong wind pressure. In the present case the 
jointing is arranged in the manner shown at Fig. 12, and the win- 
dow is entirely self supporting, no iron or other expedient being 
employed in its construction. All joints are made on the principle 
of mortise and tenon, with sufficient freedom allowed for the intro- 
duction of cement, which, setting in the rebates, becomes the best 
kind of dowel. Doubts as to the safety of this window were ex- 
pressed during the early stages of its execution, but these were set 
at rest when the pieces had been assembled and the last one keyed 
into position. This window was tested soon after setting in 1894, 
and found to be quite rigid at all points. Judging from recent ex- 
amination, it is likely to remain so indefinitely. 

The making of a window such as this is not particularly trouble- 
some or expensive, provided the right methods are adopted from the 
outset. For the tracery but seven different molds are required, out 
of which eighty-five pieces are obtained. One mold could be made 
to produce the whole of the thirty-six pieces required for the outer 
arch, by having the ashlar of sufficient size to contain the largest 
bond, all the others being wire-cut by hand to a templet, so that the 
steps would course with the brick walling. In this we get a total of 
one hundred and twenty-one pieces from eight molds, a fair average 
in point of repetition, considering that there is but one such win- 
dow in the building. This is a much higher average than would be 
possible on some kinds of merely commonplace work, in which com- 
paratively little effect is obtainable at an equal, or even greater, ex- 
penditure per cubic foot. We shall have other opportunities of 
demonstrating the practicability and economy of terra-cotta as 

every block of terra-cotta in tower, from the arcading of the base to 
the finials on the dormer gablets (Fig. 13). Much of this work 
reaches a high degree of elaboration, presenting a series of rather 

fig. 1 1. 

against stone tracery, but nothing more conclusive as to that can be 
adduced than the facts and inferences furnished by the foregoing 

What has been said in reference to tracery would apply to 

fig. 12. 

intresting problems in jointing and in construction generally. The 
setting out of work such as this must be conducted on geometrical 
principles, correct in theory and at the same time conformable to 
approved workshop practise. If these two elements are embodied 
in the working drawings, and adhered to intelligently in making the 
plaster models, the resulting terra-cotta blocks will find their respec- 
tive places with little, if any, subsequent adjustment. Moreover, the 
habit of " fitting " the blocks after burning is not one that ought to 
be encouraged. At best it is a makeshift, made necessary by a want 
of skilled experience in controlling the shrinkage, or a want of ac- 
curacy in the models. There is no reason why either of these wants 
should be tolerated in an industry that has now passed the infantile 
stage of development. 

In the hands of really competent men there is nothing to pre- 
vent the great bulk of a factory's output being shipped from the 
kiln door direct, without the touch of a chisel. We know that the 
traditions of a bygone time say otherwise, and though most of 
the conditions and some of the men have changed places of late 
years, the ancient fallacy holds its ground from force of habit. 
If it be true that "custom is our greatest friend or cruellest 
foe," then there is one here that certainly belongs to the latter cate- 

Of course, things are liable to happen in the progress of a 
building that cannot be foreseen, much less provided for before their 
existence has become known. Mistakes in height and in the size of 
piers and openings, etc., often occur through careless setting out on 
the building. The mischief arising from all such oversights or 
deviations generally falls on the terra-cotta manufacturer, however 
accurately his work may agree with the data from which all hands 
had been expected to work. A remedy or expedient must then be 
resorted to, in which case the service of a fitter comes into imme- 
diate demand. We can remember a time when it was taken for 

9 2 


granted that anything in the way of a misfit or misadventure that 
might happen on a building must be owing to the intractability of 
the '• terra-cotta." In some quarters, and until recently, this 

Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 


FIG. 13. 

stupid notion amounted to an article of faith, the propagation of 
which was convenient as well as highly fashionable. The absurd 
maxim is now being gradually exploded, and more often than other- 
wise the setting drawings that accompany the terra-cotta take 
precedence over all others, as a safe guide in cases of undefined or' 
disputed measurement. 

How far any of these several conditions prevailed in connection 
with the belfry of Grace Chapel, we are not prepared to say. We 
can say, however, and that as a result of critical inspection, that 
every piece fits into its allotted place, that they are free from warp- 
ing or distortion, and that the color is remarkably uniform through- 
out. Results such as these should be the aim in regard to every part 
of a building, be it ever so far removed from the eye, yet one is in- 
clined to regret that work of equal merit has not been given a place 
of honor around the chancel. 

In the matter of iron anatomy it may be stated that a 2 l / 2 by 3 
T section, fastened to a cross beam below the bell deck, passes up 
through each shaft of the turrets. This is connected to a similar 
raking section forming each hip, all of which unite at the apex of 
roof. In order to prevent spreading, a tie-rod passes horizontally 
through these ribs a little above the crown of the arch. This, 
we think, is an improvement on the method usually adopted of in- 
serting the tie-rod at the springing of arch, where it is unsightly 
and liable to rust, — two disadvantages against which there is no 

CHAPTER X.— Continued. 

[The photographs A, B, and C are not taken from Mr. 
Street's work, but are added as additional illustrations of the Italian 
brickwork. — Eds.] 

CREMONA is a city full of interest. The piazza in front of the 
cathedral is equal in effect to almost any small piazza I 
know of. On one side is the great marble west front of the Duomo, 
backed by its immense brick campanile, whose wide fame is proved 
by the old rhyme, of which the Cremonese are still so proud: — 

•• Unus Petrusest in Roma, 
Una turns in Creroi 

On another side is the Lombard baptistery, a grand polygonal build- 
ing; on the third, a most interesting domestic building — the palace 
of the Jurisconsults — and the Gothic Palazzo Publico: whilst on 
the fourth, a narrow, busy street makes up, by the diversity of colour 
and costume of the crowd which is always passing along it, for what 
it wants in architectural beauty. 

The cathedral must be first described, and it is rather difficult 
to do this clearly ; but so far as can now be made out it seems much 
as though it had at first been built upon a simple plan, with nave, 
north and south aisles, and three semicircular eastern apses : and 
that then to this, in the fourteenth century, had been added, with 
hardly any disturbance of the original fabric, immense transepts, 
loftier even than the nave, and so long and large as to give the im- 
pression now that two naves have been placed by some mistake across 
each other. The groining of the nave is original in its outline, but 
barbarously painted in sham panelling so as entirely to spoil its 
effect, but otherwise there is little to notice in the interior, the whole 
of the church having been converted with the plasterers' help into 


Renaissance in the most approved manner. The walls are covered 
with painting, and round the columns, when we were there, were 
hung great tapestries, all of which gave the building a rich though 
rather gloomv colour. 



The west front (if you can forget that it is a great mask only to 
the real structure) is rather grand from its large plain surf?ce of 
arcaded wall; it has been grievously damaged by alterations, but the 
old design is still not difficult to trace. 
The doorway is very noble, and the open 
porch in front of it is carried up with a 
second stage, in which, under open 
arches, stand a very fine figure of the 
B 1 e ssed Virgin, and figures of other 
saints of more modern character o n 
either side of her ; above this is a great 
circular window, whilst the wall on either 
side of the porch and window is nearly 
covered with small arcading. The mar- 
bles in the wall, where the arcading does 
not occur, are arranged very regularly in 
horizontal lines alternately of red and 
white, each course being about ten inches 
or a foot high, and divided from the next 
by a strip of white marble about two or 
three inches in height. The great rose 

window is all of red marble, with the exception of one line of mould- 
ing which looks like green serpentine. There are some round win- 
dows in the lower stage on each side of the entrance, but they are 
quite modern. 

On the north side of the nave rises the Torrazzo, as the cam- 
panile is called here — the "una turris in Cremona " — rising about 
four hundred feet from the pavement of the piazza. Its design is 
much like that of all the other brick campanili in this district — a 
succession of stages of nearly equal height, divided by arcaded 
string-courses, and marked with perpendicular lines by small pilasters, 
and almost without windows until near the summit. The dark red 
outline of this magnificent tower tells well against the deep blue 
Italian sky, which shone brightly behind it when we saw it ; and the 
effect of its immense and almost unbroken outline, rising to such an 
extraordinary height, is so utterly unlike that of any of our Northern 
steeples that we need not trouble ourselves to compare them. Both 
are fine in their way; but the Italian campanili are made up of the 
reiteration of features so simple and so generally similar that we 
cannot fairly class their builders with the men who raised in England 
such a multitude of steeples, all varying one from another, and yet 
all so lovely. 

A door in the east wall of the north transept leads into a small 

courtyard, sacred now to 
y^ ]| PW the cathedral clergy, from 
which the original scheme 
of the eastern part of the 
church may be fairly well 
seen. It appears to have 
been a stone building 
treated in the common 
fash ion of Lombard 
churches, but with butt- 
resses and a passage 
through them round the 
apse in front of the win- 
dows. There is a modern- 
ized crypt under the choir. 
The side walls of the north 
transept are seen very well 
from the same courtyard ; 
they are well arcaded in 
brick, and entirely con- 
cealed from sight elsewhere 
by the enormous false tran- 
sept-fronts, the backs of 
north transept, cathedral, which as seen from here 

cremona. are certainly among the 


most ungainly works ever erected for the mere sake of being beau- 

The rest of the exterior of the Duomo is almost all of brick. 
The most remarkable features are the 
two transept fronts, which are certainly 
magnificent in their detail, though most 
unreal and preposterous as wholes ; they 
are, both of them, vast sham fronts, like 
the west front, in that they entirely con- 
ceal the structure of the church behind 
them, and pierced with numbers of win- 
dows which from the very first must 
have been built but to be blocked up. 
They have in fact absolutely nothing to 
do with the building against which they 
are placed, and in themselves, irrespec- 
tive of this very grave fault, are, I think, 
positively ugly in their outline and mass. 
And yet there is a breadth and grandeur 
of scale about them which does some- 
what to redeem their faults, and a beauty 
about much of their detail which I cannot but admire extremely. 
Both transepts are almost entirely built of brick and very similar in 
their general idea ; but, whilst only the round arch is used in the 
south transept, nothing but the pointed arch is used in the northern, 
and it is quite curious to notice how very much more beautiful the 
latter looks than does the former. The filling-in of stilted round- 
arched windows with ogee pointed tracery and much delicate cusp- 


ing gives the south transept a singularly Eastern look, and it is 
impossible not to feel that some such influence has been exercised 
throughout its design. It would indeed be most interesting to find 
out what this was, but I am not aware that there is likely to be any 
clue to it. The date of the work is in all probability somewhere 
about the latter part of the fourteenth century. The detail and 
management of the whole of the brickwork are exceedingly delicate 
and effective, surpassing in their way anything I have yet seen. 

The putlog-holes are left unfilled, as they almost always are in 
Italy. The only stone used is in the doorway and the window-shafts, 
and these last are almost always coupled in depth. The windows 
are elaborately moulded, and courses of chevrons, quatrefoils, and 
other ornaments are introduced occasionally as a relief to what 
might otherwise be the tedious succession of mouldings which are 
necessarily rather similar. The cusping of brick arches is always 
managed in the same way; the bricks all radiate with the arch (not 
from the centre of the cusp), and look as though they might have 
been built, allowing plenty of length of brick for the cusps, and then 
cut to the proper outline, the edges of the cusps being almost in- 
variably left square. Some of the terra-cotta arch ornaments and 
diapers are exceedingly good of their kind. The most remarkable 




feature, however, about these transepts is the prodigiously heavy 
open arcade which runs up the gables under the eaves-cornice — so 
heavv and so rude-looking, that, taken by itself, it would probably be 
put down as being of much earlier date than it really is. The 
faqade finishes with three heavy pinnacles arcaded all round, and 
finished with conical caps. 

To the north transept very nearly the same description would 
apply, save that the doorway is much finer, and entirely of marble. 1 

It is part of the original Lombard 
church, and has no doubt been 
taken down and rebuilt where we 
now see it. The tracery of the 
rose windows is all finished in 
brick, and the detail generally is 
belter and more delicate in its 
character than that of the south 
transept. In both the bricks are 
all of a pale red colour, and no 
dark bricks are anywhere used. 

The baptistery — which, as 
has been said, stands southwest of 
the Duomo — is entered by a door- 
way with a projecting porch, whose 
shafts rest on the backs of ani- 
mals. It is octagonal in its plan, 
built of brick with the exception of the side in which the door is 
placed, this being of marble, and is very simple in all its detail. 
There are three altars in it, and an immense erection of masonry in 
the centre, which, though not open, is evidently a font, amply large 
for immersion. Each side has three recessed arches on marble 
columns, above which the whole is of red brick with stone string- 
courses between the stages. These have corbel-tables under them, 
which are the only enrichments in the building. All the brickwork 
is left to view inside, and the light is admitted by a pierced arcade 
very high up in the walls. The whole is domed over with an octag- 
onal vault of brick, in the centre of which is a small lantern, and 
the effect is exceedingly fine and solemn, and enhanced very much 
by the grave sombre colour of the bricks. 

Close to the baptistery is a building, called in Murray's Hand- 
book the Palace of the Jurisconsults, turned when I first saw it into 
a school for a not very polite set of children and teachers, who all 
apparently felt the most lively interest in my architectural pursuits. 
It was originally open below, but the arches on which it stood are 
now filled up. This upper stage is very simple and beautiful, and 
the whole is finished at the top with a cornice and parapet, with 
battlements pointed at the top like those in the Torrazzo, and not 
forked as we have been lately so accustomed to see them. At one 
end of this parapet a chimney rises above the battlement, which is. 
so far as I have seen, a unique example of the ancient Italian con- 
trivance for this very necessary appendage.- It is exceedingly good 
in its detail, and coeval with the rest of the work. There is a simplic- 
ity and truthfulness of construction about this little building which 
make it especially pleasing after the unreal treatment of the great 
transept-fronts of the Duomo.' 1 By its side stands the Palazzo Pub- 
lico, out of one side of which rises one of those singular and very 
tall brick towers, without any openings whatever in its walls, which 
give such peculiar character to some Italian cities, and of which we 
afterwards saw good store at Pavia. The whole of the building 
shews either traces of arcades or perfect arcades upon which the 
upper walls are supported : they are, however, so much modernized 
as to be comparatively uninteresting, though enough remains to shew- 
that their detail was once very good. The building incloses a quad- 

1 The two transepts are so very similar, that it seemed unnecessary to engrave my 
sketches of both. 

2 The chimneys so common in Venice are ancient, but yet hardly redeemed from ugli- 
They are cylindrical, with heads sloping out in a strange fashion, and in the form of 
inverted truncated cones. 

3 This building has recently (1872) been restored, and with not much gain, though the 
barber*s shop which used to occupy the ground-floor has been removed. 

rangle, which is rather small, but arcaded on three sides, and opens 
from the piazza by open arches under the principal facade, ami 
probably dates from the middle of the thirteenth century, the date 
1 - li being given in an inscription in the courtyard. 

There are many churches in Cremona, all more or less appear 
ing to be founded upon the work in the transepts of the cathedral, 
but generally very inferior to them in merit. 

San Domenico has a west front singularly like theirs, but de- 
based in its detail. It has. however, a very fine campanile, lofty, 
very simple, and pierced with pointed windows in each stage, one 
above the other. The interior is completely modernized, and not 
worth notice. 

SS. Agostino and Giacomo in Breda is another church of the 
same class, with a west front which is again a very bad second edition 
of the cathedral, and which has been horribly mutilated and modern- 
ized inside. It is, however, to be remembered gratefully for a most 
lovely picture by Perugino, representing the Blessed Virgin with Our 
Lord seated, with SS. Augustine and James on either side. The 
Virgin is very calm, dignified, unearthly, and very simple and stately. 
Our Blessed Lord, in her arms, has perhaps rather too much the 
character of an ordinary infant ; and the two saints have more than 
is quite pleasant of the bend in their figures of which he was so fond: 
the heads stooping forward, and the knees considerably bent, are a 
little too evidently straining towards a reverential posture. Such a 
criticism is a bold one to venture upon with the recollection of so 
glorious a picture fresh in my mind — one from which I really de- 
rived intense pleasure. The date of this very fine work is \. d. 

Sia. Agata is another church which still has its old campanile 
intact, with round-arched windows, very simple and not large. The 
church which has been built against it tells its story so well, that at 
first we all mistook it for a theatre ! So much for Classic symbolism. 

Another church, dedicated in honour of Sta. Margherita, is a verv 
poor erection of brick, with a simple campanile. < >ne or two other 
churches we saw with fair brick campanili, which were not otherwise 
remarkable ; and one 
there was, San Luca, 
close to the Milan 
gate, which seemed 
to be very singular in 
its arrangements. It 
had a proje c t i n g 
western porch, with 
its columns supported 
on beasts: and at the 
north-west angle an 
octagonal building of 
brick, of exceedingly 
late date, which ap- 
peared to be a bap- 

I enjoyed t h e 
architectural remains 
in Crem o n a very 
much indeed : its rich 
array of buildings in 

elaborate brickwork is very striking : and the campanile of the 
cathedral, towering up high above the many other steeples, combines 
well with them in the general views, and helps to convert into a fine- 
looking city what is, perhaps, in its streets and houses generally, 
very far from being anything of the kind. The way in which the old 
walls and towers of the Palazzo Publico combine with the steeple of 
the cathedral is extremely fine, a large piazza a short distance to the 
west of the palazzo affording perhaps the best point of view. 

From Cremona we went to Lodi, on our way to Pavia, and had 
a very pleasant drive. The heat was intense when we started, and 
the drivers of all the carts we passed were prudently ensconcing 
themselves in the baskets swung beneath their carts, to escape its 




effects. Throughout the Lombardo-Venetian territory there is a 
great traffic always going on, and there is a much nearer approach 
to English arrangements, in the way of har- 
ness and tackle, than it is at all usual to see 
on the Continent; though, indeed, it ought in 
fairness to be said, that their carts are much 
more scientific than ours generally are. Any 
vehicle with more than two wheels is rarely 
if ever seen ; and these two wheels are some- 
times of prodigious size — I should say quite 
ten feet in diameter — whilst the length of 
the cart from end to end is immense. The 
extent to which they are loaded is almost in- 
credible, and of course it requires great care 
in order to make the trim exact; but when 
loaded, the draught must be light for the 
weight. It is impossible to talk about horses 
and carts without thinking of the magnificent 
cream-coloured oxen which are everywhere 
doing hard work on the roads and in the 
fields. They have most magnificent, large, 
calm eyes: and this, with their great size and 
slow and rather dignified motion, makes them 
look very grand. They are always yoked to 
a pole, which rises up above their heads at 
the end, and has a carved crosspiece attached 
to it, against which they press their fore- 

At Pizzighettone we crossed the Adda, 
here a very fine and full stream, and then, 
changing horses, went on rapidly towards 
Lodi. Leaving the main road, we travelled along a less frequented 
by road, infinitely more pleasant, and in many places very pretty in- 

deed. We followed the course of a small river, which was turned 
to good account for irrigation; its stream being at times divided 




into no less than three channels, in order to water the pasture-land 
on which are fed the cows whose milk is to produce the far-famed 
Parmesan cheese. Some part of the road reminded us pleasantly 
of English lanes and English scenery, but here and there a distant 
glimpse of the Apennines far behind us, and of the Alps beyond 
Milan before us, made us aware that we were indeed in Italy. 

There is little to be seen in Lodi. It has a large and rather 
shabby-looking piazza, at one corner of which is the cathedral, 
whose only good feature is its doorway, which is, however, very 
inferior to the western doorway of the cathedral at Cremona, to 
which it bears some little resemblance. 

Another church has a Gothic brick front. The real roof is 
one of flat pitch, spanning nave and aisles; but in the facade the 
central portion is considerably higher than the sides, so as to give 
the idea of a clerestory. This is a foolish sham, and unhappily 
only too common in late Gothic work in Italy. The centre divi- 
sion of the front is divided into three by pilasters, which are semi- 
circular in plan. In the central division are a door and a circular 
window, in each side division is a pointed window, and a brick 
cornice finishes the gable, crowned with five circular brick pinna- 

Another church in Lodi has a very beautifully painted ceil- 
ing; this has been engraved by Mr. Griiner, but unluckily I did 
not know of its existence until I returned home; it seems to be an 
admirable piece of colour, and to be well worth careful study. 

There seemed to be nothing else worthy of notice in Lodi ; 
but, as in duty bound, we walked down to the bridge, — a rough, 
unstable looking wooden erection over the broad rapid Adda, with 
nothing about it to recall to mind the great event in its history, its 
passage by Napoleon in 1796. 

We left very early in the morning for Pavia : our way led us 
through a country most elaborately cultivated, and irrigated with 
a great display of science and labour ; every field seemed to have 
some two or three streams running rapidly in different directions, 
and the grass everywhere was most luxuriant. No view, how- 
ever, was to be had on either side, as the road found its way 
through a very flat line of country, and all the hedges were lined 

9 6 


with interminable rows of Lombardy poplars. It was a country 
which would have done more good to the heart of a Lincolnshire 
farmer than to that of an architect ! 

The only remarkable building passed on the road was a castle 
at Sant' Angelo; a great brick building, with square towers set 


diagonally at the angles. The walls were finished with a battlement 
of the Veronese kind, and there were several very good early pointed 
brick windows with brick monials in place of shafts. A campanile, 
detached near one angle, has tine machicolations in stone, now, how- 
ever, partly destroyed. The effect of the whole building was very 


Editors The Brickbuilder : — 

Dear Sirs: — Please give me your opinion and suggestions in 
regard to the manner of carrying the brickwork both above and on 
the face of the girder as shown in the enclosed sketch (Fig. I). 
The specification will call for the work in Portland cement mortar 
with the joints raked out and repointed with the finishing mortar. 
The weight on the beam is less than thirty tons — -20 ft. 8 ins. span. 
Is the anchoring of the brickwork to face of the beam the best that 
can be got ? 

We do not think that the construction shown by our correspondent 
is quite safe, for the reason that the bearing of the brickwork on the 
lower flange of the beam will be only about 2% ins., and what is more 
objectionable, the bearing (beam flange) has a slope or angle of 2 ins. in 
i 2 ins., so that we think it will be quite impossible to hold the bricks 
so that they will not slip on the beam. The % in. plate on the top 
web would offer very little resistance to the brickwork above, and we 

are inclined to think that a large proportion of the weight of the 
outside facing of the wall will be transmitted to the lower flange of 
the beam. In our opinion, the % in. plate would be of practically 
no value in supporting the wall, except as a foundat'on for starting 
the first courses. 

We would recommend that instead of a single beam, a beam 

"'Ji » >Z \ftH- lerijllh o/f)e».m I^ouJoe\ ■ iea der 

6"Z fleAW 

~ Mmjiu kKm^u i mumiJiM 

.Scale Jfe-I 

and channel, connected with bolts and separators, be used, as in 
Fig. 2. These have about the same strength as the 20 in. beam, 
and weigh a little more, but give much better support for the wall. 
Owing to the molding on the bottom brick, the bearing has to be 
limited, but it is perfectly level, and by riveting a small angle to the 
channel at A, so as to just catch the top of the bottom brick, it will 
be impossible for it to tip. By bonding the bricks above the beam, 
as shown in the sketch, but very little weight will be imposed on the 
bottom plate. It would be still better construction if the back of 
the channel could be set within 4 ins. of the face of wall, but that 
would necessitate different moldings. 

If it is deemed necessary to adhere to the single beam, we would 
recommend that a 4 by 4 in. angle be riveted to the outside of the 
beam, opposite the inner angle, and that the brickwork be brought 
on to these angles on both sides of the beam, and the plate on top 
dispensed with. This would necessitate substituting terra-cotta, 
wood, or metal for the lower or inner molded course. Terracotta 

can be hung almost anywhere by means of interior rods and hooks, 
but to drill the bricks and hang them in place is impracticable if not 
impossible. EDITORS. 






IN a previous article a new style of terra-cotta arch, the " serrated 
arch," was partially illustrated, and is here shown and ex- 
plained at greater length. 

The primary object of this arch is to furnish a construction pos- 
sessing practically the same strength as a segmental arch of the 
same depth and rise, without the disadvantages of the latter. The 
rise is obtained by using a skewback and key with a batter of 2 
ins. to i ft., and voussoirs with a batter of i in. to i ft. The dif- 
ference between these batters gives to the arch a rise of i in. per 
foot of half the span, or one twenty-fourth of the total span. In 
setting these arches the centers may be of the ordinary type gen- 
erally used for " flat arches," hung either from the beams directly, or 
from joists across the top of the beams, with the addition of a bev- 
eled strip laid on each stringer. This strip can be used for dif- 
ferent spans, as the angle of rise is always the same. 

A careful examination of the cuts here shown will give an idea 
of one of the principal advantages this arch possesses over a seg- 
mental arch in having the ends of all the blocks, or voussoirs, paral- 
lel, thus giving mortar 
joints of even thickness at 
the top and bottom. This 
also applies to the skew- 
backs and keys. This is 
seldom the case in a seg- 
mental arch, as blocks 
battered on both ends to 
fit a certain rise and span 
seldom fit any other span 
with any degree of nicety. 
The combination of side- 
construction skew backs 
and keys and end-construc- 
tion voussoirs used in this 
arch has many advantages. 
A side-construction skew- 
back can be made with a 
protecting flange beneath 

the beam, thus doing away with the soffit tile, and moreover pre- 
sents a smooth, flat surface against which the abutting voussoir can 
be well mortared. In placing the key, its smooth surface materially 
aids the mason in securing a good and uniform joint. 

As stated in a previous article, the line of greatest pressures in 
a " flat arch " approaches the upper and lower sides at the key and 
skewbacks respectively, and therefore it is more necessary to have 
good firm joints at these points than at any other places in the arch ; 
and as these arches have such a small rise, the same rule applies. 
It will also be noticed that the keys and skewbacks are made excep- 
tionally heavy and the material distributed so as to present the 
greatest resistance where it is most needed. The webs of the skew- 
backs are designed with a slope, which is most efficient for an aver- 
age span, but which is near enough for all practical purposes at the 
most extreme spans to which the arch is applicable. 

In the matter of strength these arches compare very favorably 
with segmental arches made of side-construction blocks. An end- 
construction block properly set in an arch has its entire section 
available for resisting compression, as the shells and webs extend 
from end to end, while a side-construction block has only the hori- 
zontal webs and the upper and lower shells in direct compression, 
the remaining parts serving only to hold the block together and 

FIG. 3. 

FIG. 2. 

Copyright, 1899. 

My permission of tin 

Central Fire-Pioofing Company, 

to resist diagonal strains, due to the resistance to bending at the 

A casual inspection might lead one to infer that a long span 
uniformly loaded would have a tendency to buckle downward, say 
half-way between the center and either end, but it must be remem- 
bered that if a circular arc can be drawn inside of the middle third 
of an arch, it will be stable, if uniformly loaded. It is always as- 
sumed that the haunches are filled with concrete to at least level 
with the highest point of the arch, so that the depth of the arch at 
any point may be taken as the sum of the depths of terra-cotta and 
concrete at that point, as the solid section of light (cinder) concrete 
may be safely taken at the same compressive resistance as a section 
of the hollow terra-cotta block of the same dimensions. Of course 
every inch of concrete above this adds materially to the strength of 
the construction, but the safest plan is to design an arch to safely 
carry the desired load, and to depend upon the extra concrete to 
withstand any unforeseen shocks or excentric loading. 

" Flat arches" act as braces in a building to a certain degree, 
and these arches may be depended upon to the same extent, as it 
would be a practical impossibility to buckle them by pressure on 
the ends, owing to their slight rise. Although intended more for 
constructions requiring great strength, such as the floors of ware- 
houses, breweries, etc , these arches are perfectly applicable to any 
buildings not requiring such strong construction, being so light for 
their strength. 

The serrated ceiling is an innovation which it is believed will be 
appreciated by the architect and owner, combining greater strength 

than a " flat arch " of the 
same weight, with a most 
pleasing effect to the eye. 
A serious objection to the 
segmental arch is the ir- 
regular ceiling effect where 
a floor is divided into 
small rooms, as the parti- 
tions may divide an arch 
so as to mar the whole 
effect. These serrated 
arches, having only a verv 
small rise, obviate this dif- 
ficulty entirely, for, as in the 
case just cited, the ceiling 
may be plastered level 
wherever considered nec- 
x cw York essary, and at a small extra 

cost. In places where t lie 
plastering is very thick, large-headed iron spikes driven into the 
arch, leaving enough projection to be thoroughly embedded in the 
plastering, will insure a good bond and obviate the danger of the 
ceiling falling in consequence of its extra weight. 

Fig. 1 shows a 6 in. raised serrated arch at 4, 5, and 6 It. 
spans, capable of safely sustaining loads of 612, 434, and 330 
lbs. per square foot of floor, respectively. The weight of the 
terra-cotta arch alone is about 20 lbs. per square foot of floor. 
The dotted lines show the position of an 8 in. arch, and in the cen- 
tral span is shown the effect of the finished ceiling. In Fig. 2 a 
12 in. arch is shown at 4, 5, and 6 ft. spans, capable of safely sus- 
taining loads of 1,357, 931, and 688 lbs. per square foot of floor, re- 
spectively. The weight of the terra-cotta arch alone is about 30 lbs. 
per square foot of floor. 

Fig. 3 shows a 15 in. arch at 7 and 9 ft. spans, capable of 
safely sustaining loads of 700 and 461 lbs. per square foot of floor, 
respectively. The weight of the terra-cotta arch alone is about 36 
lbs. per square foot of floor. Figs. 2 and 3 show the regular ser- 
rated ceiling with several different styles of flooring, all of which are 
equally applicable. In this arch, as in an end-construction "Hat 
arch," any sections of voussoir may be used, the strength varying 
directly as the cross sectional area in arches of the same depth. 

9 8 


Masons' Department. 



AS to the form of contracts in use, they are, naturally, of some- 
what varied phraseology, though aiming at like results ; and 
in this paper I will briefly comment on two, which fairly illustrate the 
extremes of such instruments, of extended form : first, as to the 
" uniform contract " as approved by the National Association of 
Builders and the American Institute of Architects. 

"ARTICLE I. The contractor under the direction and to the 
satisfaction of Blank & Blank, architects, acting for the purposes 
of this contract as agents of the said owner, shall and will provide 
all the materials and perform all the work mentioned in the specifi- 
cations and shown on the drawings prepared by the said architects 
for the, etc., which drawings and specifications are identified by the 
signatures of the parties hereto. 

"Art. II. The architects shall furnish to the contractor such 
further drawings or explanations as may be necessary to detail and 
illustrate the work to be done, and the contractor shall conform to 
the same as part of this contract so far as they may be consistent with 
the original drawings and specifications, referred to and identified, as 
provided in Art. I. It is mutually understood and agreed that all 
drawings and specifications are and remain the property of the archi- 

I have italicized the words " so far as they may be consistent 
with," because it seems to me that therein lies much chance for con- 
troversy, which should be avoided. 

Who is to determine whether or not the architect's detail draw- 
ings or explanations are consistent with the originals or with the con- 
tract ? the contract does not say. whether it is to be the owner, the 
contractor, or the architect, or by arbitration under Art. III. 

The owner may claim that he or the architect is to so determine 
or that it is to be by arbitration, according to the owner's bias of 
thought at the time; the contractor may claim that he or the owner 
is to so determine, or that it is to be by arbitration, According to the 
contractor's bias of thought at the time: the architect may claim 
iiid rightly) that he is to so determine, for, having prepared the 
plans and specifications, the architect is the only person who knows 
just what the true intent and meaning and consistency is. In short, 
Art. II. is vaguely indefinite — contracts should be definite, as far as 

Art. III. provides for arbitration by " three disinterested arbi- 
trators "; but as things go, it would be rather difficult, I imagine, to 
secure disinterested arbitrators, in the best sense of that term : each 
partv would naturally select one who would be friendly to his inter- 
ests, and with the probability that the arbitrators would have little or 
no knowledge of the legal aspects of the matter. In case of such 
arbitration, it should be provided that the referee shall consist of an 
architect, a lawyer, and a contractor. 

Arts. VII. and VIII. provide for arbitration, on matters of much 
less importance than under Art. V. — yet Art. V. provides for deter- 
mination by the architect, without appeal. Surely, if the architect is 
competent to act under Art. X .. he is also competent to act under 
Arts. II., III.. VII., and VIII. 

Art. VIII. provides that "the owner agrees to provide all labor 
and materials not included in this contract in such manner as not to 
delav the material progress of the work, and in the event of failure 
so to do, therein causing loss to the contractor, agrees that he will 
reimburse the contractor for such loss : and the contractor agrees 
that if he shall delay the material progress of the work so as to cause 
any damage for which the owner shall become liable (as above 

stated), then he shall make good to the owner any such damage. 
The amount of such loss or damage to either party hereto shall, in 
every case, be fixed and determined by the architect or by arbitra- 
tion, as provided for in Art. III. of this contract." 

In respect to labor and materials. Art. VII I. comes into conjunc- 
tion with Arts. II. and III. Who is to determine as to what labor 
and materials, and just how much, the owner is to provide, and the 
consistency thereof, in respect to the contract? the contract does 
not say, except in so far as damages for delay are concerned, 
and that by architect or arbitration ; but it does not say who is to 
determine as to whether it is to be by the architect or by arbitra 

This form of contract is at cross purposes, and conducivi to 
disagreements: it says in Art. I. that the labor and materials shall 
be satisfactory to the architect, and then goes on to practically pro- 
vide for some other satisfaction. The contract nowhere says that 
the building, as a whole, shall be satisfactory and acceptable to the 
architect, or that the building, as a structure, shall be a complete 
and perfected one of its kind, subject to the specific things which the 
owner is to provide. 

The bias of the uniform contract is distinctly in favor of the 
contractor as against the owner and architect. 

The " Contract " of the city of Boston goes to the other extreme, 
and is distinctly in favor of the owner, as may be noted by the fol- 
lowing extracts : — 

"Article i. The contractor, with materials and workmanship 
of the best quality, shall, for the City of Boston, Mass.. do the work 
described in the specifications of the work at the end of this con- 
tract, conforming so far as they go to the provisions of this contract, 
and completing the work as required in said specifications; and if 
the contractor is delayed in doing the work by anything for which 
the city is legally responsible, he shall have no claim for damages 
therefor, but shall have further time for completing the work equal 
to the time he is so delayed. 

" Art. 2. The contractor shall permit the chairman and the 
person provided for in the specifications of the work to be the archi- 
tect therefor, hereinafter designated as architect, and persons desig- 
nated by them or either of them, to enter upon and inspect the work 
at all times and places, and shall provide safe and proper facilities 
for such entry and inspection ; shall conform to all determinations 
and directions of |the architect relating to the commencement of the 
work, the order and manner of doing the work, the proper interpre- 
tation of the plans and specifications, the suitableness, amount, 
quality, and value of everything done or used on the work, and the 
date of the completion of the work, or relating to any other question 
which may arise relating to the method and materials used in, and 
the time of doing the work, and the architect shall be deemed the 
referee of both parties to make such determinations and direc- 

"ART. 3. The contractor shall take all responsibility of the 
work, and bear all losses resulting therefrom, or from the amount, 
character, or method of doing the work, or from the nature of the 
land in or on which the work is done, or from the weather, ele- 
ments, or other cause; shall not take any advantage or make any 
claim for damages on account of any discrepancy or error in the 
specifications or plans, but shall report the same to the chairman as 
soon as it comes to his knowledge: and shall, when requested by 
the architect, dismiss any employe, and not allow to be again em- 
ployed on the work any employe so dismissed. 

• Art. 4. The contractor shall assume the defense of all claims 
and suits against the city, its agents and employes, or any of them, 
arising from the use in doing the work, of any invention, patent, or 
patent light, material, labor, or implement, or arising from any act, 
omission, or neglect of the contractor, his agents or employe's, in 
doing the work; and shall indemnify and save harmless the city, it* 
agents and employe's, from all such claims and suits," etc.. etc. 

There is no form of contract with which I am familiar, which 



requires and depends so much upon the intelligence, experience, 
and integrity of the architect for fair, equitable, and just determina- 
tion ; yet this form goes to some lengths which are disadvantageous 
to the city, in the majority of cases, in encouraging to a more or less 
extent the present tendency to gamble in estimating: for it is as 
much against the city's interest for work to go for an excessively low 
price as it is for work to go for an excessively high price, and 
leads sometimes, logically and unavoidably so, to determinations 
by the architect which appear to be to the contractor unreasonable 
and arbitrary, yet clearly justified by the contract. 

The civic buildings of a large and important city should be 
regarded as the most desirable works to be obtained, and there 
ought to be a strong, healthy, civic spirit among contractors to see 
that such buildings be erected in the most thorough, substantial, and 
perfected manner, with the polish of fine workmanship, to the end 
that such buildings may reflect, not only the intelligence and liberality 
of the citizens, the professional acumen of the architects, but the 
ability, integrity, and pride of the builders. 

This last desideratum can be secured by the most reputable 
and responsible contractors taking a more active interest in the city 
work than has been the rule in the past. 

Leading contractors complain that they have no chance in 
securing such contracts under the present system of advertising for 
bids, under which any self-styled " contractor," particularly those 
with " gumption " and those who " mortgage the job " to get a certi- 
fied check, are allowed to bid for the work. This is largely so, 
and I see no way to better present conditions in this respect, except 
to put civic work upon the same basis as private work, i. e. by direct 
invitation to selected contractors to bid on the work. There is no 
good reason why this procedure should not be in vogue, and there 
are many reasons why it should be, and the city would be the gainer 

It is argued, principally by " contractors," that "a citizen has 
a right to public work," and as much profit as possible out of it ; 
but this proposition does not appear to be either logical or con- 
clusive. In respect to securing and executing contracts, defects 
and abuses exist, which may be summarized under the following 
heads : — 

(a) Lack of technical knowledge in accurate reading and under- 
standing of plans and the terminology of specifications and con- 

(b) Guessing at cost per square foot or per cubic foot. 

(c) Too many figures made in estimating. 

(d\ Deliberate omission to estimate on some part of work, or 
estimating for different quality or kind of work than that specified, — 
" to get the job " or " to get extras." 

(e) Taking estimates of irresponsible "subs.," and not using re- 
sponsible " subs." at all in making up bids. 

(f) Dickering in "subs." after award of contract. 

(g) Mischievous hustling of material agents. 
(h) Attempted evasion of contract obligations. 

(z) Indisposition to accept fair prices for " extras," or to allow 
fair prices for " omissions." 

(J) Lack of system in estimating and execution of work. 

In respect to (a), the average contractor is lamentably deficient 
in the architectural and technical knowledge, which should be a part 
of the stock in trade of all who undertake contracts for the erection 
of buildings. In acquisition of the requisite knowledge, the archi- 
tect works from the concrete to the abstract : from known facts to 
the scientific application of them, the architect needs to be ahead of 
his time; his principle of action is subjective, not objective; and his 
duty to his profession and to the public is, in its largest sense, 
greater than that to his client. It is this broader, ethical culture 
which contractors fail to understand, and which leads contractors 
to think of architects as " visionary, impractical, and cranky." On 
the other hand, the contractor works from the abstract fthe plans) 

to the concrete (the building and profit i; nevertheless, it is neces- 
sary that the contractor should have the same education as the 
architect, to the end that mutual understanding may be upon a 
higher plane. 

Contractors, as a rule, do not study the history of architecture, 
or the scientific applications of architectural engineering : given the 
requisite training, a contractor would be able to read a set of plans 
and specifications as easily and as intelligently as a book in good, 
clear, precise English. Plans are merely language graphically ex- 
pressed. But as things are, not one contractor in fifty is at all 
familiar with the different styles of architecture and the characteris- 
tic and essential details ; not one in fifty appreciates or understands 
the artistic, individual differentiation of an Erechtheion, Palladian, or 
Scamozzi Ionic capital; or Byzantine, Roman, or Renaissance Cor- 
inthian; or Renaissance, Francis I., or Gothic style,/;'/- se : such 
nomenclature is meaningless to the average. Familiarity with them 
would, when estimating, tell a contractor, at a glance, what the plans 
represented and what measure and elaborateness of detail would 
be needful and required to express the general design, and would 
enable him to estimate accordingly. 

I am quite of the opinion that 99 per cent, of all complaints of 
contractors, against architects, of " crowding on details " is the fault 
of the contractor, and due to lack of needful training, and quite of 
the opinion that it is desirable and needful for contractors to pursue 
the same course of training at some established professional school 
as that which is the basis of the trained architect, and with such 
training honest work at a fair price would be the rule and not the 

In regard to (/;), I know from experience and observation that 
the average contractor makes too many figures in estimating, and 
gets befogged in a maze of calculations and sheets. The science of 
estimating is to aim at results with the least expenditure of time, the 
easiest method and accuracy. I will illustrate some examples of 
estimating in a following paper. Also in respect to (c). 

In regard to (d), the practise is altogether too prevalent and 
should be discarded. The ethics of the matter is summed up in the 
broad and general principle of strictly honest work at a fair price, 
and I doubt if the reputable contractor will question the principle, 
and I am well convinced that the reasonable client will not, for in 
twenty-five years' practise, I have never had a client (except one, so 
far as I can remember) who has asked me to "beat down " a con- 
tractor, after I had explained the difference and risk of poor work at 
a low price and best work at a fair price. 

It is one of the unfathomable mysteries why any contractor will 
estimate for a poorer quality of material and workmanship than that 
called for in specifications, or expects, after he has got the job, to be 
allowed to provide from 5 to 10 per cent, of inferiority in quality of 
work required. The arguments offered that something else is " just 
as good," or that " there isn't any profit in the job " have no bearing 
on the case. The practise is dishonorable, and the architect has no 
concern with profit or loss to the contractor. It is the business of 
the contractor to execute the contract as determined by the archi- 
tect, and contractors should realize that the courts hold them to the 
contract, whether they are " supervised " or not. 

I have been consulted time and again by contractors, in respect 
to requirements of contracts and specifications, other than those 
from my hand, — cases in which the contractors considered that they 
were called upon to comply with " excessive and unreasonable " 
directions, and nine times out of ten the contractor has been at fault, 
because the contractor failed to grasp the meaning of the contract 
in its entirety. 

In case specifications are vague or ambiguous, contractors 
should ask the architect for definite statements regarding such points 
before estimating, and it is a good practise for the architect to post 
his answers, for the information of all contractors prior to closing of 
bids. The contractor had better lose the job than get it at too low 
a figure and then have misunderstandings, lack of profit, and hard 
feelings afterwards. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — There is every evidence now of a wave of pros- 
perity in every line of business and, as a natural sequence. 
among architects and builders. Although it costs more to build now 
than it did last fall, and the prices of all building materials are 
higher, there is a vast amount of new work under way and on the 
boards. For the capitalist who is not absolutely dependent upon 
quick returns on his investments, and who took advantage of the low 
prices of materials and labor last fall, there are big profits in sight ; 
but the average investor undoubtedly was wise in waiting until this 
spring, when money is easy to borrow if needed. The steady supply 
of small sales has kept brokers busy in all parts of the city, a feature 
that has continued uninterruptedly now for a long period, but verita- 
ble sensations in the way of big investments have made the reports 
of the market additionally interesting almost every day. And the 
end is not yet. 

The St. James Building, by Bruce Price, one of the finest office 
buildings in the up-town district, and a fine example of the use of 
brick and terra-cotta in office buildings, has been sold to the Security 
Trust and Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia for £2,725,000. 
The company will occupy two floors and rent the remainder of the 

The old Real Estate Exchange Building, a landmark down 
town, has been sold to a syndicate composed of John E. Crimmins, 
Hugh J. Grant, and others. It is expected that a large office build- 
ing will be erected on the site, which is an unusually fine one. 

Among the more important items of new work might be men- 
tioned : C P. 11. Gilbert is preparing plans for a five-story brick and 
stone dwelling, to be built on West 53d Street ; cost, $50,000. The 
same architect has also prepared plans for a five-story stone and 
brick fire-proof dwelling, to be built on Fifth Avenue, corner 80th 
Street ; cost. §130,000. Albert E. Parfitt has planned a five-story 
brick fire-proof store and loft building, to be built on Fulton Street, 
corner Bridge Street, P.rooklyn; cost, 575,000. The College of St. 
Francis Xavier is going to erect a four-story brick and stone pa- 
rochial school building on West 17th Street; cost. $100,000. James 
11. Baker has planned a brick and stone Training School for Nurses 
in connection with the Post Graduate Hospital, to be built on 20th 
Street, near Second Avenue; cost, $100,000. Neville & Bagge 
have prepared plans for a four-story brick and stone convent, to be 

built on I52d Street, near Amsterdam Avenue: cost, $50,000. L. 
I Holden has planned a seven-story brick factory for the Ham- 
mond Typewriter Company, to be built on East 69th Street ; cost, 
$50,000. Israels & Harder have planned a five-story brick and 
stone tenement building, to be erected on Eighth Avenue ; cost, 
S2o,ooo. Schneider & Herter are preparing plans for three six-storv 
brick flats, to be built on East 12th Street: cost, $85,000. Pollard 



Executed in terra-cotta by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

C. B. J. Snyder. Architect. 

& Stemain have planned two five-story brick flats, to be built on 
First Avenue, corner 93d Street: cost, $40,000. Franklin Baylies 
has planned an eight-story brick and terra-cotta store and loft build- 
ing, to be built on East 20th Street. Clinton & Russell have 
planned an eighteen-story fire-proof office building, to be erected for 
the American Exchange National Bank on the corner of Broadwav 
and Cedar Street. 

Cope X Stewardson. Architects. 

CHICAGO. — The advent of warm weather has brought some 
encouraging increase of activity in building notwithstanding 
existing and threatened labor troubles. 

Contracts have just been let for the erection of the new ten- 
story " Cable Building " on the southeast corner of Wabash Avenue 
and Jackson Boulevard. The style is the simple-severe, commercial 
type with very large glass areas ; wide bays, two on the front and 
five on the side, and terra-cotta covering with rather small and flat 
detail. The cost given is $165,000. 

Factory building continues active ; the largest recent under- 
taking in that line being the immense new factory building for the 
McCormick Harvester Company, at Western Avenue and the South 
Branch, costing over $200,000. 

The success of another big undertaking is fully assured by the 
purchase of the 70 ft. of frontage 
adjoining the old Libby Prison 
site on the south. The newly ac- 
quired property added to the latter 
premises on Wabash Avenue fur- 
nishes the required space for the 
new colosseum. Upon the south 
end will be built an annex with 
accommodations for horses and 
menagerie animals on the lower 
floors, and banquet, press, and com- 
mittee rooms above for use during 
conventions, balls, or big social 
gatherings. The main building 
will be 300 by 165 ft., and will 
seat, including the main gallery, 
over 10,000 people. For circus 
and carnival entertainments the 
gallery seating can be extended to 
the main floor. The building will 
be strictly fire-proof and will cost, 
according to present estimates. 



about $250,000. The architects are 
Frost & Granger. 

The Marshall Field Wholesale 
Warehouse, famous as one of the late 
H. H. Richardson's most successful 
buildings, is having another floor put 
in according to the original plans, under 
the direction of Messrs. Shepley, Rutan 
& Coolidge. No visible change will 
be made in the exterior, as this upper 
floor is to be lighted from above. When 
the daily papers first reported the fact 
that another story was to be added to 
the building, there was a great deal of 
apprehension among local architects 
lest the dignity and perfect proportions 
of this splendid pile might be seriously 

Labor troubles have been affecting 
suburban building operations. One 
Chicago architect, whose partic u 1 a r 
field of work is Evanston, had nine 
special policemen sworn in to protect 
as many buildings in Evanston and in 
Lake Forest. No damage was done 
by strikers except in one building. 

A new organization, at present 
limited to a membership of twenty, and 
known as the Architects' Guild of 
Chicago, has been recently formed for 
the purpose of promoting the interests 
of architecture and the allied arts, for 
mutual encouragement and benefits, and for professional comrade- 
ship among the younger and more enthusiastic practising architects 
whose professional training and aspirations make them congenial. 
The members dine together every fortnight, and informal talks and 
discussions over questions of professional interest serve to make 
these little symposiums helpful as well as delightful, and the society 
intends to bear an active and aggressive part in making Chicago 
more beautiful, — or perhaps 
it might be better to say, for 
the present at least, less ugly. 
One of our greatest curses is 
dirt, — dirt in the air, dirt in 
the streets, dirt all over our 
drawings, and dirt all over 
our buildings, until bronze 
and light sandstone are all of 
a color. 

The Chicago Record is 
making a strong fight for 
cleaner streets, but the police 
continue to be very negligent 
in the matter of arresting of- 
fenders who sweep or throw 
rubbish into the streets and 
alleys. There are laws enough 
making for clean streets, but 
public sentiment has grown 
very lax ; in fact, there seems 
never to have been a very 
strong public sentiment back 
of them. When the people 
demand clean streets and 
smokeless chimneys, as they 
recently demanded their right 
to control street railway fran- 
chises, then we may hope for 

the first step toward having a beautiful 

ning c 

Terra-cotta executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 

Executed by the-Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

URGH. — With thebegin- 
of May we are threatened 
by a general strike among the carpen- 
ters, brick masons, plasterers, and tile 
setters ; whether the general contractors 
will grant the increase in wages is as 
yet not known, but it is to be hoped 
that building operations, which now 
promise so much in contrast with the 
past few years, will not be seriously re- 
tarded. But it is a question whether 
the increase in wages, coupled with the 
rapidly increasing price of building 
materials, will not deter many from 
building. However, at present busi- 
ness seems to be good in all the offices 
and there is a general demand for first- 
class draughtsmen. 

The Pittsburgh Fire Department 
has recently had a rather unusual fire 
to fight. Parts of the city are built 
over deserted coal mines; when these 
were worked mining was not done as 
thoroughly as at present, and large 
quantities of coal were left in them. 
One of these mines caught fire, and 
after smoldering for a time broke 
through the surface in several places 
in the thickly settled parts of the city. 
Shafts were sunk around it and the fire smothered, and now it is pro- 
posed to fill up these shafts to prevent any such occurrences in the 

The most important event in the building world here during the 
past month has been the announcement by Mr. Carnegie that he had 
placed $1,750,000 in the hands of the trustees of the Carnegie Insti- 
tute to be used in building the proposed addition. There seems to 

be no reason why the work 
should not be soon commenced 
if the city will provide the 
necessary site, but the land in 
the rear of the present build- 
ing must be first condemned 
and bought in by the city; at 
present there is a bill before 
councils to provide by an issue 
of bonds the money necessary 
for this and for the removal 
of "the hump" on Fifth Ave- 
nue, which was mentioned 
several months ago. Mr. Car- 
negie has also promised sums 
varying from $50,000 to $100,- 
000 to a number of towns in 
the vicinity for public libra- 
ries. In a competition recently 
held for one to be built at 
Carnegie, Pa., the design of 
Struthers & Hannah was 
placed first. It is to cost 
about $100,000. 

Among items of interest 
recently noted are : F. J. Os- 
terling has been awarded the 
first place in a competition for 
a new court house at Wilkes- 





Roof of Akron Vitrified Tile, made by J. C. Ewart & Co. 

George S. Orth & Bros., Architects. 

barre, Pa. It is to cost $500,000. Plans for a new school building 
at Homestead have also been prepared by the same architect. W.J. 
East has prepared plans for a large business block. Edward Stotz 
has made plans for a new church to be built at West Newton, and 
also for a block of stores to be built at Braddock. Geo. S. Orth & 
Bros, have several brick houses to be built at Sewickley. 

W. Ross Proctor is at work on what is probably the largest 
country house near here. It is a brick and half timber structure, 
155 ft. across the front, and with the large formal gardens which will 
be laid out in connection with it, it will form one of the most pleas- 
ing country places in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. Mr. l'roctor also 
has a large city house at Albany, \". Y. 

Alden & Harlow have recently let the contract for a five-story 
hotel and apartment house in the East End, to cost $75,000, and 
also for a 510,000 stable, both for Mr. R. B. Mellon. They are at 
work on three large houses at Sewickley and one at New Brighton, 
and also are preparing plans for the Mt. Washington branch of the 
Carnegie library, to cost $25,000. S. F. Heckert has planned the St. 
Michael's Orphan Asylum and also the Mt. Oliver 
Convent. Rutan & Russel are the architects of a 
large brick residence at Sewickley C. M. Bartberger 
has prepared plans for the twenty-seventh ward school, 
cost, $65,000, and for a five-story business block for 
The Ward-Mackey Company. F. C. Sauer has 
planned a new three-story school at Tarentum, Pa, 
Vrydaugh & Wolfe have let the contract for a church 
at Wilkinsburgh, to cost $75,000. There are rumors 
that Mr. II. ('. Frick will build a $200,000 residence 
in the East End. 

new Chamber. The corner diagonally across from 
the new Chamber is owned by William Deerin-. oi 
Chicago, who is understood to stand ready to make 
improvements equal to the others when the proper 
time arrives. The result of these improvements is 
bound to put new energy into business improvements 
in Minneapolis, which have been lagging for several 

Several years since an experiment was made 
looking to the establishment of a downtown " mis- 
sion," to care for the homeless and unfortunate men. 
They now propose the erection of a new brick build- 
ing adapted especially to their growing needs. It 
will probably be 66 by 157 ft., and some five or six 
stories high, modern throughout, and such a place 
that the clerk or traveler who cannot afford the high- 
priced hotels will be glad to avail himself of the 
clean and respectable hostelry. It will do what the 
•'Mills Hotels" of New York are doing and more 
too. It will care for men's moral and spiritual wants 
as well as the physical. As it has paid its way thus 
far, there seems no reason 10 suppose it will not con- 
tinue so doing. 

The city will spend about $250,000 on her 
schools during the long vacation. The fact that some 
15,000 pupils could not be satisfactorily accommo- 
dated during the year now closing gives an idea of 
the pressing need for more room ; this, too, in spite of the fact that 
several new buildings have been erected each year. 

Among the projects in the Twin Cities already assured are the 
following: Minneapolis branch for Northwestern Telephone Ex- 
change Company, cost, $10,000, W. B. Dunnell, architect. Cass 
Gilbert has planned an office building, to be erected on Broadway 
and Chambers Street, New York City, for the Andrews Estate of 
Boston, to be eighteen stories high, of modern steel and fire-proof 
construction, Bedford stone for lower three stories, balance buff 
pressed and ornamental brick and terracotta, cost, $700,000 ; con- 
tract has been let to Geo. A. Fuller Company. 


Editors The Brickbuildkr: — 

Dear Sirs: — The subject allotted to your Washington corre- 
spondent does not appear to have been a congenial one, notwith- 
standing the tendency to volubility, against which his candid friends 

MINNEAPOLIS.— Probably the largest single 
item to report this month is the new Chamber 
of Commerce, which is now assured. The plan as at 
present outlined contemplates a building 181 by 155 
ft., nine stories high, of stone, brick, and terracotta, 
thoroughly fire-proof and modern throughout. The 
estimated cost is $800,000. 

The corner immediately opposite the site of the 
new Chamber was recently purchased by a syndicate. 
They will improve the corner at once with a modern 
fire-proof office building about same height as the 

I \ei uted by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 



have warned him. He enters upon it with frankly 
confessed misgivings, and pursues it at length in a style 
that is in turns discursive, reminiscent, apologetic, but 
never seriously critical. In his remarks on the Hotel 
Raleigh he draws on his imagination in a way that is 
quite entertaining. "The lower portion and most of 
the ornamental work above are of stone." Indeed ? 
Ask Mr. Fitzpatrick to take another look at the Raleigh ; 
it will repay him the trouble of a second and less 
superficial inspection. He will, I think, find that the 
two lower stories are of stone, above which come nine 
stories of brick and terra-cotta. 

In point of style this building bears a much closer 
resemblance to the Hotel Martinique, 33d Street and 
Broadway, New York, than it does to the neighboring 
Astoria. These three hotels were designed by the 
same architect, and the terra-cotta for all of them was 
executed by the same company. 

The Martinique starts with four stories of excel- 
ent cut stone, surmounted by twelve stories of terra- 
cotta and brick walling, to which has been awarded 
the palm for superior excellence. Doubting readers 
— if such there be — who happen to pass that way are 
hereby invited to pause long enough to make the 
comparison. It may help to round the angularities off 
their prejudices. The upper portions, including the 
dormers, are the more interesting; but as they reach a 
height of three times the width of the street the view 
would be at an angle of about 70 with the horizon. Unlike Melrose, 
these features are not seen to advantage by " the pale moonlight." If 
viewed aright, that must be under " the gay beams of lightsome day " 
soon after sunrise, and from adjacent housetops, or from an upper 
window in the northwest corner of the Astoria. 

Yours very truly, T. Cusack. 

Finished < 


ith dull green enameled frieze, consoles, and 4 by 8 in. tiles, made by the Grueby Faience Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. 
Alpheus W. Chittenden, architect of the interior construction. 


Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, page v, de- 
tails, Carruth House, Philadelphia; Hazelhurst & Huckel, architects. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, page iv, detail of main en- 
trance, St. Raymond's Roman Catholic Church, West Chester, 
N. Y. ; George H. Streeton, architect. 

The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, page ix, pavilion, ex- 
hibited at the World's Fair, Chicago. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., page xxii, Plymouth Building, Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Frederick Kees, architect. 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Company, page xxvi, busi- 
ness block and public hall, Madison, N. J. 


THE following-named architects would be pleased to receive 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples: Alfred H. Jacobs, 
1 1 14 Octavia Street, San Francisco, Cal. ; Heacock & Hokanson, 
931 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia; C. R. Dennison, Packard Build- 
ing, Warren, Ohio; Charles B. Skinner, 104 Irvington Street, Cleve- 
land, Ohio ; Arthur B. Heaton, Washington Loan and Trust Building, 
Washington, D. C. ; Grant B. Williams, Citizens National Bank 
Building, Parkersburg, W. Va. 



Built of gray brick, made by the Kittanning Brick Company. 

F. C. Sauer, Architect. 


The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company report that they are 
making additions to their plant that will more than double its pres- 
ent capacity. 

A new blue book for the use of architects interested in their 
products has been issued by the American Mason Safety Tread Com- 
pany, of Boston. It will be sent on application. 

During the year 1898 the F. W. Dodge Company sent over 
three million (3,000,000) reports to their subscribers, together with 
five thousand two hundred (5,200) answers to special inquiries. 

JAMES A. Davis & Co., Boston, report that they have the con. 
tract to furnish the cement for the new sewerage system being put 



in at Worcester, Mass. 

Residence by Cope & Stewardson, Architects 

The Lehigh Portland cement is the brand 

The use of hollow building brick in Detroit seems to be con- 
Stantly on the increase, and Chambers Brothers Company, Philadel- 
phia, have just shipped a complete 
outfit of their hollow brick-making 
machinery to the F. H. Wolf Brick 
Company, of Detroit. 

The Canton Sparta Brk k 
COMPANY, Canton, Ohio, are sup- 
plying their brick for the new 
Burnett House and a business 
block at Lima, Ohio: also for the 
Iron Valley Bank Building at Canal 
Dover, Ohio. They report having 
numerous other orders in Cleve- 
land and elsewhere. 

The Powhatan Ci.av Man- 
i fai ii RING Company are fur- 
nishing their cream-white brick for 
the recreation buildings now being 
erected by J. H. L. Hommedieu, 

Son & Co., for Oeorge Gould at Lakewood, N. J., after plans drawn 
by Bruce Price. They are furnishing their silver-gray brick for the 
ne« bank building at Petersburg, Va., Peoples & Sharpe, architects, 
Norfolk, Va. : Petersburg Savings and Insurance Com. 
pany, owners. 

The Mr. Savage Enameled Brick Company, 

Mt. Savage. Md., is furnishing the enameled brick for 
the new post-office building at Buffalo, N. Y., James 
Knox Taylor, supervising architect. This is in many 
respects a particularly interesting piece of enamel brick- 
work, having one hundred and thirty-one Gothic arches. 
forty-three flat arches, and a large elliptical arch. The 
brick are of a light shade of cream buff. 

The C. P. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, 
Conn., have made many important improvements to 
their plant during the last four months, chief among 
them being the addition to their burning and storage 
capacity, also the addition of a thoroughly equipped 
narrow gauge railway. The Central New Kngland 
Brick Company, office at New Britain, Conn., are sell- 
ing the productions of this yard at the present time. 

Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Con. t Company, 

We have received from the Pennsylvania Enam- 
eled Brick Company two samples of their '• Sanitary 
Brick." These brick are faced with an impervious 
glazed surface upon a stiff mud body, are light in 
color, and easily cleaned. They are especially adapted 
for schoolhouses, hospitals, hallways, lavatories, etc., 
where an absolutely impervious surface is required at 
a small cost. We understand that the company have 
sold a large number of these brick this season. 

The Winkle Terra-Cotta Company have se- 
cured contracts to supply the architectural terra-cotta 
for the following buildings : the I I th Street Realty 
Company Building, height seven stories, St. Louis, Mo., 
Isaac S. Taylor, architect ; the Lindell Realty Company 
Building, height seven stories, St. Louis. Mo., Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, architects : building for the Hon. 
Wilbur F. Boyle, trustee, height seven stories, St. 
Louis, Mo., Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, architects. 

J. C. Ewart & Co. are supplying their Akron 
roofing tile for a large church near Pittsburgh, Pa., for the new office 
building of the Monessen Steel Company, for a residence at Halifax. 
Nova Scotia, for a residence at St. Louis, also for a number of resi- 
dences at New York City and Philadelphia. They wish stated that 
they are now making a specialty of 6 by 9 in. flat tile thoroughly 

vitrified for flat roofs; also of their 
Summit roofing tile for large work. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta 
COMPANY, Ltd., are furnishing 
their roofing tile for the following 
buildings : The Laclede (las Light 
and Coal Company Building, St. 
Louis (German tile used), W. 
Morava, engineer: station for the 
C. R. I. & P. Ry., at Council 
Bluffs, Iowa ( open shingle tiles 
used i, Frost & < Granger, architects ; 
Lagonda Cottage, Hoys' Industrial 
School. Lancaster. Ohio (10 in. 
Conosera tiles used ), Richards & 
McCarty, architects ; pumping sta- 
tion, Newport News, Va. 1 8 in. 
Conosera tiles used), Alexander 
Potter, engineer. 

MOORE & WYMAN, elevator and machine works, Boston, have 
recently secured orders for their elevators as follows: An electric 
passenger and an electric freight elevator for the Barker Building. 

Residence by Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



corner Summer and South Streets, Boston, Chapman & Frazer, 
architects : an hydraulic plunger elevator for the Metropolitan Water 
Works at the pumping station, Chestnut Hill Reservoir; a belt 
freight elevator and hydraulic plunger elevator for F. W. Bird & 
Son, East Walpole, Mass.; two electric freight elevators and one 
electric passenger elevator for the Winch Bros. Building, 590 
Atlantic Avenue. Boston, Christel Orvis, architect. They are also 
building a large amount of special machinery on recent orders. 

Thomas Brothers, Detroit, Mich., wish to announce that their 
suite of offices as now arranged permits of a fine display of the 
various lines of clay products which they handle. Their exhibit 
room contains a number of brick panels laid up in a manner calcu 
lated to show the color effects of different bricks as they appear when 
in a building. Samples of their other lines, such as roofing tile, terra- 
cotta, etc., are also shown to advantage. The company are agents 
for the Cleveland, Findlay, St. Louis, Illinois, New York, and Chi- 
cago Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies, also for the Ludowici Roof- 
ing Tile Company, the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, 
the Mosaic Tile Company, and the Mackolite Fire-proofing Com- 

The Columbus Face Brick Company, Columbus, Ohio, re- 
port phenomenal success in the making and selling of its ''gold 
mottled " face brick, the " Ironclay," which is now out in standard 
and Roman sizes and ornamental shapes. The excellent quality and 
beautiful coloring of this new line have received the praise of archi- 
tects and builders wherever it has been shown. The company has 
many fine contracts in hand, and is busy day and night with prepa- 
rations for the prompt filling of its orders. Agencies are being 
established in the principal markets as fast as the increasing pro- 
duction will justify promises of shipments, for it is a cardinal princi- 
ple of the management to keep its promises to all patrons alike. 

The new catalogue just issued by the Lehigh Portland Cement 

Company, Allentown, Pa., descriptive of their works and products, 
is an attractive and instructive little booklet of some thirty-five 
pages. Illustrations are shown of the plant both as a whole and in 
detail, and also of some of the prominent buildings and public works 
wherein this cement has been used. A number of tests by competent 
engineers who have used the cement are quoted as showing some of 
the excellent records made by this brand. The closing pages of the 
catalogue are devoted to a collection of suggestions for cement 
users, under the title of " Instructions for Using Portland Cement." 
These rules are practical and instructive. Parties desiring one of 
these catalogues should request same of the company, or of James 
A. Davis & Co., agents, 92 State Street, Boston. 

The Cleveland Hydraulic-Press Brick Company re- 
port that at no time in the history of their company have they entered 
so large an amount of good orders as during the present year. In 
addition to the increased business for their products in the general 
markets an unusual number of orders have developed in the cities of 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo. The company de- 
sire to call special attention to their two new shades of impervious 
brick, brown and pink. These brick have all the individual charac- 
teristics peculiar to their well-known " Akron Red " brick, and the 
demand for them has been so large that it has been impossible to 
accumulate much reserve stock. As regards the " Akron Red " brick, 
the company announce that they carry a reserve stock that seldom 
falls below 3,000,000, and are therefore in a position to handle 
promptly any orders on same, even if the requirements are unusual. 

The Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company are fur- 
nishing the brick for the following operations : Deaf and Dumb 
Institution, Columbus, Ohio, dark gray and dark buff ; St. Hedwig's 
Church, Chicago, 111., dark gray ; colored Baptist Church, Lynch- 
burg, Va., light buff; Presbyterian Church, Lynchburg. Va., light 
gray; South High School, Columbus, Ohio, light buff; public 
school, Polo, 111., dark buff and light gray; United Brethren Church, 


The best kind to buy are 
those we make of 


Ours are the most durable 
and most pleasing in every 
way. Our customers say so. 

Send for Sketch Bcok of 
59 charming designs of 
mantels costing from $12 

Phila. & Boston 
Face Brick Co., 

5 J 5 Liberty Square, 
Boston, Mass. 



Union Furnace. Ohio, dark buff. They report large sales of their 
mottled shades in New York, Rochester, Pa., Detroit, Mich., Marion, 
I nd.. and Columbus, Ohio. In the latter city they have under con- 
struction over forty structures, in various shades of their buff, terra- 
cotta, and gray; also several fronts of glazed bricks. They have 
orders entered for several hundred thousand Romans, including one 
large operation in Troy, N. V. 

NOTHING better illustrates the advance in design and construc- 
tion of buildings we now see witnessed about us than the return to 
the first principles of man in his wild estate, viz. : light and fresh 
air. It is remarkable how careless of this very important considera- 
tion builders were even a few years past. 

The recognized method of securing good ventilation to-dav is 
by the use of well-designed ventilators. The "Star" Ventilator, 
manufactured by Merchant & Co., Incorporated, of Philadelphia, 
New York, and Chicago, seems to be very nearly perfect in its 
design. The functions of the ventilator are to practically give a free 
discharge of air from within a building and to prevent the entrance 
of air within the building from without, and at the same time be 
storm proof and free from drip due to condensation. The "Star" 
accomplishes all these results to perfection. The recent large order 
this company received from the United States Ciovernment for 
nearly a thousand ventilators speaks for itself and is an indorsement 
of which any one may well be proud. Any designer or constructor 
of a building should communicate witli this company before decid- 
ing mi their details for ventilators or skylights. It is made with or 
without a glass top when required. Merchant & Co., Incorporated, 
also make a specialty of Spanish tiles, which are very extensively 

Tin-. Simpson Brick Machinery Company, Chicago, is 
placing on the market a repress that is everywhere giving eminent 
satisfaction under the severest tests. The machine is called the 

Simpson Challenge Double-Mold Repress. The following will give 
an idea of the mechanical construction of the machine: — 

•' The main principle of the Challenge Repress is a double 
crank, one of which is situated between two master gears and oper- 
ates the top plunger. The other cranks are situated at the end of 
the main shaft and outside of each frame. These two cranks oper- 
ate the lower plunger. The pressure is given to the brick by the 
difference in length of these cranks, the center crank being longer 
than the outside crank; the former moves faster than the latter, and 
consequently the brick is pressed by this differential movement of 
the cranks, due to their difference in length. 

" It will be seen that the brick is moving while it is being 
pressed, and not only this, but the pressing of the brick is finished 
when the top plunger is at least 3^ ins down into the mold. This 
3>£ ins. added to the thickness of the brick gives from ;'. to 6 ins. 
of mold travel, in ejecting the brick upwards out of the mold. This 
has the effect of giving the surface of the brick a splendid polish, 
making it equal in finish to a dry press-brick, which is a feature so 
far unattainable in a repress. 

" The ejectment of the brick from the mold is accomplished by 
the reverse movement of the cranks." 

WANTED. — Position by a first-class draughtsman with Eastern 
experience, in either Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago. Minneapolis, or 
elsewhere in the States indicated. Address, 



A Portfolio 9x12 inches, containing 200 half-tones and 
etchings, reproduced from the recent work of 10 prominent 
New England and New York Architects. Price $1.00. Address, 



N. Y. Central R. R Depot at Amsterdam, N. Y., roofed with 
Merchant's Copper " Spanish " Tiles. 

Gothic Shingles 

7 x JO size. 
10 x 14 „ 
14x20 „ 

T. iles. 

Ornamental, Storm- 
proof, easily laid. 

These Tiles are endorsed 
by leading Architects 
and Engineers for first- 
class buildings. 

Copper and Terne Plates. 

"Star" Ventilator 


Doivn Draughts Prevented. 
The principles of Hygiene demand light as well as ventilation. 
The Combination Skylight " Star " Ventilator combines both these 
principles. For ventilating Churches, Schoolhouses, Public Build- 
ings, Power Houses, Cotton and Woolen Mills, etc 

Explanatory Circulars mailed free. 

Merchant's High Grade Roofing Plates* 

Each sheet stamped. The Brands are: " MERCHANT'S OLD 
STYLE." "ALASKA." Coated by the Palm Oil Process. No 

New York. 


Sole Manufacturers. 


The M. & W. 

Direct Electric Elevator 


Contains Patented Improvements 
found in no other apparatus, which 
makes it the most efficient, durable, 
and economical Elevator on the 

Also Manufacturers of 



For Passenger and 
Freight Service. 

I in for - 
'send for 

*lar F. 

Moore & Wyman Elevator and Machine Works, 

Office anil Works, Granite St., Boston, Mass. 

the brickbuilde;r. 

VOL. 8. NO. 6. PLATE 41 








ii — r 




, 3.. . 



— r- - 






_!. :L 

.1. ii. 

i — 


,1 f i 



__ _ . 

i i | | i i [ — f — 

R< >AAI- 


VOL. 8. NO. 6. 





PLATES 42 and 47. 

t^ nn^ 







nnnnnn nn 


n nnnnnnn 
























































VOL. 8. NO. 6. PLATE 43. 

Detail of North Entrance. 


VOL. 8. NO. 6. 





r " 

. ^-M-t L. j_ j. ... 

;1 JEO 



PLATES 44 and 45. 



















VOL. 8. NO. 6. PLATE 46. 

Law Schoo l 
University of 

Detail of Main Entrance. 


COPE & STEWARDSON. Architects. 




VOL. 8. NO. 6. PLATE 48. 
















?fi VOL 8 

NO. 6 





JUNE f|| 

h r. b. 





Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... 5350 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 

THE past year has witnessed several destructive fires in build- 
ings which were constructed on approved fire-proofing sys- 
tems, and though in every case the manifest advantage of fire-proof- 
ing has been beyond question, and its efficacy has been demonstrated 
to be all that is claimed for it, the average newspaper has not always 
seen fit to award it its fair due. The recent fire in the Hotel Rex- 
ford, Boston, however, was of a different sort. This is a structure 
erected only a few years since in a district which is crowded with in- 
flammable structures. The hotel itself, though by no means first- 
class in its appointments, seems to have been constructed on the 
whole in a very thorough manner, and the fire-proofing, which was on 
the P'awcett system, was equal to the test made upon it by a fire 
which started in the basement late one afternoon. While the exact 
cause of the fire is open to doubt, it certainly started from a portion 
of the basement where was stored a considerable quantity of oil, and 
this oil fed a conflagration which threatened to be very disastrous 
for a while. A series of explosions, followed by a brisk blaze shoot- 
ing up the large ventilating shaft, destroyed everything in the base- 
ment of the hotel, and the flames, entering into the open windows 
above, caused considerable damage up as far as the seventh floor. 
Had this structure been of any ordinary construction, there is no 
doubt that the whole edifice would have been consumed and a large 
loss of life might have ensued, as the hotel had about four hundred 
guests at the time. One employe- was badly burned about the face 

and head, and the total damage was confined to about eight thou- 
sand dollars. The basement vvas a total wreck. The bar was blown 
to pieces, and in the upper stories the lace curtains caught from the 
upward rushing flames, so that fire almost instantly spread through a 
number of rooms, and all the conditions for a serious conflagration 
were certainly present, so that an excellent opportunity was afforded 
of demonstrating the check that can be put upon fire in buildings of 
this character. If we remember rightly, at the time this hotel was 
built it was found that the cost of building it fire-proof throughout 
was something less than 10 per cent, more than the cost of ordinary 
construction. The Hoston building law does not allow any hotel to 
be built of anything but fire-proof construction. But even had the 
proprietors of this building had the option, it is evident that the 
added cost of fire-proofing has been more than repaid to them by the 
immunity from serious loss. The Boston Herald, commenting in an 
editorial on this fire and its results, said : " We are having quite a 
number of strictly fire-proof buildings put up in Boston. Several 
citizens that we know are contemplating constructing dwellings of 
this type for their own use, and if we are to have fires it is well that 
they should occur under conditions that furnish object lessons of the 
many advantages which this form of construction has over that of 
all other classes." 

IT is a common tendency of human nature to think that our neigh- 
bors are a little better off than ourselves. In a recent number 
of the British Architect, in the reports of some discussions before an 
architectural society regarding the housing of the poor, we notice that 
the use of wood for dwellings of this nature was spoken of as offering 
great possibilities and being in some respects more advantageous 
and costing considerably less than brick. We have been trying so 
long and hard to make our clients and friends believe that brick is 
the best material for a dwelling house, that it comes like a shock that 
our English cousins, whose example we emulate, and to whose work 
we point with pride, should to the slightest extent envy us our cheap 
wooden buildings. In only one respect have we found a wooden 
house more advantageous than brick; it is cheaper in first cost. In 
every other respect, it would certainly be a backward step for Eng- 
lish constructors to consider anything like an imitation of our 


RELICS in the Tower ok London. — Unusually interesting 
and valuable discoveries have been made in the Tower of London 
in the process of laying the foundations for the erection of a new 
guard room near the White Tower. The workmen cut the Roman 
wall of the second ceniury and found a number of perfectly pre- 
served flue tiles for the diffusion of hot air from the hypocaust. 
The tiles are excellent specimens. They measure 15 ins. in length, 
6yi ins. in width, and 4^ ins. in depth.— New York Sun. 

Increased Use of Brick. — One phase of building opera- 
tions in this city, as shown by statistics published in our real-estate 
column to-day, is of interest to the general public. An analysis of 
the figures shows the increased use of brick, as compared with wood, 
as a building material. It might be supposed that, as the area re* 



stricted to brick, iron, or stone buildings becomes more nearly built 
up, and outside the Back Hay district little of it remains unimproved, 
the relative proportion of new brick buildings to wooden would de- 
cline. But the contrary is the case, and much of the new brick con- 
struction is in localities where wood might legally be employed, 
showing that the use of the more lasting and fire-resisting material 
is growing because of its own merits. The fact that so many build- 
ers find it more profitable to use brick, even outside the brick limits, 
goes to prove that an extension of them would not be so burden- 
some as has been represented, and also the shortsightedness in allow- 
ing the better construction to be menaced by the poorer. 

In May, [895, only 10 per cent, of all the new buildings for 
which permits were granted were of brick ; the next year the per- 
centage rose to 25 : in 180,7. it was 23 : in 1898, 2S, and this year it 
reaches 32, nearly a third. Much the same showing is made by the 
first five months of the last eight years, during which the percentage 
of new brick buildings to the whole was as follows: ICS92, 15 : [893, 
23: 1894, 16: 1 S<;5, 21: 1896, 23: 1897, 20: 1898, 24: 1S99. 35. 
A noteworthy feature of recent construction is the substitution of 
brick for wood in many cases where the latter might be used for 
three-family houses, although there is still erected a lamentable num- 
ber of frame three-family dwellings. The new tenement or apartment 
house, — that is, substantially a building for more than three families, 
and required to be fire-proof by the Boston building law, — has nearly 
disappeared, and where it is seen it is almost invariably a structure 
six or more stories in height. For anything under six stories, the 
three-family house is almost invariably the maximum in this city, hav- 
ing displaced the four-story apartment house, so popular before the 
tire-proofing law was enacted. The latter house now thrives in Cam- 
bridge and other near-by suburbs where the Boston law does not 
apply. There is an unusually large amount of important building 
going on in this city at the present time, hotels, office buildings, and 
warehouses constituting the bulk of it, with one theater and a music 
hall being planned. — Boston Herald. 

Countv Supervisors' Valuations of Architects' Ser- 
VICES. — When does the architectural profession of California intend 
to do something, through its organizations or individually, to circulate 
information regarding the ethics of architectural practise, so that public 
bodies and others may not unknowingly continue to make ridiculous 
announcements when inviting designs for public or other work ? 

In our issue of May 1 7, we drew attention to an offer of a fee of 
S 2 5 ( ! ! ! > from the supervisors of Mariposa County, for plans and 
specifications for certain additions to and improvements at their 
county hospital buildings, and this magnificent sum was to be paid 
to the •• successful " architect. (The quotation marks are our own.i 

If that be architectural -'success," what are we coming to? 
But it may be the supervisors acted in perfectly good faith, and 
really " expected " to receive designs from bona-fide architects of 
standing in return for the opportunity of winning this $25 prize in a 
competition with each other. And now, again, we have the super- 
visors of Shasta County asking for competitive designs for a $10,000 
hospital building, and for which work S75 has been put aside to pay 
the architect whose design may be selected. The presumption is 
that the supervisors are to be the sole judges as to which is the best 
design submitted. But can these gentlemen really know that if an 
architect were engaged to render the necessary professional services 
for such a building, the recognized fee would be #500, or with- 
out supervision say 5250? Little enough in all conscience for 
efficient and faithful service! But if these gentlemen expect $2 50 
worth of services on the off chance of such a sum as $75 being 
awarded to one of them, there can be only one result from such a 
proposition. If, on the other hand, these gentlemen know so little 
of the practise and responsibilities attending the work of bona-Jide 
architects as to expect efficient service simply on the chance of 
one of their number receiving this princely sum, then we are doing 
them (and any other boards with similar ideasi a kindness in thus 
drawing attention to the absurdity of such a proposition. Any body 

of gentlemen having such views would also probably be so little ac- 
quainted with architecture itself that they might experience some 
difficulty in selecting the really best design after all, a matter which 
we know from experience is oftentimes a very difficult one even for 
a professional assessor to decide. Architects of experience and 
standing will not, of course, for a moment have anything to do with 
such competitions as these, and it is to be hoped that the unemployed 
junior members of the profession will have more self-respect than to 
assist public bodies in getting designs under such conditions as 
those offered in the present instances. — Pacific Builder. 


Van VLECK & GOLDSMITH, architects, New York City, have 
removed their offices from 156 to i 1 i Fifth Avenue. 

The last regular monthly meeting of the Sketch Club, of New 
York, was held in the Fine Arts Building, West 57th Street, through 
the courtesy of the Architectural League. These rooms have been 
procured for future meetings of the club. 


ENGLISH COUNTRY Houses. Boston: Bates & Guild Company. 

The English mansion represents a type of architecture so en- 
tirely sui generis and so full of its own peculiar charm that one never 
feels like comparing it with anything else in the whole realm of art. 
The English country house is something unique, and the publication 
by Bates & Guild of one hundred photo-prints of the best examples 
of the old work will be welcomed by every artist, appealing as it 
does so strongly to the lover of quaint, picturesque simplicity. The 
photographs are most carefully chosen, and were throughout, we be- 
lieve, selected under the direction of one of our foremost architects. 
We can hardly hope to have just such work in this country. Our 
habits of life are not such as to promise the results which here seem 
to have been accomplished so easily. For that matter, it is very 
rarely that a modern English house is able to have just the particu- 
lar character which is so charming in the older work: but we always 
profit most by aspiring towards what we may not perhaps quite 
achieve, and if our country architecture could have a tithe of the 
delicious spirit which these photographs so well portray, we would 
be going a long way on the road towards a national style. Much of 
the work shows the half-timbered and rough cast style, but there are 
also numerous examples of charming use of brick, either alone or in 
combination with half-timbered work, such as is illustrated by Hun- 
stanton Hall in Norfolk, or Westwood in Worcestershire. For that 
matter, though it may seem heresy to acknowledge it. it is not al- 
ways the material which counts most in this old work. The general 
effect is so quiet and unobtrusive in the best of it that it matters 
very little whether the wall be of brick, stone, or rough cast plaster, 
for the result in either case is a charming habitation. We most 
heartily commend this publication. 

Sanitary Engineering of Buildings. By Wm. Paul Ger- 
hard, C. E. In 2 vols. New York: William T. Comstock, 23 
Warren Street. 1 899. 

This volume comes at the end of a long series of publications 
representing in one sense the development of sanitary engineering 
into a science from the early days of the "plumber and sanitary en- 
gineer," when the acme of household sanitation was represented by 
the obsolete Hellyer pan closet. Mr. Gerhard is so well informed 
on this subject that he is able to present the facts about household 
plumbing in a manner that makes them of value to the reader, and 
though much of what he says has come to be quite trite, and seems 
almost superfluous in a volume of this year, still the educational ne- 
cessity of work of this kind is an ever present one, and though it is 
not easy to present anything that is especially new on the subject of 
plumbing, it is hardly saying too much to claim for this book that it 
is one of the best publications on the subject which have been offered 
to the public. 



Architectural League of America. 

ON June 2 and 3 a convention of the architectural clubs of 
the country met at Cleveland, Ohio. It was notable not only 
for its practical results but as the germ and evidence of a wide and 
energetic movement for the furtherance of architecture in America. 

The movement began in the practical necessity of uniting the 
efforts of single architectural clubs into a working unit. The rapidly 
increasing number of architectual exhibitions throughout the coun- 
try had brought confusion to both manager and contributor. The 
architect had had his desk covered with entry blanks for a dozen 
conflicting exhibitions, and hanging committees looked in vain for 
drawings which could not be traced in their wanderings. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club, in December, 1898, first voiced 
the need for a systematic cooperation between the scattered exhibi- 
tion committees. Acting upon this suggestion, the Chicago Archi- 
tectural Club, with the indorsement of Philadelphia and St. Louis, and 

dent of the Cleveland club, Mr. Albert E. Skeel, to which the presi- 
dent of the Chicago club, Mr. J. C. Llewellyn, responded, outlining 
the object of the meeting simply as a free interchange of ideas be- 
tween the members. Mr. Llewellyn was made chairman, and Mr. N. 
Max. Duning, also of Chicago, secretary of the convention. A press 
committee was appointed to place the work of the association accu- 
rately before the public. 

Discussion was opened with a paper by Mr. Adin B. Lacey 
on " Club Organization and Management," drawn from the experience 
of the T Square Club, of Philadelphia, of which he is president, and 
much of the success of which can be attributed to the business of 
the club being in the hands of a carefully selected, working, executive 
committee, leaving' the time and thought of the members free for 
the main object of design. He was followed by representatives of 
every club, who compared the circumstances under which each was 
organized, and the means and results of their work. 

The practical object of the convention was expressed by Mr. 

Meroyn Macartney, Architect, London. 

the informal assent of Boston and Cleveland, called a meeting of the 
architectural organizations of America at Cleveland. 

Ninety-seven registered delegates represented thirteen socie- 
ties: The Architectural League and the Society of Beaux Arts 
Architects of New York, the architectural clubs of St. Louis, Chicago, 
Cleveland, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Toronto 
(Canada), and the Illinois, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland chapters of the 
American Institute of Architects. The majority of the delegates 
were the younger element of the profession, averaging about thirty- 
two years of age, and being about evenly divided between practising 
architects and prominent draftsmen, and they brought the greatest 
enthusiasm to the work. Cheering interrupted the speeches; the 
special committees worked till early morning, and the convention 
gave up an excursion rather than adjourn the session. 

The address of welcome to the city was delivered by the presi- 

Henry W. Tomlinson, of Chicago, in his paper on the '• Annual Ex- 
hibition." To effect the needed reforms a committee was appointed 
to arrange a schedule of consecutive exhibitions, forming a circuit by 
which a drawing once entered can pass through each subsequent ex- 
hibition ; the hanging committee of each exhibition retaining its in- 
dependence and the owner being at liberty to designate at which 
cities he wishes his drawings to appear. In order to simplify the 
details of business, an overlapping of committees was arranged, by 
which each exhibition committee is to contain one member from the 
previous exhibition of the circuit. It is evident that the clerical ex- 
pense, the annoyance to contributors by repeated solicitation, and the 
difficulties of management are thus minimized. 

For the collection of exhibits a national committee was formed 
with a resident foreign member, who will make it his business to se- 
cure a selection of drawings from England and France. These 



1!'^-^ I 

Ernest George & Peto, Architects, London. 

drawings, which before were difficult for Western clubs to obtain, 
will now mike the entire circuit before being returned to Europe. 
Being in bond to the custom house, no exhibition except those in 
the designated cities can secure these drawings. 

As there are a few dates in the schedule still open, the 
officials of the League will be glad to communicate with any 
club wishing to enter the circuit. The League will do all in its 
power to foster new architectural organizations. I f a few archi- 
tects, in no matter how small or remote a town, will club to- 
gether and send one of their members to the next convention, 
he will likely bring back ideas on which a successful chapter 
can be built. 

The suggestion was also made to add a local " arts and 
crafts" section to every exhibition, so as to knit the allied 
arts with architecture. The subject of the exhibition cata- 
logue, yearly demanding more care from the club, and becom- 
ing at the same time more interesting to the general public, 
was discussed in relation to the architectural magazine, with 
which it seems to enter into competition. The decision stood 
that the catalogue ought to explain and enforce the central idea 
and object which an exhibition to be worth anything must have. 
It becomes a year-book to present to the public the results of 
the club's work in the cause of good architecture and to point 
the way to local municipal improvements. Sufficient text to 
point the moral of the drawings is thus a distinct advantage. 

The morning session was concluded by a paper by Mr. 
Julius F. Harder, of New York, earnestly advocating the estab- 
lishment of a rigid code to govern competitions. The form 

drawn up by the joint committee of the Archi- 
tectural League, of New York, and the T Square 
Club, of Philadelphia, and approved by both of 
these organizations over a year ago, was accepted 
by the convention, which recommended its adop- 
tion by all the other individual clubs. 

In the afternoon, as the guests of the Cleve- 
land Club, the delegates were driven in tally-hos 
through the system of parks which ultimately 
will form a continuous wooded avenue engirdling 
and penetrating the entire city. In the evening, 
by special invitation of a committee of the Cleve- 
land Chamber of Commerce, the delegates of the 
convention were present in the library of the 
Chamber at an address by Mr. Hush-Brown, of 
New York, on "The Croupingof Public Build- 
ings,'' in reference to the contemplated municipal 
buildings of the city of Cleveland, to which much 
careful attention is being paid. He gave a strik- 
ing example of what economists would call the 
"utility of the beautiful" in the Congressional 
Library at Washington, where the decoration of 
carving and color, at an expense of 7 per cent, of 
the total cost, produces 90 per cent, of the attrac- 
tion or " drawing power " of the building. 

The lecture of Mr. Bush-Brown was in line 
with the sentiment of the convention that the 
architectural club has a work to do beyond mere 
self-improvement. Representing the best taste 
and artistic culture of the community, it should 
be in the fighting line of municipal improvement. 
City councils and building committees should be 
made to realize that if the medical profession can 
maintain a board of public health, the architec- 
tural club is a self-constituted board of public 
art. A resolution was therefore offered by Mr. 
Bush-Brown, which was adopted : — 

That the League announces that in its judg- 
ment, to further the best interests of municipal 
development and improvement, it would be wise 
for municipal authorities, civic clubs, and public-spirited individuals 
interested in these matters in all cities, no matter how remote, form- 
ine a local committee to which they invite the president of the 


E. P. Warren, Architect, London. 


1 1 1 


Winslnw, Wctherell & Bigelow, Architects, Boston. 

(Sheet of detail and plan shown on Plate 48.) 

League, to appoint an advisory committee of four experts, to act in 
conjunction with the first three as a committee of seven in formu- 
lating a comprehensive scheme, it being understood 
that advisers are to be chosen from different cities 
and will act for a nominal fee. Let us suppose, for 
instance, Milwaukee to be the city contemplating 
civic improvement. The president would then in all 
probability appoint experts from Chicago, St. Louis, 
Detroit, and Cleveland, if in his judgment men of 
suitable capacity were to be found at that end of the 
circuit. This is not so much for developing the large 
Eastern cities, where local and municipal fine art so- 
cieties exist, as for the smaller cities of the L'nited 
States, where there is an abundance of civic pride 
and a dearth of well-trained, expert advisers. 

" The Architectural Society and its Progressive 
Influence," by Mr. Albert Kelsey, of Philadelphia, 
was the first paper of the morning session. He 
pointed out a still wider field for the united effort of 
the members of the convention. Whatever lack of 
sympathy existed between the public and the profes- 
sion was due to the fact that architects followed ob- 
solete precedents and foreign traditions instead of going down to 


the heart of American life and working outward, the logical result of 
its needs and conditions. Mr. Louis H. Sullivan, in a ringing paper 

.1 v 1 ' 

fe ' SM Mm /"" : 1 suss- 

gpF*^ ' : ' ' : ■ • > m 'J$^*r? ■ %■*-: ,,:J. • -_.,/- 

Chapmanj Prazer & Blinn, Architects. 

Chapman, FrazerSi Blinn, Architects. 

read by the secretary, enforced the necessity of a vital architecture 
on modern and American lines, and Mr. Dwight H. 
Perkins pointed out that, like all great men and move- 
ments, architecture must be of and for the people. Mr. 
Krnest Flagg regretted his inability to attend and sent 
his fullest sympathy. The secretary read, also, numer- 
ous letters and telegrams from prominent practising 
architects, professors, and draftsmen, expressing their 
sympathy with the convention. These came from 
representative architectural scholars ranging from 
New Orleans to Milwaukee, and from Milwaukee to 
Paris, and spoke eloquently of the future of Ameri- 
can architecture. 

The feature of the afternoon session was a paper 
by Mr. Peter I!. Wight, secretary of the Illinois State 
Hoard of Examining Architects, on "The Operation of 
the Illinois License Law." He advocated this move- 
ment toward the internal improvement of the profes- 




M( Kim. Mead S White. Architects, New N CM* 

four alternates of such dele- 
gates, who may be members 
of any other active member, 
except that no member of 
the executive board shall be 
appointed an alternate. 

•' All the delegates of 
one active member shall 
collectively have one vote. 
Dues shall be uniform, re- 
gardless of membership of 
the individual associations, 
and sufficient to meet the 
running expenses of the 
League. The management 
. of the League between con- 
ventions shall be vested in 
an executive board, to be 
composed of a president, 
first vice-president, second 
vice-president, secretary, and 
treasurer, to be elected an- 
nually, and the convention 
shall have power to appoint 
necessary committees. 

" These articles of or- 
ganization shall continue in 
force until the next conven- 

Under this constitution 
the following officers were 
elected : President, Albert 
Kelsey, Philadelphia ; first 

sion for every State, and the committee recognized it as one in which 
time onlv was necessary to complete success. Mr. Wight, as a 
member of the Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, assured the League of the sympathy and moral support of the 


The committee on permanent organization, composed ot Mr. 
Julius F. Harder, chairman, Architectural League of New York ; 
Irvine T. Guild, of the Boston Architectural Club ; Albert Kelsey, 
T Square Club, Philadelphia; William B. Ittner, St. Louis; Herbert 
B. Briggs, Cleveland; J. C. Llewellyn, Chicago, presented articles of 
organization at the morning session, which were unanimously adopted 
b\°the convention. Much of the credit for these belongs to Mr. 
Harder, the chairman of the committee. 

The articles provide for a confederation of independent societies 
which every year meet for mutual understanding and exchange of 
ideas. The League does not attempt in any way to interfere in the 
affairs of the individual club nor with professional practise except in 
the case of some flagrant abuse. 

The objects of the Architectural League of America, as the 
association is formally named, are, in the larger sense, to promote 
American architecture and the allied fine arts, to encourage a native 
architecture inspired from modern ideas, to unite individual organi- 
zations in order to work out their common interests to the best 

The articles of organization continue as follows : — 
"There shall be an annual convention to be composed of dele- 
gates from the associations composing this League, to be held at a 
time hereafter to be designated. Every allied member shall be en- 
titled, unless otherwise provided in the terms of alliance, to be repre- 
sented at every meeting of this League, by not more than four 
delegates or duly appointed alternates of such delegates, having 
collectively one vote. Every member must appoint four delegates to 
represent it at every meeting of the League, and such delegates must 
be members in good standing of such member, and may also appoint 


H. I.. Warren, Architect. I 



H «"'. _ ■ 

Dabney & Hayward, Architects, Boston. 

Dabney & Hayward, Architects, Boston. 

vice-president, William B. Ittner, St. Louis; second vice-president, 
J. W. Case, Detroit; secretary, H. W. Tomlinson, Chicago; treas- 
urer, Herbert B. Briggs, Cleveland. 

The convention closed with a reception and banquet at the 
rooms of the Century Club, on the fifteenth story of the New Eng- 
land Building, overlooking the illuminated city and Lake Erie beyond. 
The toastmaster was Mr. Herbert B. Briggs, of Cleveland. The 
speeches of the evening were: "Welcome," by Mr. Benjamin S. 
Hubbell, of Cleveland, to which the new president of the League re- 
sponded, using "Progress before Precedent" as his text; "What 
We Gain by Concerted Movement," Mr. William B. Ittner, of St. 
Louis ; " Reciprocity between 
Architectural Clubs and Ar- 
chitectural Publications," Mr. 
Irving T. Guild, of Boston ; 
" The Architectural School 
from an Architect's Stand- 
point," Mr. George R. Uean, 
of Chicago. 

The next convention will 
be held at Chicago, on Thurs- 
day, Friday, and Saturday 
June 7, 8, 9, 1900. It will be 
looked upon with interest by 
the general public as well as 
the members of the profes- 
sion who are alive to their 

The convention of the 
Architect ural League of 
America was remarkable for 
the enthusiasm with which a 
new idea was received and 
indorsed. Prom a meeting 
called to adjust the business 
details of exhibition commit- 

tees and for an informal discussion of club affairs, it has become a 
national organization with a definite purpose. It has touched live 
questions, entered a wide and new field, and has shown the energy 
which guarantees success. 


Maginnis, Walsh & Sullivan, Architects, Boston. 


*HE Boston Architectural Club, in conjunction with the Boston 
Society of Architects, has just concluded a very successful 
exhibition of architectural drawings, which in some respects has 
been unique. It was held in the rooms of a private institution, the 

St. Botolph Club, which is 
essentially the art club of Bos- 
ton, though the name is 
usurped by another organiza- 
tion. The available room at 
the St. Botolph Club was 
small, being limited to a 
gallery hardly more than 20 
by 30 ft. Consequently, the 
exhibition itself was quite re- 
stricted. There was hardly a 
drawing or photograph ex- 
hibited which was not worthy 
of study, and, since the choice 
was so restricted, large draw- 
ings were barred out and the 
contributors felt under a sort 
of esthetic obligation to send 
in of their choicest and best. 
The result showed an exhibi- 
tion which was a delight to 
the soul of him who loveth 
not the day of great endeav- 
ors, but can take pleasure in 
the contemplative and the 

- I . 



- • 

studious We are all in too much of a rush now-a-days. and we all 
know it and are all ready to applaud the contemplative type, even 
though unwilling for the sake of our competitors to let up on the 
pressure: and the object lesson of these choice, carefully selected 
drawings is so obvious in its moral application that if .t went no 
further the exhibition would have accomplished a -real deal. It IS 
an easy thing to collect two or three thousand drawings now-a-days, 


Little & Browne, Architects, Boston. 

but to winnow through a mass of contributable stuff and narrow the 
choice down to the contents of a small room means work on the 
part of the committees, which will surely be appreciated by any one 
who has had to do with such a mill in the past; and the committees 
were able to gather not only from Boston, but by a happy comb.,.,. 
tion of circumstances were able to present a very fair showing of 
English work side by side with what was gathered from Boston, New 
York, and Philadelphia. 

Now. a mere description of the drawings which are sent in to an 
exhibition is not of much value. The catalogue will do that a great 
deal better than the columns of 'I'm: BRICK- 
BUILDER. And where there is so much that might 
be said, we can at best only touch upon the more 
obvious features of the exhibition. We do not 
know whether to be grateful or otherwise for the 
mind which is responsible for the catalogue of 
the exhibition being printed with Stiff board cov- 
ers. On the whole, we are inclined to think it is 
an advantage, for although the volume is quite 
too large to be safely entrusted to one's side- 
pocket, it does form an admirable pad for notes, 
and we are inclined to treat it much more respect- 
fully than if it were a brochure, which could be 
doubled up and thrown into most any corner of 
one's hi)) pockets. Inside the covers, the cata- 
logue follows the precedent of the T Square Club 
by presenting some literature. The committee 
nailed their colors to the mast by a statement that 
" Instead of confining ourselves largely to draw- 
ings, we have admitted a considerable proportion ol photographs; 
and, instead of putting the chief emphasis on modern work, we have 
exhibited many old examples, both photographs and sketches. Fi- 
nally, instead of giving the greatest space to what is generally known 
as 'important work.' we have deliberately chosen to show simpler 
and smaller things, not even ruling out the homely barn, if it seemed 

to have, in outline and composition, qualities which would appeal to 
an artist." Then there follows a very readable risumi, by Mr. C. 
Howard Walker, of the laws covering architecture in relation to the 
growth of cities, which is certainly apropos of the existing legisla- 
tive disturbances anent building operations, even if possibly a little 
irrelevant to the being of an architectural catalogue. The survey of 
the year's architecture which follows, by I'rof. H. Langford Warren, 
is full of good suggestions. We get far too little 
general criticism of this sort. Our work is judged 
only too shallowly by our friends or too unfairly by 
our casual enemy, and we would there were more 
of the restrained cautious spirit by which Mr. 
Warren measures the work of the day. For the 
rest, the catalogue is all that could be desired, bar- 
ring the ever-present and numerous advertisements, 
but as the sinews of war are essential to even the 
most select exhibitions, and as architects are no- 
toriously poor, and the public will not pay a high 
price for a catalogue, the advertisements must be, 
unless some day a generous and exceptionally for- 
tunate architect should be minded to endow perma- 
nently a catalogue which shall be forever indepen- 
dent of the advertiser. 

We cannot forbear just a little complacency in 
recalling how many of the buildings illustrated in 
this exhibition meant the employment of brick and 
terracotta. Numbers, however, do not count, but 
if every example of brick dwellings could be as 
thoroughly charming as the houses at Princeton, 
N.J., and at Chestnut Hill, Pa., by Cope & Steward- 
son, we would all want to build our houses with 
brick, and shingles would be a drug on the market. 
Indeed, for that matter, nearly all of the Philadel- 
phia work which is shown is preeminently an exemplification of 
what can be done in brick and terra-cotta. The building for the 
Natural Historv Museum, in connection with the University of Penn- 
sylvania, is undoubtedly the most successful brick and terra-cotta 
structure which has been erected of recent years in this country. 
It is the product of three of the best known firms of architects, and 
might be pardoned if presenting a certain confusion in concept.on. 
but on the contrary it is and has 
a charm which is seldom found this side of North Italy. I he 
whole spirit of the design is so delightful that the repeated exclama. 


I (ton. 

tion heard from architect friends is, » What an awfully good time 
Messrs. Day, Eyre, Cope, and Stewardson must have had with this 
building!" If we can judge by the reports which reach us from 
Philadelphia, it has ottered a most interesting example of friendly 
cooperation between kindred minds. 

No less worthy of notice is Mr. Day's design for the Clinical 



Amphitheater, an excellent, straightforward Florentine Renaissance 
structure, with plenty of simple wall space and a broad, generous 
shadow from an ample cornice. Mr. Wilson Eyre contributed a 
number of his characteristic drawings. One of them is peculiarly 
typical of the man and of his point of view. It is nothing but a 
rough sketch looking down Broad Street, Philadelphia, with the tall 
mass of the City Hall in the distance and an unfinished steel skele- 
ton looming up on the right, but if we could only train our eyes to 
see things as Mr. Eyre saw them in this 
sketch, we would have no need to go 
abroad to cultivate our love for the pic- 
turesque, for if there is any prosaic spot on 
earth it is the vicinity of the Philadelphia 
City Hall, and yet this sketch shows the 
charming flavor of romance which tells us 
that the elements were there, only we have 
not known how to appreciate them. 

It is by no means a jump from the 
Philadelphia work to the English examples. 
On the contrary, exactly the same spirit is 
shown in both. And the difference be- 
tween the drawing which is styled " A Pre- 
liminary Essay," by Mr. F. Inigo Thomas, 
who bears a name which ought to carry 
with it a large sense of responsibility, and 
the study by Mr. Eyre of a " Garden for 
Beauveau Borie at Jenkintown " (save the 
combination !) is one of locality rather than 

character. The English drawing is a most ingenious combination of 
perspective sketches, fragmentary floor plans, bits of interiors, and 
straight elevations, all combined to illustrate a simple block of dwel- 
lings most charmingly disposed with surrounding grounds ; brick 
build'ngs of course and naturally successful, though the clever way 
in which the design itself is made manifest and easily apparent even 
to the eyes of an incredulous client, is by no means the least charm 
of the drawing. There was also in the exhibition some of the char- 
acteristic work of Ernest George and Peto, together with some of 

have been a reproach to architecture, but here we have the substance 
of things hoped for, the evidence of things not heretofore seen. 

Polychromy was not strongly in evidence in this exhibition. 
There was one ambitious attempt, however, deserving of study. Mr. 
Cass Gilbert's drawing for the Broadway Chambers showed an 
eighteen-story office building in which the three upper stories, pre- 
sumably in brick and terra-cotta, were carried out with an attempt of 
color, which on the drawing seemed quite successful. There was also 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Arciiitects. 

the modern English ecclesiastical work. Here, again, a comparison 
might be made with our friends Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, and 
although comparisons are very apt to be invidious, we have seen few 
of the English modern churches which excel such work as is shown 
by the proposed All Saints Church, Brookline. A younger firm shows 
in this exhibition a different kind of work equally serious and success- 
ful : the design for St. Patrick's Church, at Whitinsville, by Maginnis, 
Walsh & Sullivan, which we trust marks the beginning of a new era 
in the building of Catholic churches in this country. With all the 
opportunities which a Catholic church can offer to the architect, the 
structures which have been imposed upon the community in the past 

Shepley, Rutan 8c Coolidge. Architects. 

evidence of a certain amount of color treatment about the building 
for the Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, one of the 
porches showing a suggestion of some extremely knowing inlaid 
brick mosaics, which implied a feeling for color that is most satisfac- 

Of the work nearer home, there was shown some photographs 
of Wheatleigh at Lenox, by Peabody & Stearns, which is about as near 
as we can hope to come to an Italian villa. The same architects also 
exhibited photographs of a house at Pittsburgh, which sees all the 
charm of the old John Hancock house and goes it 
considerably better. Then of the Birge house at 
Buffalo, by Little & Browne, there was exhibited 
both the very fine brick and iron gateway, the pic- 
turesque colonial stable, and the stately mansion 
itself. Surely, no one is able to more successfully 
treat the colonial style than this firm. Of a differ- 
ent type was Mr. Wheelwright's recently completed 
building for the Horticultural Society in Boston, a 
dignified, thoroughly successful adaptation of the 
best colonial motive. 

We would also like to mention Shepley, Rutan 

& Coolidge's design for Conant Hall, and Coolidge 

& Wright's Randolph Hall, two of the best of the 

Harvard dormitories, and the building by Chamber- 

lin, Stickney & Austin for the Cambridge Homes 

for Aged People, a simple, straightforward, colonial 

brick structure set in a quaint, old-fashioned garden, 

and shown by a water-color drawing which has all 

the charm of outdoor air. And finally, we cannot 

stop without another reference to Philadelphia. The building of 

the Lutheran Publication Society, by Frank Miles Oay, was too 

good to pass unnoticed, and though of the simplest of motives, a 

three-story gabled front, it was worked out so cleverly, with a large 

archway in first story, two pedimented windows above, and four little 

windows in the attic with a little dot of an eye in the center of the 

gable, it is not unfit to stand as a type of the kind of work the 

Philadelphia coterie is striving so sincerely to produce. And though 

we want every one to have a chance, and the workers are many, 

yet may we another year have the annual exhibition as small, as 

select, and as thoroughly artistic as this has been. 



Sand for Mortar. 


M. \m Soc. C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, University o( Illinois, Champaign. 


THE quality of the sand has an important effect upon the 
strength and durability of the mortar, although its impor- 
tance is generally overlooked, even when the cement is subject to 
rigid specifications. 

The chemical nature of the sand appears not to have any 
important bearing upon its value for mortar. Silicious sand is 
usually the best. Calcareous sands are usually friable, i. e. composed 
of soft particles, in which case they are less suitable for making 
mortar. Although calcareous sand is ordinarily inferior to silica 
sand, nevertheless it is certainly true that crushed limestone makes a 
stronger mortar, in both tension and compression, than natural sand, 
and the difference of strength seems to increase with the age of the 
mortar. Tart of the greater strength is unquestionably due to the 
oreater sharpness of the screenings, and the part that increases with 
the age of the mortar seems to be due to some chemical action be- 
tween the cement and the limestone. 

The dampness of the sand is a matter of some importance. If 
the sand is very damp when it is mixed with the cement sufficient 
moisture may be given off to cause the cement to set partially, 
which may materially decrease its strength. This is particularly 
noticeable with quick-setting cements. Ordinarily for the best results 
the sand should be practically dry. 

The usual specifications for sand for mortar are that it "shall be 
sharp, clean, and coarse." To these requirements should be added 
a fourth, viz., the proportion of voids should be as small as possible. 

Sharpness. Sharp sand, i. e. sand with angular grains, is pre- 
ferred to that with rounded grains on the assumption (i) that the 
angular grains are rougher and therefore the cement will adhere 
better; and \2) that the angular grains offer greater resistance to 
moving one on the other under compression. On the other hand, 
the sharper the sand the greater the proportion of the interstices be- 
tween the grains, and, consequently, the greater the amount of cement 
required to produce a given strength or density. Hut a high degree 
of sharpness is more important than a small per cent, of voids. 

The sharpness of sand can be determined approximately by 
rubbing a few grains in the hand, or by crushing it near the ear and 
noting if a grating sound is produced; but an examination through 
a small lens is better. Sharp sand is often difficult to obtain, and 
the requirement that " the sand shall be sharp " is practically a dead 
letter in most specifications. 

Cleanness. Clean sand is necessary for the strongest mortar, 
since an envelope of loam or organic matter about the sand grains 
will prevent the adherence of the cement. 

The cleanness of sand may be judged by pressing it together 
between the fingers while it is damp; if the sand sticks together 
when the pressure is removed it is entirely unfit for mortar purposes. 
The cleanness may also be tested by rubbing a little of the dry sand 
in the palm of the hand ; if the hand is nearly or quite clean after 
throwing the sand out, it is probably clean enough for mortar. The 
cleanness of the sand may be tested quantitatively by agitating a 
quantity of sand with water in a graduated glass flask ; after allow- 
ing the mixture to settle, the amount of precipitate and of sand may 
be read from the graduation. Care should be taken that the pre- 
cipitate has fully settled, since it will condense for a considerable 
time after its upper surface is clearly marked. 

Sand is sometimes washed. This may be done by placing it 
on a wire screen and playing upon it with a hose, or by placing it 
in an inclined revolving screen and drenching with water. When 
only comparatively small quantities of clean sand are required, it 
can be washed by shoveling into the upper end of an inclined 
V-shaped trough and playing upon it with a hose, the clay and 
lighter organic matter floating away and leaving the clean sand in 

the lower portion of the trough, from which it can be drawn off by 
removing for a short time plugs in the sides of the trough. Sand 
can be washed fairly clean by this method at an expense of about 
ten cents per cubic yard exclusive of the cost of the water. 

Although it is customary to require that only clean sand shall 
be used in making mortar, a small quantity of finely powdered clay 
will not materially decrease the strength of the mortar. In some 
instances clay to the amount of 10 per cent, of the sand seems not 
to decrease the strength of the mortar. 1 Mortar containing consider- 
able clay is much more dense, plastic, and water-tight and is occa- 
sionally convenient for plastering surfaces and stopping leaky joints. 
Such mortar is not affected by the presence of water. 

Sand employed in actual work frequently has 5 to 8 per cent, of 
suspended matter. The specifications for the masonry on the Chicago 
Sanitary Canal limited the suspended matter to one half of 1 per cent. 

Fineness. Coarse sand is preferable to fine, since ( 1) the former 
has less surface to be covered and hence requires less cement : and 
(2) the coarse sand requires less labor to fill the interstices with the 
cement. The sand should be screened to remove the pebbles, the 
fineness of the screen depending upon the kind of work in which 
the mortar is to be used. The coarser the sand the better, even if 
it may properly be designated fine gravel, provided the diameter of 
the largest pebble is not too nearly equal to the thickness of the 
mortar joint. 

Table I. gives the results of a series of experiments to deter- 
mine the effect of the size of grains of sand upon the tensile strength 
of cement mortar. The briquets were all made at the same time 
by the same person with the same cement and sand, the only differ- 
ence being in the fineness of the sand. The table clearly shows 
that coarse sand is much better than fine. Notice that the results in 
line 4 of the table are larger than those in line 3. This is probably 
due to the fact that the sand for line 4 has a greater range of sizes. 
If this explanation is true, then since the sand in each line of the 
lower half of the table has greater variety of sizes than those in the 
upper half, the coarse sand is relatively better than appears from 

Table I. 


1 : 2 ( EMENT MORTAR. 


Sand caught between the two sieves 
stated below. 

Tensile strength, in pounds per square 
inch after 

7 days. 

No. 4 and No. 

„ 8 » •, 

„ 16 ,. .. 

.. 20 „ „ 

, 3° .. .. 

.. 5° » .. 

„ 75 >. - 

Passing No. 100 

S . 
16 . 
20 . 
3° • 

50 . 

75 ■ 
100 . 




21 1 

I 22 




21 1 









Table II. shows the fineness of several natural sands employed 
in actual construction; and as the sands were to all appearances of 
the same character, this table also shows, at least approximately, the 
effect of fineness upon tensile strength. This table agrees with the 
preceding in showing that the coarser sand makes the stronger 
mortar. This conclusion is perfectly general. As a rule, the sand 
employed in making cement mortar is much too fine for maximum 
strength or for minimum cement. 

If the voids are filled with cement, uniform coarse grains give 
greater strength than coarse and fine mixed ; or in other words, for 
rich mortars coarse grains are more important than small voids. But 
if the voids are not filled, then coarse and fine sand mixed give 
greater strength than uniform coarse grains: or in other words, for 
lean mortars a small proportion of voids is more important than 
coarse grains. 

1 Report of Chief of Engineers, U. S- A., 1804, pp. 3001-3010; and Trans. An,. Soc. 01 
Civil Engineers, Vol. XIV., p. 164. 





Per cent, caught on sieve No. 

Per cent. 

Tensile strength. 

V C 

passing No. 

Pounds per 










square inch. 





1 1 



















1 1 






















1 1 






































The fineness of several sands employed in noted works is shown 
below, the larger figures being the number of the sieve, and the 
smaller figure preceding the number of a sieve represents the per 
cent, retained by that sieve, and the small figure after the number of 
a sieve represents the number passing that sieve : Foe Lock, St. 
Mary's Fall Canal, 5 20 15 30 35 40 45 ; St. Regis sand, Soulanges Canal, 
Canada, '- 20 26 30 51 50 u ; Grand Coteau sand, Soulanges Canal, Can- 
ada, u 20 30 30 ' 27 50 !!0 . In passing it is interesting to note that a I to 
2 mortar with the last sand was only 79 per cent, as strong as the pre- 
ceding ; and with a 1 to 3 mortar only 71 per cent. The specifications 
for the sand employed in the masonry on the Chicago Sanitary Canal 
was " that not more than 50 per cent, should pass a No. 50 sieve, and 
not more than 1 2 per cent, should pass a No. 80 sieve." Tables 1 1 . and 
III. show the fineness of a number of sands employed in actual work. 

Voids. The smaller the proportion of voids, i. e. interstices be- 
tween the grains, the less the cement required, and consequently the 
more economical the sand. 

The proportion of' voids may be determined by filling a vessel 
with sand and then determining the amount of water that can be put 
into the vessel with the sand. This quantity of water divided by 
the amount of water alone which the vessel will contain, is the pro- 
portion of voids in the sand. The quantities of water as above may 
be determined by volumes or by weight. The proportion of voids 
may be determined for the sand loose or rammed. In either case it 
is more accurate to drop the sand through the water than to pour 
the water upon the sand, since with the latter method it is difficult to 
eliminate the air bubbles, particularly if the sand be first rammed. 
If the sand is dirty and the water is poured upon it, there is liability 
of the clay's being washed down and puddling a stratum which will 
prevent the water penetrating to the bottom. If the air bubbles are 
not excluded, or if the water does not penetrate to the bottom, the 
result obtained is less than the true proportion of voids. Again, if 
the sand is dropped through a considerable depth of water, there is 
liability that the sand may become separated into strata having a 
single size of grains in each, in which case the voids will be 
greater than if the several sizes were thoroughly mixed. 

The per cent, of voids varies with the moisture of the sand. A 
small per cent, of moisture has a surprising effect upon the volume 
and consequently upon the per cent, of voids. For example, fine 
sand containing 2 per cent, of moisture uniformly distributed has 
about 20 per cent, greater volume than the same when perfectly dry. 
This effect of moisture increases with the fineness of the sand and 
decreases with the amount of water present. 

Table III. shows the voids of a number of natural sands em- 
ployed in actual work. 

The proportion of voids is independent of the size of the grains, 
but depends upon the uniformity of the size and varies with the form 
of the grains and the roughness of the surface. A mass of perfectly 
smooth spheres of uniform size would have the same proportion of 
voids, whether the spheres be large or small. A mass of perfectly 
smooth spheres packed as closely as possible would have 26 per cent, 
of voids; but if the spheres are packed as loosely as possible the 

voids would be 48 per cent. A promiscuous mass of bird shot has 
about 36 per cent, of voids. The difference between this and the 
theoretical minimum per cent, for perfectly smooth spheres is due 
to the variation in size, to roughness of the surface, and to not 
securing in all parts of the mass the arrangement of the shot neces- 
sary for minimum voids. German standard sand has grains nearly 
spherical and nearly uniform in size, having slightly rough sur- 
face, and has 41 per cent, voids loose (see line 2, Table III.). The 
difference in per cent, of voids between this sand and a mass of 
shot is due to the more irregular form and rougher surface of the 
sand grains. Standard crushed quartz retained between the same 
sieves as German standard sand has 55 per cent, of voids (see line 
1, Table III.), the excess in voids of this over German standard 
sand being due to the rougher surfaces and sharp corners preventing 
the grains from fitting closely together. 




Standard Crushed Quartz . 
German Standard Sand 
Bibus's Bank, Urbana . . 

Cement Walk, Champaign . . 
Pumping Station, Chicago . . 
Municipal Work, Chicago . . 
Much Used in Chicago . . . 
Municipal Work, Illinois . . . 
Natural Sand Artificially Mixed 


Per cent, caught on 
sieve No. 



































2 E 

rt -r! 
















per cubic 




* Dry and well shaken. 
X 12% passing No. 100. 

t 12% on No. 10 ; 13% on No. 15 ; 13% on No. 20. 

If the mass consists of a mixture of two sizes, such that the 
smaller grains can occupy the voids between the larger, then the 
proportion of voids may be very much smaller than with a single 
size of grains. For this reason a mixture of two grades of sand of 
widely different sizes has a smaller per cent, of voids than does any 
one size alone(compare lines 1 to 7 with the remainder of Table III.). 

The best sand is that which has grains of several sizes, such 
that the smaller grains fit into the voids of the larger, the proportion 
of any particular size being only sufficient to fill the voids between 
the grains of the next larger size. If the grains are spherical and 
the diameter of the smaller is about one fifth of the diameter of the 
larger, the smaller grains will just fit into the interstices between the 
larger ones. The smaller the voids the greater the economy, and 
the more dense and stronger the mortar. 

The finer the sand the more uniform the size of the grains, and con- 
sequently the less the proportion of voids. On the other hand, the finer 
the sand the less sharp it is and the greater the surface to be covered. 
Since it has been conclusively shown that the coarser the sand the 
better (for example, see Tables I. and II.), the argument in favor of 
fine sand is not as potent as that against it. Farther, the advantage of 
coarse sand over fine increases as the proportion of cement decreases, 
since with the smaller proportions of cement the voids are not filled. 

Conclusion. An examination of the preceding data shows that 
very fine sand makes a much weaker mortar than coarse sand, and 
also that different sands vary considerably in the proportion of voids 
and therefore differ in the amount of cement required to produce any 
particular strength. Therefore, before adopting a sand for a work 
of any considerable magnitude, all available sands should be care- 
fully examined with reference to (1) their effects upon the strength of 
the mortar, (2) their per cent, of voids or the amount of cement re- 
quired with each, and (3) their cost. If mortar of any particular 
strength is desired, the proportion of cement should be adjusted ac- 
cording to the fineness and voids of the best available sand. 



The Qualities and Limitations of 
Ceramic Products. 1 


'-T^HE builders of all ages have resorted with utmost freedom to 

the use of clay and the products that are made from it as 

structural material and as means of furnishing and beautifying the 


This has been no less the case in the earliest times, when the 
adobe hovel superseded the cave dwelling, than in the latest struc- 
ture of cement and terracotta. 

It would seem trite, therefore, to discuss the subject of clay as 
a building material, if the manifold uses and properties of clay and 
its products did not bring up many problems that present themselves 
in different aspects to the architect and the ceramist. 

As clay is the decomposition product of nine tenths of the com- 
mon rocks, as it is readily transported hither and thither by rain, 
landslides, winds, streams, and ocean currents, its universal distribu- 
tion brings it to hand almost everywhere. It differs, of course, much 
according to the rocks it has been derived from and according to 
the way it has been mixed, but its fundamental properties, chemical 
and physical, are so marked that every one will recognize it as clay, 
and every clay has a practical use to which it can be put. There 
is no such thing as a good clay and a poor clay, though, of course, a 
clay may be good or poor or worthless for a particular use. 

' The prime quality by which every one recognizes it, its plasticity. 
and the attendant quality of being able to sustain itself in masses of 
almost any size or shape, make for it universal utility, as its forma- 
tion and transportation, which I have just pointed out, make for it 
universal occurrence. 

These properties alone are the valuable ones for many builders: 
for instance, the railroad, hydraulic, and military engineer; not so 
with the modern architect. But while the architect may never be 
called upon again to build the adobe hut, remember that the Assyrian 
palace stood to our day, until its mud walls were robbed of their in- 
crusting alabaster slabs and glazed tile. 

Remember, too, that the military engineer has discarded stone 
walls for clav banks, and that stone forts, turreted castles, and 
battlements, once so formidable, are now laughed at as the bugaboos 
of a childish age. Are architects sure that they could not build 
many an incrusted mud wall to-day at less cost and greater utility 
than many they now build of costly material ? 

There is no human history of early building or fashioning with 
clay. We always had it, as the animals had it before us, and I be- 
lieve the architect will realize some day. as the military engineer has 
already learned, that the grandmother arts of the wasp, the mud 
swallow, and the beaver can still be as modern as they are ancient. 

The property of hardening in the fire is also a very early human 
discovery. It was an incidental observation made even before fire 
was kindled for a purpose, and at its very awakening human intelli- 
gence combined the idea of these two properties of clay, forming 
and hardening, so that we cannot put our fingers on a race in the 
lower stage of barbarism that has not left us vessels, figures, or 
utensils so made, except perhaps in the arctics. 

It may be of interest in a history of building that in exploring 
the mound'fort near Madisonville, Professor Putnam discovered that 
the ancient builders had hardened the surface of the embankment by 
burning it topically. 

While these are the fundamental properties on which all the 
clay materials in the building arts are made, and which man has 
always known, they derive their greatest value to the architect from 
a property learned only by long experience, but which, in spite of 
this, he is constantly prone to forget. This is the absolute inde- 
structibilitv and permanence of clay products to disintegration and 
wear. The bricks in the baths of Titus and Caracalla are without 
1 Read before the Cincinnati Chapter "f the \. I. A. 

signs of disintegration, while the stone of the Colosseum is strongly 
decayed. The marble in the tessellated floors of Roman villas still 
preserved in France, along the Rhine in Germany, and about Bath 
in England, were worn through in the days of their use, while the 
tessera of baked clay in reds, buffs, browns, etc., used in conjunction 
with the marble in the same floors, are hardly touched to this day. 

In the lobbies of many public buildings paved with marble tile 
and red or blue clay tile in the corners, the marble is so dished 
through wear that the clay tile in their corners stand }i to % in. 
e their level, yet the public and even the architects hardly be- 
lieve their own senses in witnessing this common fact, for a very 
natural reason. The velvety texture of even a hard-burned clay 
looks soft: the polished surface of a natural stone always looks hard 
and immutable to the elements of wear and atmospheric disintegra- 
tion, yet on the mineralogisfs scale the hardness of the former is 
nine as against four to five for the best marbles. 

It may be well to remind you in this connection of the scientific 
reason for this indestructibility of clay and clay products; it is that 
clay is the residuum from the breaking down of nearly all rocks. It 
is what is left of rocky material when the mechanical forces of the 
earth and the chemical action of the atmosphere have done their 
worst and the tooth of time can do nothing further. But less 
obvious properties than plasticity, solidifying under fire, and dura- 
bility open out a still greater field of utility. 

First, the clays themselves, depending upon their origin, burn 
to a great range of colors, from snowy white, through yellows, buffs, 
and browns, to reds of varying shades, and their affinity for oxides 
of chromogenic metals, such as manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, 
iron, enlarges the color scale into the blues, greens, pinks, black, etc. 
And these colors are without exception absolutely permanent. 
1 ading is never possible, though, of course, they may become 
obscured and indistinguishable, even permanently so, by griming, if 
the pores of the body still admit, or through careless use are allowed 
to take up dirt. 

Again, the indifference of clay bodies to fire, and the fact that 
their coefficients of expansion can be brought to the same degree of 
expansibility and contractibility as glasses and enamels, enables 
melting these upon their surfaces in thin or thick layers, making the 
porcelain and pottery industry proper possible, and opening out a 
palette of brilliant; colors far beyond that of the clay colors them- 
selves, and far beyond the possibilities of decoration with pigments. 
And furthermore, clay products are among the poorest con- 
ductors of heat, offer effective resistance to its fusion and cracking, 
and are also non-conductors of electricity. These facts now largely 
interest the architect, for there is scarcely a building in which he 
does not have to consider them. 

And lastlv, let me add to this brief survey of the properties of 
clays, the discovery that a chemical union of day with mortar 
materials, lime and 'sand, effected by heat and in proper proportions, 
has opened out in Portland Cement possibilities in masonry and 
molding in the most durable of stones that would be inconceivable 
without such a material. 

But all these conspicuously valuable properties of clay that 
have been utilized in the most manifold ways and have furnished the 
householder, the decorator, the engineer, the metallurgist, the elec- 
trician, and above all the architect, with a wealth of available uten- 
sils and materials, are all hedged in and modified by the most aggra- 
vating limitations and often the most unexpected drawbacks. 

These difficulties are always present, and even attend the mak- 
ing of the simplest and best known articles, so that the manufacture 
of°clay wares, from the ordinary brick to the finest of porcelain, or 
the production of cements, involves a technical skill and attention to 
subtle details almost unknown in other mechanical and 

Particularly is this the case in the making of most building 
materials, so that many desirable properties are bound up with limi- 
tations, from which they are almost inseparable. 

This may be illustrated by the following examples. 



The more delicate a clay in taking fine impressions, the more 
plastic and fine grained it is, the more sensitive it is to the effects of 
pressure, which only appear after the ware is burned. This may 
show in the form of hair cracks or again as bulged or protuberating 
welts, particularly if the piece is burned to vitreousness. If in turn- 
ing up such a clay upon the potter's wheel, the workman's fingers 
press the clay too hard, though afterward it be turned off on the 
lathe and polished to the smoothest surface, the fire will bring out 
spiral rings upon the jar or vase, showing the original track of the 
man's fingers. If it be a bust pressed in a mold, the fire may bring 
out upon the smooth cheek of a female head coarse lumps or welts 
where the clay was forced too energetically. In a work of art 
more careful handling by a skilful and higher-priced man is the 
remedy, but in a commercial product or in a building terra-cotta 
it is necessary to use a coarser clay, which, while it does not 
show these blemishes, also takes a rougher impression. You 
cannot exact of a building ornament the surface and finish of 
a bisque figure without risking more objectionable features or 
paying a price far in excess of the value of the piece for the 

Great advance has been made in the handling and caring for 
ware during the perilous operation of drying: ventilated drying 
rooms heated by steam coils that admit of close regulation of tem- 
perature, and mechanical lifts and carrying apparatus, which avoid 
strains to the tender, freshly formed bodies. But the shrinkage, par- 
ticularly of large pieces and of flat ones pressed from clay flour, 
which takes place in the drying, causes a certain percentage of loss, 
in spite of all precautions and corrective appliances, through crack- 
ing. Where this crack is not disfiguring, where it is beyond the 
possibility of observation, or does not impair the strength of the 
piece, why should it compel its rejection? It is cheap criticism that 
rejects because of an obvious but essentially unimportant blemish. 
It is this cheap criticism of a mechanical age that strikes from the 
category of our present building materials many a useful and beauti- 
ful article because the flawless ones are insufficient to pay for the 
loss of those foolishly rejected. If the Moorish builders had judged 
similarly, never would a mosque or minaret have been covered with 

We pay to-day an unnecessarily high price for building terra- 
cotta, because the manufacturer breaks and makes over many a piece 
that he would use in his own house, but is afraid to submit to the 
judgment of the architect and the building public. 

Great improvements have likewise been made in the building of 
kilns and the management of the fire. The purpose of these im- 
provements has been mainly directed toward eliminating the varia- 
tions that the fire produces in the tint of the pieces according to 
their proximity to the source of heat and also to the variations in 
shrinkage that the same cause effects. Kilns are now built much 
larger than the old potters dared use, and improvements in pyro- 
metric measurements are such that differences between the hardest and 
softest parts of a kiln can be detected within 25 degs. and can be 
regulated. Through these means larger amounts of ware of the 
same shade and size can be obtained than ever before. 

But the variations in these can never be prevented altogether, 
and it is only possible to obliterate the effects of these variations by- 
very careful sorting of the pieces according to size and shade. In 
the regular pottery industry this is not exacting, because the shape 
of the ware and the fact that the pieces are used individually lead 
to no exact scrutiny. But in the building materials, where many 
pieces are laid in close proximity, comparison to a minute degree is 
unavoidable, and this is particularly the case in tile. These are 
shaded often to forty different shades and sized to a variation which 
can just be recognized by the sense of touch, about X of an inch. 
The former is done because the public demand absolute uniformity 
of tint, the latter because close jointing is exacted. Two rows of " 
3 in. tile 16 ft. long, varying but X in. in the individual pieces, would 
show a variation of 1 in., a very important difference in a small 

The tile for the old English cathedrals were burned in little 
beehive ovens but 5 or 6 ft. in diameter and 3 ft. high. The tiler 
had to crawl in on his hands and knees to set the ware, and the 
great floors were laid with practically all of the product without 
sizing or shading. As we look at them to-day, they are still satis- 
fying. The jointing, large enough to take up the inequalities 
in size, gives a texture to the floor, the variation in shade, a live- 
liness of color, and no shrill-voiced American woman ever freezes 
the marrow in your bones by exclaiming, " Ain't it nice — just like 
oilcloth ! " 

With all our technical improvement, with all the expense and 
trouble of sizing and shading, so that 1,000 ft. of tile are split up 
into little piles that will scarcely lay a 25 ft. vestibule each, we refine 
our product until it looks like the imitation, oilcloth ! 

I am frequently asked why it is not possible to make glazed 
tile that will not craze. It is possible. But if you expect to produce 
effects such as you obtain with the present glazes, if you demand the 
soft lead glasses that are highly refracting, and insist upon having 
the brilliancy heightened by having the glaze put on the pieces in 
a thick layer, the freedom from crazing can only be obtained in a 
small percentage of ware, the bulk of which shivers in the fire, 
being shattered, in other words, by the strength of the contracting 

Brilliant effects of color can be obtained by the use of thin, 
non-crazing colored glazes, by using a number of colors in such ar- 
tistic juxtaposition as to heighten the effect of each other; but where 
you demand a single color, as is now almost invariably the case, and 
expect it to be brilliant and satisfying, it can only be obtained by 
the conditions named, which carry the defect criticized fundamen- 
tally with them. But is this really a defect in a purely decorative 
ware ? 

Before the Paris Exposition, the manager of the Rookwood 
Pottery, when I was its superintendent, told me he would have to 
discontinue the work unless it could be made so as not to craze ; it 
was impossible for him to sell it because of this. I told him the 
condition could be fulfilled, but it would then not sell at all, because 
it would cease to be " Rookwood." The style and quality of the 
ware precluded its use for other than mainly ornamental articles ; 
why therefore ruin by technical conditions that are altogether utili- 
tarian? The factory struggled along until its products were sub- 
mitted to the arbitrament of the French people at the exposition of 
1889. It became famous at a bound. A timid American suggested 
to a French connoisseur, " But the glaze is cracked ! " " Any fool can 
see that," was the reply; " what of it?" No one of any sense or 
taste has alluded to the crazing of Rookwood ware since. But, it 
is claimed, a white wall tile is surely thin glazed, and should be as 
free from crazing as table and kitchen ware shows itself to be under 
much more exacting use. But the bulk of our wall tile practically 
all craze-. 

Our domestic wall tiles are all made with highly refracting lead 
glazes, so that the individual piece will look as smooth and glossy 
as possible, and that because of the lower fire required in producing 
them they may be uniform in shade. They belong to the same 
category of wares as the colored glazes, namely, faience. 

If you could flatten out the curves of a cup or dish, you would 
be astonished to see that its glaz.e is not as smooth and brilliant as 
one of these tile, for a level surface reflecting the light entirely in 
one direction magnifies every inequality a hundred-fold. If you 
take a set of plates, looking absolutely the same in color, and cut 
tile out of their bottoms, placing them together as tile are laid, you 
would marvel at the variation in tint. When builders waive their 
demand for brilliant, straight, and uniformly tinted wall tile, and 
have them hard tired and covered with alkali lime glaze, they will get 
tile that will not craze. Once accustomed to the matter, I believe, 
too, that they will be liked better. The blare of the glassy faience 
wall is not in good taste. The softer, more eggshell-like texture of 
the alkaline, porcelain-like glazes is far more agreeable. 

Without instancing more of the innumerable problems and con- 



ditions that confront the clay worker, and upon which he must ask 
for changed views and compromises from the architect, I should like 
to answer the question that probably arises in your minds: " Is all 
the trouble of going into these conditions and details worth while ? " 
Of course the question will be dismissed as idle as soon as it is 
asked, for clay products always have and always will be used in 
larger and larger measure, and for finer and finer purposes. It is, 
however, well to bear constantly in mind that so many qualities of 
high merit, often no less subtle than the difficulties, appertain to 
clay wares, that no amount of effort in interesting oneself in these 
problems is without fruit. 

Let me instance in this connection the superior frost-proof 
quality of brick, tile, and terra-cotta over all natural stones. It is a 
common fallacy to suppose that this property is merely attendant on 
density, and that these clay wares are only more frost proof in pro- 
portion as they approach vitreousness. This is by no means the 
case. You are familiar with very porous sandstones that are far 
more frost proof than hard crystalline rocks, having very little water 
absorption. Of course only a material having taken up some water 
will be shattered by frost. Hut a very small amount may be as de- 
structive as a large quantity. The root of the matter lies almost 
solely in the homogeneity of the material. 

When a body saturated with water is subjected to frost, the 
expansion of ice crystals does no damage to its structure if no ob- 
struction is presented to the weaving of the crystals through the 
pores. If, however, the body is intersected with layers of denser or 
impervious matter, even if these be no thicker than a sheet of paper, 
an immense pressure is exerted on these planes, resulting in the 
cracking of the body or the splitting off of layers of the same 
along the planes of these denser divisions. There is scarcely a 
crystalline rock that is not intersected with these impervious or 
difficultly penetrable divisions, and under the action of the frost 
these are the lines along which sooner or later its structure breaks 

Even rocks of such hardness and density as granite succumb to 
this disintegrating action, only topically and slowly it is true, but 
very distinctly for all that, as you can see on many a monument in 
almost any cemetery. Sufficient water for destructive action is 
taken up between the crystals of quartz and feldspar or hornblende; 
this in freezing is impeded in its free movement by the thin and 
tough crystals of impervious mica, often lying in continuous layers 
over a larger patch, and the resultant pressure is sufficient to split 
off thin flakes and crystals from the surface, the chemical action of 
the water and atmosphere continuing the action in the rough and 
pitted places through their solvency. 

Even poorly tempered and burned clay bodies are always free 
from impervious or denser strata, and under all circumstances more 
homogeneous than any crystalline rocks, which are often, and some- 
times even minutely, crossed and recrossed with denser and almost 
impervious layers, only discoverable by the microscope. If the 
baked clay body be only sufficiently burned so that the cell walls of 
the pores are of reasonable strength, even a large water absorption 
does not endanger a breaking down by frost. 

Another instance in which clay products stand unique in fulfil- 
ling conditions unattained in like measure by anything else is that 
of asepsis. The glazed surface of wall tile, and particularly the vit- 
reous clay floor tile, can be scrubbed or wiped up with antiseptic 
solutions, like bichloride of mercury, and even the most efficient of 
these, permanganate of potash, followed by hydrochloric acid, with- 
out the slightest damage or surface pitting. This is of course out 
of the question with marble or any other wall or floor covering, and 
is so well understood by those experienced in hospital building that 
it is now seldom called into question. 

Numberless other instances of conspicuous qualities of clay 
products for particular purposes could be adduced, but these 
will suffice to illustrate that their difficulties and limitations are 
amply compensated and are worthy of consideration and com- 




ECONOMY, or the lack of it, in floor construction does not de- 
pend alone upon choice of materials. The usual question, 
" What is the cheapest kind of floor ? " is generally supposed to 
cover the subject; but really the arrangement of the construction is 
more important. 

This was illustrated by several alternate plans suggested for the 
floors of a warehouse building recently designed in Boston, by Wins- 
low, Wetherell & Higelow, architects. They were made to afford 
the owners an opportunity to decide for themselves which would be 
the* most desirable. There were two acceptable ways in which the 
columns could be arranged, and both of these were considered. 
These alternative schemes are shown in Figs, t to 9 inclusive. 
In each case the section is shown on a larger scale than the plan. 

Estimates were also made of the cost per square foot of each of 
these floors, taking into account all the different elements of con- 
struction affected. These include the steel beams and girders, the 
terra-cotta arch, the column covering, the cinder concrete on top of 
the arches, the girder covering, the plastering, and that part of the 
external walls between the finished floor and the finished ceiling. 
The quantities were extended at the prices then current, and the 
results obtained are as shown in the following table : — 





_n .: 


g-IS"I» 5S' 



-. oc 



e IS" 15 55" 

n 3 . e 







: -: r.i=fcfc& . 



F,g 2, 













£ -I2T340 " 



ri 3- 

l<4 - O * 


IE I 5lt * 


1 i 


L J 














- : 




















9 ' 

Cost persq 
ft.of floor. 










It may be noted that the cost per square foot of floor in each 
case where the columns are spaced 25 ft. apart is more than in 
each case where the columns are spaced closer. 

The average rate of cost for the wider spacing of the columns 
is $.769, while for the closer it is $.598, the former being therefore 
on the average 28 per cent, costlier than the latter. 

These results do not take the cost of the columns themselves 
into account, but that could not materially affect the result, espe- 
cially in a heavy building such as this was. The total load to 
carry remains the same. In all but one case the estimate calls for a 
flat arch 15 ins. or 12 ins. in depth, according to the depth of the 
beam. In the one exception, that shown in Fig. 3, it calls for a 
6 in. segmental arch. The dead weight of these arches as erected, 
including the weight of all the other elements of the construction, is 
given in the following table, which also indicates the actual working 
strength of both the beams and the girders, in each case figured on 
the usual basis of 16,000 lbs. per square inch ultimate fiber stress. 
The difference, as shown in each case, is the superimposed live load 
which each of the beams and girders will carry without straining 
them above that standard. 

Maximum Load 

For the Scheme 
Shown by Fig. 


Dead Load. 

Possible with 

Ultimate Fiber 

Stress of 

16,000 lbs. 

Live Load. 

Girders . . 


















































39 r > 






























ie." r 3it 





Not only do these alter- 
native plans indicate that a 
close arrangement of col- 
umns is most economical, 
but it also shows that the 
arrangement of the beams 
independent of the spacing 
of the columns materially 
affects the cost. The com- 
parison also shows that even 
the simplest forms of struc- 
tural iron designing can 
well afford to be studied. 
The difference in the cost of 
the floor per square foot be- 
tween the plans shown in 
Figs. 2 and 7 is $.263, which 
is nearly 50 per cent, of the 
cost of the cheaper one. In 
many buildings this would 
be 30 per cent, or 35 per 

cent, of the whole cost of the structural metal work in the building. 
In buildings even of very simple construction it is often possible to 
vary the arrangement of the columns in several different ways, even- 
one of which multiplies the possibility of variation in the design of 
the framing. The chance of desirable or undesirable designing is 
therefore often greater than it was in this case, where only two 
arrangements could be considered and much more than is com- 
monly realized. 

THE educational value of an object lesson is not always meas- 
ured by its cost in dollars and cents. A blaze started on the 
fifth floor of one of the fire-proof warehouses at the corner of Fulton 
Street and Elizabeth Place, Brooklyn, on May 8. The flames were 
confined to the one apartment in which they started, the room con- 
taining about seventy-five dollars' worth of furniture. The furniture 
was burned, but the fire-proof walls and the terra-cotta arches and 
partitions were not injured a particle. We well remember, in the 
early days of the Palmer House in Chicago, a statement was made 
that any room in that then famous hotel could be piled full of furni- 
ture soaked in kerosene and set on fire and allowed to burn out with- 
out any damage resulting to the building. From our recollection of 
the methods of fire-proofing in vogue at that time we imagine that 
that was a defy which, if accepted, might have brought disaster to 
the building. But in the present state of fire-proofing science, it has 
been repeatedly demonstrated that the entire contents of the room, 
in any properly constructed fire-proof building, can be entirely con- 
sumed without the slightest harm to the structure of the room. 

I 22 


Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The increase in the use of brick for all sorts of 
building purposes lias made the recent disagreements between 
the manufacturers and their employes a matter of 
serious import, but these difficulties are now happily 
ended and they are making brick as fast as possible. 
In spite of this the active demand has kept prices 
up to an unusually high figure, which is probably 
partly accounted for by the rise in prices of all other 
building materials. 

The usual dull summer seascTn has begun, that 
is, dull in regard to the beginning of new projects of 
importance, although architects and builders, as a 
rule, throughout Greater New York are fairly busy. 
With the settlement of our great rapid transit prob- 
lems will come undoubtedly a boom in suburban real 
estate, which also will be vastly helped by the comple- 
tion of our proposed new bridges. Visitors to the 
city are invariably surprised at the inability of our 
traction svstems to handle the great crowds who flock 
to New York to do business, and it would seem upon 
viewing the great network of trolley lines, to say noth- 
ing of the doubling up by the use of elevated rail- 
roads, that the only solution will be some sort of flying machines. 
It remains to be seen what our wise legislators will decide. Just now 
the Brooklyn members 
are opposed to any im- 
provements tending to 
build up the Bronx dis- 
trict, and New York 
members are set against 
the improv ement of 
Long Island. While 
the "doctors are disa- 
greeing " the people are 

Recent experiments have removed the one serious objection to 
the high building likely to have any weight with the community at 

large. That one objection was the apparent impossibility of fighting 
fire in the upper stories. To objections based on hygienic or esthetic 
reasonings, the public was quite deaf, or rather, they seemed to view 
them as mistaken. When the tire department maintained, as it did 
until recently, that it was incapable of dealing with fire more than 
125 ft. from the sidewalk, that was another matter, as it invested the 
high building with possibilities of horror not pleasant to dwell upon. 
It has lately been demonstrated that protection from fire in these 
buildings is simply a matter of appliances and that their height has 

Executed by the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company. 
v. Rutan X Coolidge, An h 

T. Henry Randall, Architect. 

(See plate form for drawings. } 

nothing to do with it. The new building code will doubtless require 
the installation of suitable auxiliary apparatus, approved by the fire 

department, in all build- 
ings above a certain 
height, and graded as to 
sizes according to height, 
and that will be the end 
of the matter. 

The report of the 
City and Suburban 
Home Company is inter 
esting as showing the 
results of an undertak- 




R. f 




ing of considerable proportions in meeting the housing wants of the 
industrial part of the community. The rates at which the company 
supplies accommodations are given, and the net results 
show an earning of 5 per cent, on the capital stock, so 
that the enterprise has proved not only philanthropic 
but profitable. 

J. T. Williams, architect, has prepared plans for a 
four-story brick store and office building to be built on 
West Street, corner of Beach Street: cost, $125,000. 
Robert Maynicke, architect, has planned an eleven- 
story office building to be built at 244 Fifth Avenue; 
cost, $1 50,000. John H. Duncan, architect, has pre- 
pared plans for a five-story brick dwelling to be built 
on 54th Street, near Fifth Avenue: cost, $48,000. 
Ernest Flagg, architect, has planned nine six-story 
brick flats for the New York Fire-proof Tenement 
Association, 35 Wall Street, New York: the total cost 
will be $337,500. C. C. Haight, architect, has planned 
a five-story brick dwelling to be built on 78th Street, 
East, near Fifth Avenue; cost, $So,ooo. 

T. Henry Randall, Architect. 
See plate form for drawings.) 

PHILADELPHIA.— In this city today, it is truly 
said, there need not be an idle draftsman. Not 
for years has there been so much business in the hands 
of architects, and in spite of the fact that the number 
of architects' offices has doubled in the past decade, 



all are busy. That so many of the younger men have opened 
offices probably accounts for the dearth of draftsmen to some 
extent, but with universities and schools training so many for the 
profession, it has always been dreaded the supply would much 
overtop the demand. 

It naturally follows that builders are very busy, some of 
them having many million dollars' worth of work in hand. 

Amongst the larger operations may be noted the United 
States Mint, now at the second-story level. In spite of the criti- 
cism of one of our legislators, who thought the design too plain 
for a mint and too ornamental for a jail, it is certainly a credit 
to the supervising architect's office. The great length of its 
horizontal lines gives it much dignity. Like much government 
work, the contract for erection has been given out one piece at 
a time, the first contractor having put in the foundations, and 
the present puts the building under roof. Much controversy 
was raised about the material to be used for the facing ; this 
ended in the selection of granite from the Mt. Desert quarries. 
The lower story looks well in granite, but it is a question whether 
that material be the most suitable for the upper story with the 
pilasters and lighter work that enter into the design. 

A huge undertaking, said to be entirely in the hands of a con- 

Shepley, kutan X: Coolidge, Architects. 

made public, but it may be safely said that the builder's architecture 
cannot be all that Philadelphia should expect on its principal busi- 
ness site. In the present store may be seen in use an inclined travel- 
ing plane for the conveyance of passengers from first to second floors. 


tractor and builder, is the rebuilding of the Wanamaker store at 
13th and Market Streets. Ten stories high and covering a whole 
block in the most prominent part of the city, it is much to be re- 
gretted that an architect of ability has not been called upon for the 
design of the shell at least. The design proposed has not been 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

The buildings to be occupied by the Commercial Exhibition, 
which is to take place in the beginning of autumn, are from designs 
by Wilson Brothers, architects. They are not to be flimsy, temporary 
structures, but are of thick, brick walls and steel columns and 
trusses. The three main wings are intended for permanent use as a 
commercial museum ; the temporary covering of an 
improved form of staff, guaranteed to stay in good 
condition for five years, is to be replaced eventually by 
stone or marble, the Renaissance design to be dupli- 

The finished portion of the University Museums 
is a delight to the eye of the architect. There is noth- 
ing in the design that is trite ; one desiring to study 
the modern use of brick and terra-cotta could not do 
better than examine it closely. 

Edgar V. Seeler has chosen the architecture of the 
churches of Caen for a guide in designing the exterior 
of the First Baptist Church just commenced at 17th 
and Sansom Streets. This design was selected in a 
competition with some half dozen competitors. The 
interior promises to be a fine architectural effort, the 
opportunity for color effects being magnificent. In 



plan it is a Creek cross, spanned by great semicircular intersecting 
vaults, the architecture naturally Byzantine. 

Another church competition is announced. One might well say, 
when are we to have an architect sufficiently prominent to be given 
a church to build without submitting plans in competition ? The 



Executed by the New York Architectural Terra Cotta Company. 

Chas I I assell, Architect. 

Wylie Memorial (hutch on South Broad Street is the latest. The in- 
vitation to compete is limited to five firms. The remuneration 
offered each is so small that it is stated some of the five do not intend 
to take the risk. 

Architects in Philadelphia are rejoiced at the safe recovery from 
serious illness of one of their foremost men. Mr. Theophilus P. 
Chandler, who has been employer at one time or other of half the 
rising generation of architects, is just able to lie at his office again 
after an attack of typhoid fever. 

Cll [CAGO. — Reports of building operations for May show some 
encouraging increase in their volume as compared with the 
same month a year ago. While such comparisons by months are 
apt to mislead, it is clear that there is an increased interest in build- 
ing on the part of the public, which is making itself felt here in spite 
of high prices and labor troubles. Chicago has been aptly spoken 
of as the "storm center "for labor difficulties in the building trades. 


Executed by the Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 

Edward Van I. even, Architect. 

Two headings in a recent number of the Construction News illus- 
trate this: "Abolishing Machines in Stoneyards" and "Labor 
Unions Enjoined." Under the former heading it is stated that on and 
after June i, at the behest of the Chicago Stonecutters' Union, every 
lathe and plane in every yard in the city 
and suburbs will be idle until these Jin-de- 
siecU reactionists of the old English trades 
union type learn that instead of making 
work for more hands by abolishing the 
machine, they have simply destroyed a 
large percentage of the demand for cut 
stone, — turned men now employed out of 
employment and played into the hands of 
the brick and terra-cotta makers. 

< )f late years the cheapness of Indiana 
limestone or "buff Bedford," as it is com- 
monly called here, no matter where quar- 
ried, has, together with improved machin- 
ery for sawing, surfacing, molding, and 
turning, made it possible to erect sham 
stone buildings, common brick building 
veneered with 6 ins. or even less of ma- 
chine-dressed ashlar, for less than the cost 
of first-class brickwork. These soon turn 
a dark color, wholly lacking in warmth or 
richness, a sad, cold, neutral gray, even in 
the outlying districts where the atmosphere 
is comparatively clear. For this reason an 
increase in the cost of cut stone is not alto- 
gether a misfortune from the architect's 

The Winslow Brothers Company, the 
well-known manufacturers of architectural 
iron and bronze work, have recently, 
through a decision made by Judge Holdom, 
enjoined the Building Trades Council, the 
Architectural Iron Workers' Union, and 
several individual members thereof, from 
interfering by acts of violence, threats, in- 
timidation, or physical force, with the re- 
construction of their Lakeside building, 
and other work of the complainant com- 

This is the first injunction ever se- 
cured against the Building Trades Council, 
and while the company failed to secure all 
that it asked for in its bill, they feel that 
they have gained a substantial victory. 
Their success will certainly encourage other 
sufferers from the arrogance and lawless 
interference of the Council to seek similar 
relief through the courts. While the pos- 
sible abuses of "government by injunc- 
tion " are certainly great, it seems the only 
available remedy in such cases as this. 

Among recently projected structures of 
importance is a new building for the Chi- 
cago hospital, and a large apartment house 
on Grand Boulevard. The hospital is to 
be erected on 51st Street, near Cottage 
Grove Avenue, and will be one of the largest and most completely 
equipped private hospitals in the United States. The plan consists 
of a hexagonal rotunda or central pavilion, with a large portico in 
front and five radial wings, each over 125 ft. long. The construction 
is to be fire-proof and the exterior walls will be finished in brick and 
terracotta. The roof will be of tile. The central rotunda, which is 
to be five stories high, is to be vaulted below the fourth floor and 
supported on marble columns at the angles of the hexagon, with a 






R. I. 

ExM u ted by the ConkHng- 
Armstmng Terra-Cotta 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 


I2 5 

gallery intervening at the third floor. A new feature of the 
interior finish in addition to mosaic, marble, cement, and tile will 
be the use of aluminum for doors in the operating rooms. The 
dining room will be on the fifth floor of the central pavilion and 
will be reached by two electric elevators. This room will have a 

Executed in mottled gray terra-cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 
William A. Poland, Architect. 

domed ceiling corresponding with the exterior. This utilization of 
a central dome is a rather unusual and certainly admirable idea. 
The proposed cost is about $200,000, and the architects are Messrs. 
Barfield and Hubbell. Wilson & Marshall have let contracts for 
the erection of two apartment buildings, to be known as " The 
Mansions," on Grand Boulevard, near 38th Street. The proposed 
cost is about $175,000, and the general plan is a symmetrical 
front court scheme, quite elaborately carried out in Gothic, with 
brick and stone exterior walls and steep, picturesque, red-tiled roofs. 
The court will be adorned with a fountain and enclosed with 
an elaborate iron fence and gates. There will be sixty-four 
apartments of from four to eight rooms, and special care has 
been given to thoroughly subdivide the building by fire walls. 

its provisions have been enforced, and, as a consequence, the un- 
scrupulous builder and investor have gone on unchecked. 

The architects have met with disappointment in their efforts to 
have a bill passed by the last legislature requiring architects prac- 
tising in the State to have a license. 

Real estate has been very active during the spring, especially 
in down town districts, and much of the trading is done with a 
view to improving. Washington Avenue continues to be the 
center of attraction, although important transactions have taken 
place throughout the business district, where large improvements 
are contemplated. Most of the architects are busy and all feel 
encouraged. The sudden increase in prices, together with the 
uncertainty as to the location of the site of the coming World's 
I Fair, has doubtless been the cause of more or less work being 
held back, but this can only be for a short time. There seems to 
be little if any cause for anxiety about labor troubles this season, 
as every one seems to be well satisfied with the outlook. It is 
rumored that Karnes & Young have the Federal prison to be built 
by the government in Georgia. 

The city has at last decided to go ahead with the new city 
hospital, and an ordinance has been introduced into the munici- 
pal assembly to that effect. The City Hospital Commission 
made their report and submitted plans two or three years ago, 
but the city has been unable to commence work on account of 
the lack of funds. The hospital will be built on the pavilion 
plan on the site of the old building destroyed by the cyclone 
three years ago. 


The Grueby Faience Company have been awarded the 
contract for finishing with dull-surfaced enameled tiling the interior 
of the May Memorial Chapel, Rose Hill Cemetery, Chicago; J. L. 
Silsbee, architect. 

The Williams Patent Crusher and Pulverizer Company 
are installing a No. 3 pulverizer — their largest size — at Dennings 
Point Brick Company, Fishkill, N. Y., for grinding bats and sand ; 
also a No. 2 pulverizer at I. B. Stiles & Son, North Haven, Conn., 
for grinding bats and coal. These pulverizers are particularly 

ST. LOUIS. — An event of no small moment was there- 
cent exhibition of the St. Louis Architectural Club, 
which closed on May S. It was the second attempt of the 
club to hold an exhibition of magnitude, and the results have 
been very gratifying, especially on account of the short time 
following the Chicago exhibition in which to hang the draw- 
ings. The interest shown in the exhibition will doubtless en- 
courage the club in holding similar ones. As most of the 
drawings have been on exhibition in the various cities and 
have been commented upon, it would be useless to attempt 
anything of the kind here. The tendency of the architecture 
of the different cities to reflect the distinctive characteristics 
of its people is strikingly manifest. This fact is pointed out 
clearly in an article in the recently issued catalogue of the 
Boston Architectural Association, and is favorably received 
as an indication of more serious thought and study, which 
may eventually give us a style of architecture of our own. 
There is no doubt that these exhibitions are productive of much 
good and should have the hearty support of all interested in the 
architecture of the country. 

Considerable interest has been taken by the architects and 
builders in an effort to get a capable man appointed as building 
commissioner. For some years the office has been practically a dead 
letter, and, although St. Louis has a good building law, very few of 


Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 
C. M. Bartberger, Architect. 

adapted for the use of manufacturers desiring to powder their bats 
for dryer and sand. 

The Robert Aitchison Perforated Metal Company an- 
nounce that they have added to their already large complement of 
dies a very complete assortment [of slotted oblong sizes suited for 
clay screens, 

I 26 



Walker & Kimball, Architects. 

Roofed with Ludowici Roofing Tile. 

BuRGY & MCNEILL announce that they are putting on the mar- 
ket a new wall tic which has the favorable indorsement of 90 per 
cent, of the architects in Pittsburgh. Samples of same will be sent 
to all applicants. 

J. C. I. wart & Co. are furnishing their Akron Roofing Tile for 
the following buildings: a large carriage house on the Elkins estate, 
near Philadelphia; a block in Chicago ( vitrified flat tile ) ; also for 
the Williams residence in Columbus, Ohio. 

THE C. 1'. MERWIN Brick Company. Merlin, Conn., are fur- 
nishing, through the Central New England Brick Company, the 
hollow brick for a library at New Britain, Conn., Davis & Brooks, 
architects: also for the Segel Block, Boston; and a school building 
at Worcester. 

We are in receipt of a small booklet from the Clinton Metallic 
Paint Company discussing the requirements of a really good roof 
cement. The company claim that their silk fiber cement possesses 
all the requisite qualities of such an article, and offer to send a 
sample pail to any party interested in using a good roofing cement. 

( is May 24 a change was made in the firm of Fiske. Homes & 
Co., managers of the Boston Fire Brick Company, by the retirement 
from the concern of Mr. William Homes. The business is now con- 
ducted under the title of Fiske & Co., composed of George M. Fiske 
and L. Parker 15. Fiske. The company will continue to handle the 
same general lines of burnt clay products. 

Tmc following list comprises a few" of the buildings recently 
equipped with the Bolles Revolving Sash : Passaic Bank, Passaic, 
N. J. ; a residence at 7 W. 73d Street, New York City; a residence 
at Park Avenue and 67th Street, New York City: the Chemistry 
Building. Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; the Camden High 
School, Camden, N. J.; Schools No. 28 and No. 9, Buffalo, N. Y.: 
School No. 17, Jersey City: school at Plainfield, N. J.: New York 
and New Jersey Telephone Building, Newark, N. J. 

ANDREW Ramsey, lessee of the Mt. Savage Enameled Brick 
Company, has secured the contract to furnish the enameled brick 
for McMullen Brothers' store at Cumberland, Md., J. S. Seibert, 
architect. The building, as estimated, will cost about 5150,000. 
Faqade is to be of white enameled brick with brown enameled 
molded brick trimmings. This is the third store front in their 
vicinity for which this company have furnished the enameled brick. 

Mkki ii \n 1 & Co., In< .. "f 
Philadelphia, New York, and Chi- 
cago, report a heavy increase in tin 
and Babbitt metal business. They 
have recently taken, among numer- 
ous others, a carload order for Bab- 
bitt metal from a large Western 
machinery manufacturing company, 
the shipment consisting of an assort- 
ment of grades. This order was 
placed after an exhaustive list of 
samples from a number of manufac- 
turers. This company has been 
manufacturing all grades of this 
metal for a quarter of a century, 
and their present large business in 
this line is a fitting tribute to their 
thorough experience and reliability 
in its manufacture. 

The White Brick and 
Terra-Cotta Company have se- 
cured contracts to furnish the archi- 
tectural terracotta for the following buildings: apartments 83d 
Street and West End Avenue, architect, Henry Anderson; apart- 
ments 138th Street and Third Avenue, architect, Harry T. Howell: 
club house, Yonkers, N. 
Y., architect, A. F. 
I. e i c h t : terrace wall, 
Great Neck, L. I., archi- 
tects, Little & O'Connor; 
apartments 107th Street 
and Columbus Avenue, 
architect. Samuel Sass: 
Battery Park Building, 
State and Pearl Streets, 
architects, Clinton & 
Russell ; apartments 
1 29th Street and Eighth 
Avenue, architect, Henry 

Thomas B. Free- 
m \ N , Pittsburgh, h a S 
moved from the Carnegie 
Building to larger quar- 
ters in the Smith Building. 
Mr. Freeman has for a 
number of years been 
identified with the build- 
ing material business in 
Pittsburgh as a dealer in 
high-grade clay products. 
In his new offices he has 
increased facilities for 
promptly conducting 
business, and a better op- 
portunity to display to 
a d v a n tage samples of 
the various lines which 
he handles. His spe- 
cialties are face brick, 
architectural terra-cotta, 
enameled brick, floor 
tiling, wall ties, etc.; 
also the product of the 
Mosaic Tile Company, of 
Zanesville, Ohio. 



Executed in terra-cottn by the Perth Amboy Terra- 
Cotta Company. 
Willis G. Hale. Architect. 





Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-5° P er >' ear 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuii.der is published the 20th of each month. 

LAST year we were able to present to the readers of The 
Hkickhuilder a very interesting series of articles describing 
and illustrating designs for a brick dwelling costing in the neighbor- 
hood of ten thousand dollars, the contributions coming from some of 
our best known architects. With this number we begin another 
similar series, having to do in this case with a village church to cost 
fifty thousand dollars. It has ever been our belief that the best way 
to encourage good architecture is to create it, even if only on paper, 
and as we a e convinced of the possibilities of brick, we feel we 
cannot do a better service for our readers or for the profession of 
architecture than to call out such thorojghly good designs and com- 
mendable arrangements as we believe this series will- present. 

There used to be a saying that it was a poor artist who would 
complain of his tools. As a corollary of this proposition it might 
almost be stated that when an artist complains of his material the 
fault is in the artist rather than in the medium. It has been demon- 
strated over and over again through the last twenty o more centu- 
ries that noble, impressive works of architecture can be produced 
with combinations of burnt clay as a basic material, and especially 
do we find in the past successful churches of this material. It goes 
without saying that all churches constructed of burnt clay are not 
successful, and yet the brick and terra-cotta architecture of North 
Italy, as well as the early Renaissance work from which Mr. Sturgis 
has drawn, and also certain manifestations of historic art since the 
fifteenth century, have been so truly in the line of genuine creation 
that it is not fair to deny the possibilities of brick for. the most 
sacred edifice. A difficulty which we have not yet succeeded in 

growing beyond is the constant tendency to design our buildings 
without specific reference to any one material and then to select the 
medium arbitrarily after the whole design is practically settled upon. 
Hence it comes that in many of the illustrations of current work it 
is often difficult to tell whether the design is to be worked out in 
stone, terra-cotta, or even cast iron. Our hope in presenting this 
series of typical designs is to aid in the evolution of a proper treat- 
ment of what we consider to be one of the most adaptable materials 
which man has been able to wrest from the hand of nature, and it is 
our hope that the designs that we shall thus call forth will show the 
directions in which the study of burnt-clay work can to advantage be 

THE past two months have witnessed a most extraordinary ad- 
vance in the price of structural steel work of every descrip- 
tion. Rolled shapes have advanced something over $15 a ton and 
plates have gone up even more, while as some of the mills adopted 
the policy of curtailing the output, there has resulted an approxima- 
tion of famine for some forms, and as a consequence the cost of 
building has been very materially increased. We recall one building 
at this moment, which was figured the latter part of last month, on 
which the advance in steel before any award of the contract could 
be made was sufficient to cause an increase in price of something 
like #25,000. Development in building construction naturally tends 
to follow the path of least resistance, and it would not, therefore, be 
at all surprising if this large increase in the cost of iron should have 
the effect to very strongly develop those constructions which are in- 
dependent of metal supports. We have grown so accustomed of late 
years to steel skeleton construction that we are apt to lose sight of 
the fact that it is perfectly possible to construct a building, or at 
least construct many types of building, without using a steel beam or 
steel column; and now that prices of structural metal are touching 
the limit of prohibition it may be a good time to see if we cannot 
improve our brick and terra-cotta construction, perhaps going back 
to the processes in use when our constructions were more scientifi- 
cally fire-proof if less knowing than they are now. Surely iron can 
never be seriously considered a fire-proof material, and a great deal 
of the terra-cotta and brick which goes into a modern structure is 
used simply as a protection for what in one sense we would term the 
weaker material. The path of least resistance and the minimizing 
of our vertical supports have led us into our present by no means 
rational constructions. One has only to recall the vast spaces which 
were enclosed by buildings during the late Roman period to appre- 
ciate that our dependence upon iron is not a necessary one. 

There is no question about the possibility of improvement in 
the methods of using brick and terra-cotta for the structural portions 
of a building. We have not yet reached the ideal application, and 
it is quite likely that the fact that iron has been so cheap, so handy, 
and can be used with so little thought has contributed quite mate- 
rially to our ready acceptance of the forms of brick and teria cotta 
constructions which, now that steel is becoming so expensive, we 
might be very glad to modify. We should be glad to see the attempt 
made to construct a building entirely of burnt clay, omitting steel 
columns and beams entirely. We are apt to think of an all masonry 
structure as being necessarily heavy and unsuited to modern needs, 
and yet there never was in the whole past history of the world a 



lighter, more open construction than that which prevailed during the 
height of the Gothic development, when the supporting members 
were reduced to an extreme minimum, and large spaces were vaulted 
with a daring and skill which we should be glad to see imitated in 
our day. If the rise in steel has a result of developing the possibili- 
ties which lie dormant within our reach, it will have been worth while 
for our constructors to have paid the high prices which are now pre 
vailing, for while undoubtedly the prices will go back to somewhere 
near the quotations of a year ago, the right kind of thought expended 
upon brick and terra-cotta construction will be sure to bring out pos- 
sibilities which will enable our buildings to be lighter, better built, 
and more thoroughly fire proof. 

THE Department of Architecture of Harvard University, though 
among the youngest of the schools of architecture in this 
country, promises to take a high rank in its relative endowments. 
This department was begun only about five years ago. There had 
been an assistant professorship of architecture in Harvard College 
for many years, and the lectures which were delivered by Prof. 
Charles Eliot Norton and Prof. C. H. Moore were of the highest 
character, but the purely architectural work, by which we mean the 
work intended to fit students to become architects rather then mere 
dilettanti, is of more recent date. For the first three or four years 
the Department was supported almost entirely by private contributors, 
of whom the best known to the profession was the late Mr. Arthur 
Rotch, he giving very freely both of money and time to the needs of 
the Department, and with Mr. Robert S. Peabody taking a very 
active share in the counsels which have given this school its peculiar 
character. This year the Department has received two very decided 
marks of success. The first was the endowment of a traveling 
scholarship, to be awarded under the direction of the professor of 
architecture, the annual money value of the prize being one thousand 
dollars. Following this comes the more recent announcement that 
some one, who does not wish his name to appear, has given two hun- 
dred thousand dollars to the University for the use of the architec- 
tural department, one half of which is to be used for the construction 
of a building. This structure is to be located between Ouincy Street 
and the Fogg Art Museum, and it affords an opportunity which it is 
hoped Harvard will not neglect of adding to the only too few really 
good examples of architecture which are possessed by the University. 

STl'DENT work is always interesting. The enthusiasm which 
forms so important an element of all college work and which 
crops out so artlessly in some of the designs which our ambitious, 
aspiring, prospective architects labor over so seriously, all has a 
charm for even the most hackneyed practitioner. It is interesting 
to see how the young men do it now, and to wonder how we might 
have done it ourselves. And when the work is, on the whole, of as 
really high grade of excellence as is shown by the Year Book of the 
School of Architecture of the University of Pennsylvania, we can 
quite sympathize with the Philadelphians in their pride of this insti- 
tution. The Year Book is a volume of eighty pages, strongly sug- 
gestive of the annual exhibition catalogue, even to the extent of the 
advertisements, but showing in its fifty or more illustrations that the 
University is doing serious work and that it comes under the kind 
of direction which ought to be of the highest value to the students 
who profit thereby. 

THE Hearst bill recently passed by the Illinois Legislature, 
creating an art commission for the city of Chicago, provides that, 
" hereafter no work of art shall become the property of the city by 
purchase, gift or otherwise unless such work of art, or a design of 
the same, together with a statement of the proposed location of such 
work of art, shall first have been submitted to and approved, by the 
commission, nor shall such work of art, until so approved, be erected 
or placed in or upon, or allowed to extend over or upon any street, 
avenue, square, common, municipal building, or other place belonging 

to such city, or any park, boulevard, or public ground situated within 
the limits of such city. The commission may, when it deems proper, 
also require a complete model of the proposed work of art to be sub- 
mitted. The term ' work of art,' as used in this connection, shall 
apply to and include paintings, mural decorations, stained glass, bas- 
reliefs, or other sculptures, ornaments, fountains, images, or other 
structures of a permanent character intended for ornament or com- 
memoration. The term ' municipal building,' as used in this connec- 
tion, shall include all public schools, and all buildings or portions 
thereof, and all grounds used for school purposes in such city." 

The commission is to consist of the mayor, the president of the 
Art Institute, the presidents of the Park Boards, and three members 
to be named by the mayor. One of the three appointees must be 
an architect, one a sculptor, and one a painter. The mayor has 
selected respectively for these three appointments, \V. L. B. Jenney, 
Lorado Taft, and Ralph Clarkson. 

The following suggestions were contained in the recently ren- 
dered report of the Tenement House Committee of the Charity 
Organizations of New York City, of which Messrs. George B. Post 
and Ernest Flagg are members : that there be a minimum size for 
living rooms; that there shall be light shafts at least 6 ft. wide ; 
that there shall be one bath room for at least every twenty families ; 
that the height of tenement houses shall not exceed six stories, and 
that playgrounds shall be provided on the roof, being made safe by 
carrying up the exterior walls 3^ ft. 

In their communication referring to the present law the commit- 
tee says : — 

" It is the opinion of those whose daily occupation brings them 
into direct personal contact with the people living in tenement 
houses, and whose work takes them into these buildings every day, 
that the buildings erected under the present laws are in many re- 
spects much worse than the old buildings erected thirtvjears ago." 
The problem which the committee seeks to solve is how to build on 
the ordinary city lot so as to secure fair income to the investment, 
and provide healthful conditions for tenants. 

Statistics for the six months ending June 30 indicate that the 
building operations of 1899 will be considerably in excess of the 
operations of 1898, although the rate of increase may not be as high 
during the latter half of the year as it was during the first six months. 
The official statistics from the building departments of twenty lead- 
ing cities show that the operations were over one third greater dur- 
ing the first half of 1899 than for the same period of 1898. The 
total expenditure for buildings in these cities during the first six 
months of this year were $135,649,484 as against $98,660,254 for 
1898, an increase of nearly $37,000,000, or 37.4 per cent. The com- 
parative figures for the first six months of 1899 and 1898 are given 
in the following table : — 

No. Cost. 
New York (Boroughs of Man- 
hattan and Bronx) 4,565 $71,370,870 

Borough of Brooklyn 3,724 '2.830,985 

Chicago 2,ns 11,865,260 

Philadelphia 4,026 10,420,430 

St. Louis 1, 150 4.195,295 

Washington 1,385 3,5°5»363 

Cleveland ',49° 2,918,270 

Pittsburgh 1,054 2,908,720 

Detroit-. ',"83 2,090,700 

Milwaukee 756 1,061,298 

km as City 1,806 1,904,780 

Buffalo 813 1,616,497 

Minneapolis 720 1,512,131 

Los Angeles 875 1, 119, 537 

Cincinnati 1,140 1,112,124 

New Orleans 864 ;--,'.. 

St Paul 542 797.538 

Louisville 2,263 791.527 

Toledo 765,530 

Allegheny 362 571,125 

1 "iii.i ha 410 404,294 

Totals for twenty cities $ 135,649,484 



-1.S98 , 























■.66 '.,777 











































Inc. 37. 

4 P- c. 

— Constrt 

tctioti A 




IT is but a poor place, this Monteventoso, and scarce worth dis- 
covering, after all's said and clone. Were it not that Italy has 
been so ransacked within the past seventy-five years without even a 
stray mention of the town finding its way into Murray or Baedeker, 
I should scarcely dare to notice it here. The railway from Bologna 
to Pistoja passes within a few miles of it, and but for a promontory 
of crag and cliff it would be plainly visible to the bicyclist pedaling 
the highway between Pievepelago and Cutigliano. 

It is quite possible, though, that I am quite in the wrong, and 
my discovery will turn out to be well known to the cognoscenti in 
Italian travel merely as a place of very meager interest in a region so 
rich in historical tradition and monuments of art as is Emilia, further- 
more one to be avoided as cold and uncomfortable in the matter of 
the hospitality dispensed at its inns, while its edifices are despised of 
architects as not only vastly excelled in every particular, but almost 
exactly paralleled by other far more famous and accessible cities. 
No — despite the announcement that in Monteventoso were to be 
found " notable " buildings, the author must beg leave to deny any 
responsibility for the statement. 

It would be difficult, indeed, to point out in what particular the 
buildings of Monteventoso possess this quality of notability. To be 
sure, antiquity is theirs, and to most Americans antiquity makes 
largely for " notability," while about the old shadowy streets and 
glittering roofs and towers is crystallized enough legendry to equip a 
dozen of our States. Centuries of bloody history and clusters of 
hoary tradition are very pretty things in their way, but architecture 
is almost an exact science, a thing of scale and plumb-line ; hence it 
is not to be wondered at if Monteventoso has received but scant 
consideration from those who have given us the whole history of 
architecture in a neat octavo vo'ume. 

Still, it is curious that the town has escaped the archeologist, for 
it is certainly rich in late Roman remains. Everywhere are to be 
espied fragments of this period. They seem to have been especially 
popular as quoins during the Middle Ages, while the columns and 
frieze of the chapel porch of the church of Santa Caterina once, so 
they say, formed part of the ancient temple of Boreas ; and, too, the 
road and causeway leading down from the town, over the little river 
which skirts the base of the eminence, and thence out across the 
level plain towards Modena, bear less interesting but no less distinct 
traces of the heavy hand of the one-time mistress of the world. 
Yes, the archeologist, he who has picked, dug, or hammered his 
over the land with such remarkable results, might here make a number 
of quite stupid discoveries, I feel sure. For instance, the author is no 
archeologist, but there is an archway constructed by Gian Galeazzo 

Visconti in [398, almost entirely of classic fragments, at the foot of 
the hill at the intersection of the Roman way and the more modern 
Strada Maestra, and despite my very halting Latin I am quite certain 
that on one of its stones — the center one in the right-hand pedestal 
as you enter the town — is an inscription to the effect that here Mar- 
cus Brutus erected a column commemorating the loyal devotion of 
the inhabitants to his cause in the year 78. Then there is the 
strange, artificial, and doubtless funereally intended cavern above 
the town, now called the Grotto of Egeria, in which a more practised 
eye than mine might see signs of genuine Etruscan handiwork. 

But, after all, these are but surmises, and even if correct, quite 
foreign to the purpose of this paper. Enough classic work remains 
to prove that Monteventoso was as unknown in the days of Alaric and 
Attila as it is now, and it would be pathetic indeed if, after all the cen- 
turies of repose from invasion it has enjoyed, it should at this late 
day fall a victim to some devastating modern Goth, one who would 
pick the old fragments from their long-accustomed homes, filling their 
places with brand-new brick and stucco, simply and solely that his 
name might appear ''writ small " in some museum catalogue. 

As elsewhere, all the life and most of the interest of the town 
center about the piazza, in spite of the fact that the principal struct- 
ure, the church of St. Catherine, is perched on the hillside some little 
distance above. Charlemagne is currently reported to have assisted 
at the pious work of beginning this church, even to the extent of re- 
laxing his regal attitude and stiffening his regal muscles sufficiently 
to lay the corner-stone with his own regal hands. If you demand 
proof of this occurrence, it is before your eyes ih one of the clearstory 
windows; to be sure, this glass cannot be earlier than the close of 
the fourteenth century, but tut ! in matters of this kind one shouldn't 
be too particular, and what suffices for the excellent old prete and 
simple townsfolk ought to be enough to quell our doubts as well. 

The church of Santa Caterina (da Alessandria) served at one 
period of the past as a cathedral, and even to-day is often so termed 
by the inhabitants, though its last bishop was deposed nearly two 
centuries ago, and now its services are far from magnificent, con- 
ducted as they are by one poor priest with two attendant acolytes, 
one of whom is a lame lad and the other, when not robed in shabby 
red and dubious white lace, spends his time officiating as a sort of 
half sacristan, half gardener. With the dawn of modernism, with 
" United Italy" with shearing from the Holy Father all his temporal 
dignities, has come a forgetf illness on the part of the people of the 
dark, dusty old church high above them, and the contrast of an 
evening of the two quarters, the secular and the religious, is marked 
indeed. You have but to leave the tavola rolonda of your hotel — 

I 3° 


the Albergo della Kuota is the better of the two barely tolerable ones 
— and step out into the Piazza Re Umberto, to find yourself in the 
midst of a very fair, though, of course, highly provincial imitation 
of Milan, and even of Rome. Up and down parade a throng of 
citizens: portly shopkeepers with their beetle-browed wives, stray 
soldiers having somewhat the appearance of banditti turned Knights 
of Pythias, sad-looking, nondescript individuals seated about the cafe" 
tables ; the ilite of the town for the most part, with long names, but 
with purses barely long enough to purchase them the little glasses of 
vermouth or aperatif they so delight in; a band, perhaps, if it 
chance to be the evening of a fits/a, the strains of whose music are 
nearly obliterated by the screaming of innumerable children and bark- 
ing of still more numerous dogs. But walk to one corner, mount the 
little Contrada degli Avvellenatori all twists, turns, and steps. In a 
few moments these will bring you to a region very different from 
the one you lately left. The blue-black shadows are but semi- 
occasionally troubled by lamp brackets, and it is only rarely that 
you meet people, strange, skulking, and noiseless, who creep eerily 
from black blot to black blot, creatures of the night you think, but 
who turn out to be only a half dozen or so poor old women on their 
way to deposit at the church the few cenUsimi they have managed 
to save during the week. God, who alone knows how, will assuredly 
reward them. At last, after a particularly toilsome flight of tortuous, 
time-worn steps, you come out into the little " Giardino Pubblico," 
an absurd appellation, since it contains only a few scrawny and 
stunted trees and wind-swept plants. Across this '-garden" rises the 
dim facade of the church of St. Catherine, its rose window, in the 
form of an immense wheel in allusion to the legend of the saint's 
martyrdom, glimmering faintly from the few flambeaux within, and 
from its open doors coming the sound of a droning Gregorian, 
cut short every now and again by sharp gusts of the eternal winds 
from which the town derives its name. The unknown architect of the 
church evidently considered this blast a not-to-be-despised enemv 
when he constructed his thin but massive companile and abutments, 
both of which appear the more enormous when contrasted with the 
delicate detail of the church itself. 

On the faqade are many figures, in marble and pale gray terra- 
cotta, of different degrees of merit, from the veritable marvels of 
grace and action by Begarelli and Zarabaja, back to the crude and 
amusing but interesting early Lombard attempts to portray the "hu- 
man form divine." The townsfolk, aided and abetted it is to be 
feared by the priest, with little reverence for mere antiquity, have not 
scrupled to remove the earlier and poorer of these figures to the 
museo lapidario in the library below, filling their places with smart, 
new, attitudinizing ladies and gentlemen in glaring white marble from 
the sculptors' shops of Carrara, Modena, or Pistoja. Sic transit, etc., 
though doubtless the venerable gray worthies of old time, Gervasius 
and Protasius, Nazarius and Celsus, even good Ambrosius of Milan 
himself, now find themselves far more comfortably situated among 
their Etruscan and Roman countrymen in the museum than they ever 
were huddled back m their niches of Santa Caterina to escape the 
bleak mountain winds. 

Though there is considerable of note in and about the church, 
little of it is sketchable. The crypt or V, • iirolo, as it is called, 
seems sufficiently ancient to give color to the Charlemagne legend, 
and its fading and ruinous frescoes are well worth examining 
closely with the aid of the torch supplied you by the sacristan 
for a soldo. This crypt is but a few steps below the level of the 
nave, the chancel being raised as at Modena, from which it is prob- 
ably copied. 

In the treasury — the third floor back room of the sacristan's 
house - are a number of relics of Gothic and Lombard times, amanu- 
script sacratnentum given to the then bishop of Monteventoso, by 
( lueen Theodolinda. a beautifully wrought pale or altar front of gold, 
silver, uncut gems, and enamel, worthy to rank with the best extant 
work of the kind but by an utterly unknown artist, an ostensorium ac- 
credited to Cellini, — scarcely important enough to have come from 
his hand, it is more probably the work of some one of his imitators, — 

beside many less noteworthy objects, badly shattered diptychs, 
Renaissance candelabra, and the like. 

The old priest is deeply interested in the welfare of his flock, on 
the material rather than the spiritual side it seemed to me, and 
frankly and most volubly regrets that he is not permitted, for a con- 
sideration, to part with such articles appertaining to his church as 
possess an intrinsic and not miraculous value. The money obtain- 
able in this way might be put to good use in the most practical of 
fashions ; for instance, the sacristy and chapels needed retiling badly. 
Had not Matteo Ghitti, the roofer, so informed him? And beside, if 
the frescoes of the choir ( by Lionello Spada and dated I 597 ) could 
only be touched up in cheerful colors by his friend, Luigi Moncalvo, 
the artist in the Borgo della Montagna, how much more honor would 
redound to the church, and, a natural sequence in the priestly brain, 
how the wealthy fbrtsHeri would flock to poor old Monteventoso! 
Alas ! Even clericalism has been tinged by the prevailing spirit. 

No, after all, if one is to become acquainted with the place it is 
best not to waste time poring about the dingy old church, but rather 
by returning to the piazza, its musical and unmusical sounds, its 
clamoring people, its miserable bronze Umberto, and rickety iron 
cafe tables. Even here, if one happens to be architect, artist, sculp- 
tor, or poet, and few sojourners in Italy escape a touch of one or all 
of these things after a little ( I have known a Kansas City wheat- 
broker to turn connoisseur on a three weeks' stay and begin a mad 
career after extremely dubious old masters on his return to his native 
heath), he will grow weary of the throng and let his eye rove above 
the heads of the people to where the tops of the old buildings meet 
the sky. Among these are the library and museum of Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti, a large edifice in the Lombard style, in brick and terracotta, 
with the arched heads of its openings pointed for the most part, but 
with a curious admixture of Florentine influence, especially in the 
heavy, rather forbidding ground-story walls and in the cornice, which, 
although of terra-cotta, and consequently much lighter in effect, re- 
calls that of the Palazzo Riccardi, so familiar to us all and so 
frequently in evidence now-a-days, — a mere streak at the top of some 
sky-scraping office building in the United States of North America. 
The open upper story of this building, formerly frequented by the 
young lords with their bravi as affording excellent space for fencing 
and tennis, has been with a commendable spirit of economy (" United 
Italy" again) leased to a well-to-do peasant for the raising of silk- 
worms and storage of acorns and chestnuts. Near the library, but 
on another side of the piazza, towers the old palace of the Signori 
Scogli, now converted into offices for the administration of the local 
government, its machicolated battlements seeming to frown down 
their present degradation and the torricella of Count Ercole, to 
climb up. away, anywhere to escape its fate and to forget that in its 
lower stories, once the haunt of valiant men-at-arms and graceful 
pages, a few crabbed notaries are snoring away their office hours. 

Listen to the faithful chronicler's account of but one episode in 
the dark past of the palace which occurred about the end of the 
fourteenth century. I translate freely : " My gentle lord, the young, 
beautiful, and brave Count Ascanio, in the course of a secret mission 
to Perugia, had occasion to sup at the house of the Signori Baglioni. 
Before the company were seated it fell about that my lord's eyes met 
those of Narcisa, the fair daughter of his host. Now with the gentle 
family of the Scogli to think is to act, and finding himself on the in- 
stant madly enamoured, he begged her to pace with him the walks of 
her father's garden, meanwhile dispatching his page to see to it 
that faithful and valiant servitors should station themselves in all 
quietness near the enclosure wall. Now it chanced that the Baglioni 
were intending to mingle acqua tofana with the wine served their 
guest, and they liked not well to see the lady Narcisa pass into the 
darkness of the gardens with my young lord. In and about the 
moonlit glades and deep shadows they wandered, until they had neared 
the wall at the farther side. Here my lord, quickly covering the 
lady's mouth with his mantle that her cries might not be heard, 
mounted the walls with her and departed. Before the stupid Perugians 
could recover from their astonishment sufficiently to mount and after, 



'( \tifstfsuimiac-~_- 


i3 2 

















my lord was safe from their pursuit, and though they were insolent 
enough to come under the very walls of our beloved city of Monte- 
ventoso, yet my lord's retainers soon sent those that remained at the 
end of the day back to their foul home. Hut woe to the gentle and 
heroic house of Scogli ! The lady Narcisa had accompanied my 
lord most unwillingly; finding resistance in vain, she had seemed to 
acquiesce, but on my lord's arrival, she had requested a confessor and 
from him had obtained a weapon, none knows how, but in all likelihood 
by some sweet sorcery, for she had associated from her youth with 
witches. That night, as my lord held converse with her in her 
chamber, she stabbed him to the heart, and tearing his blood-stained 
doublet into little strips, made for herself a rope with which she let 
herself descend into the arms of the rascally priest, whom she had 
so enchanted that he, at her command, had stationed himself below 
her balcony. Yet not long did the evil deed go unrewarded, for 
within the hour my lord's death was discovered, the lady caught in 
the priest's arms, and the two righteously slain before the door of 
the cathedral." 1 The window and balcony in the torricella from 
which the lady descended after her deed of violence are still pointed 
out and, besides their association with the tale, are of some architect- 
ural interest. In the panels of the balcony are glazed terra-cotta 
relief medallions of three of " gentle" young Ascanio's forbears, while 
within the very room in which he breathed his last broken and blood- 
choked breath hangs a beautiful profile portrait by Piero della Fran- 
cesca, supposed to be that of Ascanio's unwilling but scarcely virtu- 
ous lady love. 

However Monteventoso may have escaped devastation at the 
hands of enemies, Visigothic or Umbrian, it certainly bore its little 
part honorably or dishonorably during the strifes of the two great 
factions, and the presence everywhere of the forked battlement 
testifies to its loyal and constant sympathy with the Ghibellines. The 
ferocious Ezzelino Romano, the " scourge of God," for some time held 
the town, and a small, narrow-fronted house in the Contrada lii^/i 
Awellenatori is still pointed out as his abode, though for no better 
reason, apparently, than that its walls are surmounted by the above 
form of battlement. Through thick and thin the little town, perched 
upon its craggy hillside, maintained unswervingly its devotion to the 
party whose principles had been espoused by the Scogli, and all 
efforts to take or destroy it were abortive. This does not necessarily 
indicate any unusual degree of prowess on the part of its indwellers, 
but testifies rather to the shrewd foresight of its shadowy original 
founders, Etruscans, Boians, or what and whoever they may have 
been, that 'stablished it upon a well-nigh impregnable spur of rock. 

Their loyalty at last brought the inhabitants substantial returns, 
for at the beginning of the fifteenth century the all-powerful Lord 
of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, was pleased to admire their town 
and to load it with favors. To him is due the triumphal arch or 
city gate, and likewise the library, the plans of which were probably 
drawn by Marco de Campione. though certain details seem later in 
date and resemble the work of Duccio, the Florentine. The three- 
bayed portal and vestibule, with its delicate early Renaissance detail 
in creamy marble surrounding reliefs in glazed and tinted terracotta, 
is certainly not the work of the Lombard, and while this portico can 
scarcely be said to adhere very rationally to the original structure, 
still the conjoining of the different styles appears less awkward than 
one might suppose. 

The large windows of the principal story are good examples of 
veritable Lombard Gothic, and apart from their plastic character 
form charming harmonies of color among themselves and afford a most 
pleasant contrast to the gray walls of the Signoria. It would have 
been an almost impossible undertaking to make measured drawings 
of even one of these, but there are some very similar ones in Gruner, 
lacking, however, that which all drawings of such work must needs 
lack, the infinite variety of detail and shimmering play of tint and 
surface of the work itself. Not only are the ornaments constantly 
varied, foliated or geometrical scarcely ever repeating themselves in 
exactly the same form, but even the plain surfaced bricks are subtly 

1 Storia della Famosa e I'aliante Casa di Scogli, by Fra Pictro Adulatoro. Milan, 1673. 

formed of various sizes to suit different localities in a way not to be 
dreamed of to-day. 

It is certain that here in Northern Italy, within a very restricted 
area, the architecture of baked clay found its fullest and most artistic 
expression, and that, too, during the medieval period. The purist 
may rail against the Italian Gothic, and with justice. The gloomy 
style of the " Tedeschi" was quite impossible of comprehension or 
appreciation by the Southern mind, yet before the wonderfully con- 
ceived and still more wonderfully executed detail of such structures 
as the Certosa di Pavia, Crema Cathedral, or even this poor forlorn 
church of St. Catherine at Monteventoso, he must confess that the 
lesser known and even quite forgotten sculptors of Lombardy, 
Umbria, and Tuscany succeeded in giving to their plastic fancies 
qualities of debonair grace and delicacy utterly unknown to the 
colder, more self-restrained craftsmen north of the Alps. And not 
only the intricate and profuse detail, but almost every portion of their 
buildings, was fashioned by these forgotten Italians from the same 
material; as a delightful author and traveler has said, " What the 
marble quarries of Pentelicus were to the Athenian builders, the clay 
beneath their feet was to these Lombard craftsmen. From it they 
fashioned structures as enduring, towers as majestic, and cathedral 
aisles as solemn as were ever wrought from chiseled stone." 2 This 
is the expression of no unprejudiced judge, to be sure, but of a 
sworn lover of the South and of all things classic, yet from one very 
logical point of view it is. without doubt, entirely true. 

Every possible variety of tone and tint seems to have been 
known from deep purple through a warm gamut of color to palest 
dove-gray, and these contrast harmoniously or fade suavely into the 
marvelous coloring of their background of landscape, — the distant 
violet hills, the almost spiritually delicate green of the budding 
lemon trees, the hoary olives, the Lincoln green of the tall, columnar 
cypresses, or the sad tints of russet and dun of the mountain side. 
( To be continued.) 


TI IE following illustration shows some bricks found a year or 
two ago during excavations amongst ruins at Bath, which have 
been unearthed by our contemporary, The Engineer. One or two of 
these bricks are still perfect, and there are a large number of pieces 
preserved locally, as also blocks of brickwork, showing how they 
were employed. 

The roofs of the dressing rooms were covered in some instances 
with fiat arches of brick, and as these would have fallen in by their 

\, —/o-m)- -* 


own weight if constructed in the ordinary manner with solid bricks, 
hollow voussoirs were molded with a semi-cylindrical projection on 
one side and a semi-cylindrical cavity to correspond on the other. 
The bricks were made slightly wedge shaped, so as to fit in the most 
accurate manner, and were finished off sharply and well, but were 
apparently of ordinary clay fire burnt. 

It is said that an enterprising London clay-worker will take out 
a patent for the bricks. — British Brickbuildtr. 

2 Sketches in Italy, J. Addington Symonds. Leipsic, 1S83. 



A Village Church, Cost Fifty Thousand 


A CHURCH is to be built for an Episcopalian society in a 
Northern town of twenty-five thousand inhabitants. The site 
proposed is a corner lot 160 ft. deep and 140 ft. front, with a west- 
ern exposure on the narrower front, which faces a small public park. 
The streets meet at right angles, are wide, and are shaded by large 
trees. The lot is level on the 140 ft. front, falling 5 ft. towards the 
rear. Directly opposite the church across the square will be built 
the public library. 

The church is to have a seating capacity of about four hundred 
and fifty, with space for organ and for choir of twenty-five in a 
chancel, and it should be preceded by an ample vestibule. Adjoin- 
ing the chancel will be a study and a room for the choir, each of 
about 200 sq. ft. 

There will be on one side of the church a parish house, to in- 
clude a Sunday-school room to seat one hundred and twenty-five, a 
kindergarten for twenty-five, three class rooms for twenty-five per- 
sons each, and a room for library of about 160 sq. ft. The Sunday 
school room is to be so disposed that it may be used for receptions 
and social gatherings, and in connection with it there is to be a small 
kitchen with pantry. There are also to be provided two sets of 

The style of the design is left optional, except that it is to be 
such as would be adapted for execution in brick with trimmings of 
molded brick and terra-cotta. 

A sketch plan giving the general dimensions and a perspective 
of the exterior are required, together with such other sketches and 
details of individual portions of the design as seem desirable to elu- 
cidate some point in the scheme not otherwise expressed. 



To a certain extent a church is a public building : all approaches, 
entrances, and exits should therefore be obvious and easy. 

The needs of the modern parish are no longer met by a build- 
ing to contain a weekly congregation. The parish is a complex or- 

j/**A <- Pv&Lt t. PA«.K — * 

ganization with many branches of work, requiring special buildings 
and rooms. These requirements, as outlined in the programme, em- 
bodying rooms for church and parish work, necessitate a group of 
buildings which must be independent and yet contiguous and com- 

The lot is a comparatively large one and the 
first consideration is the position of the church. 
The corner is the natural site, being most important 
and also most accessible. Other things being equal, 
it is desirable, on account of custom and association, 
to orientate the church. This is obviously the best 
arrangement here. 

Of the various accessory rooms, the vestries for 
clergy and choir are the ones which must be nearest 
the chancel, and the clergy vestry and sacristy are 
better if absolutely adjoining. 

Next to these in importance comes the Sunday 
school. As this is for a large number of children, 
it should be lofty and well lighted, while the class 
rooms for smaller numbers may well be lower stud. 
The Sunday school is therefore placed next the ves- 
tries, because of the importance of the position, which 
is easy of access to the church, and also conveniently 
approached from the outside. This enables one to 
accent its central position as the building from which 
grows the daily life of the parish. 

Over the class rooms is the library, with the 
staircase and lavatories dividing them from the Sun- 
day school, and thus putting the children within easy 
reach of lavatory and stairs to library. The kitchen 
is behind the Sunday school, convenient for service, 
out of the way, and approached for supplies, etc., 
from the rear. Finally the morning chapel for daily 
service is placed where it is as convenient as the 
chancel to the vestry, easy of access, capable of be- 
! ing heated independently of the church, and yet so 
arranged as to be available for extra seating in the 
„/ church when needrd. 

The whole group now forms three sides of a 


1 3 6 


quadrangle. The church is orientated, the Sunday school with light 
east and west is sunny both morning and afternoon, and the whole 
quadrangle is sunny and retired and yet obviously public and open 
to the street like a miniature park. This will help to harmonize it 
with the park opposite, and each will help the other. 

The suggestion for laying out the grounds will probably explain 
itself. The road, which comes in at one corner so as not to break 
the front, reaches church, chapel, Sunday school, and stairs to library. 
The axis of the lot is placed arbitrarily on the Sunday-school bay, 
and this is further emphasized by a lych-gate on the street, hedged 
path to the road, a straight path bordered with narrow (lower beds, 
across the green, arbors for climbing roses at each end of the path. 
and, in front of the Sunday-school bay, a drinking fountain. Large 
trees help to shade the green. 

As to the interior, the plan is sufficiently in detail to show the 
general scheme, of which the chief aim has been to give the best 
accommodation and the most interesting masses and groups without 
much dependence on elaboration of detail or richness of material. 
The church is uniform in section throughout, but the chancel is em- 
phasized by a chancel arch, and is narrowed by taking the communi- 
cants' passage up behind the stalls on either side. The roof is rather 
low pitched and is of simple open timber framing with queen-post ' 
trusses, taking the 30 ft. span. It is divided primarily into bays 
of 35 ft. each, and these in turn subdivided into three of 1 1 ft. 
S ins. Kach smaller bay accommodates four pews. The vestries are 
one story and are ceiled. The Sunday school is 1 7 ft. high to the 
trusses, which are similar to those in the church. The kitchen has 
a second story, which contains room for janitor. The kindergarten 
wing is two stories and contains on the second floor the library, 
which is 13 by 30 ft., ajid a square bay. It is ceiled with a barrel 
vault of plaster following the lines of the semicircular roof. 

As to the exterior, Gothic has been avoided because stone is 
not to be used, and in stone lies the keynote of Gothic work. A 
molded material is not suitable for a style where repetition is a dis- 
tinct blemish. On the other hand, however, Gothic forms and masses 
are so associated with the whole history of the Anglican church, of 
which the American church is a part, that one regrets taking an 
absolutely classic model. Under these circumstances, we turn to the 
period when in England detail was classic in form, and yet the plan- 
ning and masses were in the spirit of the earlier times. This gives 
us the long, narrow proportion of the nave, the Sunday-school room 
with its lofty and deep bay, and the general arrangement of the plan, 
hinting at symmetry, and yet not having the obvious balance of a 
good classic plan. 

Furthermore, this style, if one may call it such, demands no 
elaborate detail, no traceried windows, nor much carving, but looks 
best with simple large openings fitted with well divided sashes, and 
finds its chief effect in quiet wall surfaces devoid of ornament. One 
can use white terra-cotta for the coping, string courses, architraves, 
heads and sills of windows, and for the remainder a good red brick. 
Thus with simple material one depends for the effect outside on the 
proportion of the various parts, and the relation of the masses: and 
for the effect inside on large rooms, well lighted and treated in 
simple colors, — chiefly black or brown wood, and gray or green 

Following these lines, the whole establishment could be built 
and equipped, and the grounds laid out and planted, and even the 
exorbitant fees of the architect paid for the amount prescribed, fifty- 
thousand dollars ($50,000). 

Note. — Certain departures from the programme have been 
made. The choir room would be too small for practise if only 200 
sq. ft. It is planned 15 by 20 ft. The rector's room has been de- 
creased to 10 by 15 ft. The kindergarten is slightly increased beyond 
the requirement of twenty-five little children, and two class roc mis 
reduced slightly, while the third is combined with the library. This 
skives four rooms of different sizes: one 8 by 10 ft., one 10 by 13 ft., 
one 12 by 18 ft., one 13 by 32 ft. This latter, library and class room 
together, is nearly three times as large as the required library. 

Church Architecture in Materials of 


v - 


THE unexpected appearance of a shapely tower looming up 
against a distant horizon, about the beginning of the present 
year, led to the discovery of a church, rectory, and parish buildings 
then nearing completion. Rising abruptly out of an expanse of tin- 
roofed tenements, this tower furnished a standing invitation to those 
who had viewed it from a distance, if only as a new point of attrac- 
tion in an otherwise uninteresting sky line. A nearer approach, in 
this case, lent some enchantment to the view ; for though still sur- 
rounded by scaffolding, the skeleton of its high pitch roof became 
visible, flanked at the angles by four octagonal turrets and embel- 
lished on the sides by four unmistakably Gothic gablets; below this, 
a deep belt of surface tracery on an ashlar background ; the whole 
resting on a string course, accentuated at intervals by gargoyles of 
the requisite vigor and ferocity. Closer still, and this tower proved 
but the finger-post that had guided our footsteps to an exceedingly 
interesting pile of brick and terra-cotta: for, with the exception of 
the steps to the several entrances, no stone has been used, inside or 
out. These buildings have since been illustrated in line from the 


architects' drawings, with a degree of liberality to which they were 
entitled, in a journal 1 " devoted to the interests of architecture in 
materials of clay."' 

This church, which has been named Holy Trinity, with its ad- 
joining buildings, is in the parish of St. James, New York City, and 
owes its existence, we believe, largely to the munificence of the 
Khinelander family. It has a frontage of 275 ft. on the south side 
. >f last 88th Street, and extends back half-way through the block. 
Architecturally, this important group is the work of Messrs. Harney 
and Chapman, and cannot t.iil to have added much to their reputa- 
tion as church builders. They have used terra-cotta successfully, 
.md on several pre\ but in this instance they appear 

to have gone further than the majority of American architects have 

1 The Brickbuilder, May, 1899. 



FIG. 14. 

Barney & Chapman, Architects. 


yet dared to venture. In so doing, they have placed all who are inter- 
ested in the extended use of burned clay under lasting obligations. 

The manufacturers immediately concerned were therefore in 
duty bound to discharge their part of this indebtedness by the exercise 
of special care and skill in the production of work of the highest 
attainable excellence. Those not directly engaged were likewise 
interested in the degree of success that might attend the final out- 
come of such an important undertaking. On that must depend 
whether this latest effort would be repeated by the same architects; 
also, whether it shall be imitated or avoided by others. The influ- 
ences thus exerted form an ever-widening circle, creating or cancel- 
ing future contracts in which they too would in due time have an 
equal chance of profit and distinction. True, there are short-sighted 
people engaged in the business who cannot see things in this light, 
but they are not likely to contribute much to the advancement of 
terra-cotta making. Some of these delinquents are quite incorrigible, 
and should be placed under restraint by common agreement between 
our leading companies, who have an undoubted right to safeguard 
a great and growing industry from discredit. There are lines of 
business in which reputable manufacturers fix a minimum standard be- 
low which none are allowed to go, under penalty of public exposure. 
Something of this kind would be of advantage to those who have 
invested large sums in plant, appliances, and in the payment of com- 
petent help; all of which are conditions precedent to the production 
of creditable work. We could, for example, mention a church or 
two which the manufacturers at large might, as a first step in the 
direction indicated, agree to rebuild at their own expense, and find 
it a paying investment. 

Our first visit to the Rhinelander church came about under the 
circumstances already indicated ; for although we had an abstract 
knowledge of its existence, we were not certain of the exact location. 
We had listened to the comments and criticisms of others on it and 
the adjoining St. Christopher's House, some of which came from 
men who have earned their right to a respectful hearing in any as- 
semblage of clay-workers. This fact afforded additional zest to a 
discovery which would, in any event, have been highly interesting. 
Here was an opportunity — of which we have availed ourselves on 
several subsequent occasions — in which to form an independent 
opinion on the execution of a singularly bold conception in church 
architecture. Viewed as a whole, this well-ordered group of build- 
ings is quite impressive, and to any one having a share in the execu- 
tion of similar problems must possess a peculiar fascination. In 
matters of detail, too, the architects have acquitted themselves very 

creditably; for, while presenting features of some 
difficulty, they are, as a rule, well adapted to the 
capabilities, and nowhere exceed the limitations of 
the material. 

The terra-cotta, which may be described as a 
mottled brown, was furnished by two well known 
companies ; between whom, if we may judge from 
the merits of this particular work, there is no room 
for discrimination. After careful comparison, we 
would say that they stand on an equal footing, so far 
as subsequent remarks may apply to either or both of 
them. In point of absolute durability, the Rhine- 
lander family has been fortunate in the material by 
means of which a respected name will be known to 
remote posterity. The memorial windows are leaded 
into tracery that will outlast the stained glass on 
which that name and other more sacred subjects have 
been emblazoned. Every block of it has been fired 
to vitrifaction, and some to an extent that has pro- 
duced a metallic luster. 

The brick used on these buildings are Roman 
size, of the well-known speckled variety, with a back- 
ground that would be called " old gold " by those 
who offer them in exchange for an equivalent in 
that precious metal. They differ in color from, a 
yellowish buff to a light brown, some of the intermediate tints being 
found on the same brick. When set in the wall with a little artistic 
irregularity, so as to avoid studied patterns on the one hand, and ac- 
cidental patches on the other, these various tints become interspersed 
and blend into a harmony of color that is only surpassed by nature's 
inimitable autumn foliage. The late Charles Gamier, in his " A 
Travers les Arts," conjured up a day dream in which the tawny tones 
of gold would become universal in a city which he himself had done 
much to beautify ; where harmonies of color were to tremble under 
the enchanted gaze of his fellow Parisians. Had he lived to visit and 
— -of course — write his impressions of America, he would have found 
that the longings of a somewhat exuberant imagination were being 
realized very rapidly by plain, practical, prosiac brickmakers. What- 
ever may be said of an adverse character, in relation to the buildings 
in question, there can be nothing but praise for the brickmaker, 
whoever he may be, for on that point we have not the faintest idea. 

Color combinations between brick and terra-cotta is a subject on 
which no hard and fast rule can be laid down. Good and bad taste 
are, no doubt, at the top and bottom of the scale, but when it comes 
to a question as to which is the top and which the bottom, everybody 
is armed 
with a 
d e c 1 a ra- 
tion of in- 
among ar- 
c h i t e cts 
and men 
of trained 

tion the 

divergence of opinion is well-nigh ir- 
reconcilable. Where authorities differ 
so widely it would be a hopeless as 
well as a thankless task for others to 
intervene. On this branch of the sub- 
ject we shall therefore venture a few 
general suggestions, without invidious 
reference to any existing building. 

The extraordinary range and fine 



gradation of color that have been produced of late years, whether 
by logical analysis, by repeated experiment, or as the result of ac- 
cident, seems to have added an element of danger to an already 
doubtful situation. With less to choose from, a choice could be 

FIG. 15. 

T R1N1 T Y . 

made without hesitation and with less room for subsequent regret. 
Not many days ago a business communication passed through our 
hands in which the writer gave what must have appeared to him a 
lucid definition of his requirements; for he ordered certain work to 
be made "a terra-cotta color. - ' This, of course, was but an echo 
from a distant and almost forgotten past. But now, with an array of 
color ranging from dark chocolate to pure white, those who have a 
weakness for novelty are subjected to a degree of temptation that 
few of them can withstand. 

In their selection of color, architects sometimes mislead them- 
selves (and others) by placing two or more small tablets of terra- 
cotta side by side on an office table. In this they are liable to 
forget that any of these colors when seen in the mass at a distance, 
under other conditions of light, may produce an effect that will prove 
quite disappointing. They are likewise misled at times by specially 
prepared " samples,'' or such as have not been taken at random from 
a purely commercial output. These samples may not have been pre- 
sented with that intention, but a certain allowance should always be 
made in judging from work gotten up for exhibition. The usually 
small size of such pieces, for example, admits of a fineness of body 
and a degree of finish that would not be thought of in the general run 
of work sent to a building. A few regular building blocks of aver- 
age size, laid up along with the brick proposed to be used, is a good 
test when in doubt as to the effect of an untried combination. Per- 
haps the safest, certainly the least expensive, test will be found in a 
critical inspection of current work on which others may have experi- 
mented with more or less success. 

Whether terra-cotta should be made to match the brick used in 
connection with it, or to stand out in contrast with its setting, often 
becomes a subject of debate. The question is one that cannot be 
settled without reference to the style and character of the building. 
its situation, and surroundings. These are the governing factors on 
which an intelligent decision must be based. Personally, we favor a 
contrast, but only in so far as the conditions are suitable. Gray terra- 
cotta and redbrick is one of the few combinations that can be depended 
upon under almost any circumstances. White and red, however, 
is much too strong ; unless, perchance, there be a wide lawn in front, 
with plenty of green foliage for a background. That harsh, garish, 

or discordant contrasts should be eschewed none will deny, as an 
abstract proposition : yet in the application of a simple truism we do 
not find the same unanimity. A harmonious contrast is always a 
center of life and cheerfulness, while a monotone is often lacking in 
these desirable qualities. The latter, however, is 
frequently preferred in buildings where a feeling of 
unity and sobriety is sought to be preserved. In 
churches, if anywhere, it is right that these charac- 
teristics should prevail over those that are unstable 
or meretricious. 

At present the popular fancy runs to gray, though 
that shade was introduced originally less as a deliber- 
ate choice than with a desire to match limestone. It 
has stood the test of extensive use, for it is now ac- 
corded a preference on its merits, independent of 
other considerations, and in cases where stone does 
not influence its selection. The various shades of 
gray have given rise to a demand for brick to be 
used on buildings in which a sober monotone has 
been aimed at by the architect. We now see on 
every hand one or two stories in limestone, all above 
being brick and terra-cotta of so perfect a match that 
experts have failed to draw the line of demarkation. 
Indeed, so great has been the insistence of late on 
the matching of brick and terra-cotta, that it has 
been deemed advisable, in some instances, to order 
both from the same works. Pressed from the same 
clay mixture and burned in the same kiln, we get the 
nearest approach to perfection in uniformity of tone 
and texture. 
The very latest and most pleasing variety of these shades has 
a dark speck running through it, produced by an admixture of 


manganese, which, acting as flux, has 
been found to improve the quality as wel 
as the appearance of the goods. Viewed 
from an opposite sidewalk, the individual 
specks are hardly perceptible, but at 
shorter range they give a granular char- 
acter to the surface that is usually sought 
after by tooling in imitation of stone. A 
plain gray placed side by side with 
speckled work of approximately the same 
shade looks flat and lifeless by compari- 
son. The production of this crystalline 
texture may be considered among the 
most notable of recent steps in the direc- 
tion of advanced practise. Its applica- 
tion to other colors than gray, more es- 
pecially to such as may be used in con- 
nection with various shades of fire-flashed brick, shall receive such 
attention as the exigencies of space will permit. 


J 39 




THE strength and general practicability of the 7 ft. arches 
called for in one of the alternative plans referred to by the 
writer in last month's issue of The Brickbuilder were questioned. 
At the suggestion of the architects, Messrs. Winslow, Wetherell 
& Bigelow, the Boston Fire-proofing Company proposed to have two 
such arches tested, one segmental and the other flat. Accordingly 

7 '- O " 

about 2 ins. apart. The load was applied to the center of the arch 
through a wooden block 10 ins. high, io ins. wide, and 2 ft. 6 ins. 
long. This block was placed parallel with the beams along the 
center of the arch, as shown in Fig. 3. The total weight of the 
block and packing, together with the plunger in the testing appara- 
tus, was about 400 lbs. 

The first attempt to test the arch was stopped by a misarrange- 
ment of the registers after a small load had been put upon the arch. 
When the test was finally made a load of 45,000 lbs. was first applied 
to demonstrate that the apparatus was in good working order, after 
which the. load was immediately removed. A second load of 
59,000 lbs. was then applied, when it became apparent that the 2 by 
Yz in. tie bars were also insufficient, and a crack developed in the 


-Tie bora -4">li" 

vu;. 1. 

they erected inside of their factory at Boston a piece of floor 7 ft. 
wide and 16 ft. long carried on two heavy 15 in. beams spaced 7 ft. 
apart center to center. Eight ft. in length of this construction was 
made a 6 in. segmental arch, and the remaining 8 ft. was made a 
[5 in. flat arch. They were laid up with Rosendale cement mortar 
and covered to the level of the top of the beams with concrete com- 
posed of one part of Portland cement, two parts of sand and gravel, 
and three parts of cinders, with a thickness over the flat arch and 
over the crown of the segmental arch of about 1 in. The finished 
construction on top, therefore, looked like one arch. The beams 
were tied together with six tie rods \ in. in diameter, located 2 ins. 
above the bottom of the beams, one at the middle of each arch, and 
one near each end, as shown in Fig. 3. Both arches were made of 
semi-porous material. The tests were made under the general su- 
pervision of the writer 

by Mr. George Hill, j = 

of New York, with his j 
hydraulic testing ma- •= 

Fig. 1 shows the 
section of the seg- 
mental arch. £ 

Fig. 2 shows the 
section of the flat arch. 

Fig. 3 shows the 
arches in plan, with 
the position and area 
of the applied load, 
also the location of 
the tie rods, and tie 
bars, and the cracks 
in the arches. 

Fig. 4 shows the 
openings in the 15 in. L 
flat arch, and the thick- 
ness of the terracotta 

The voussoirs of the 6 in. segmental arch, which was tested 
first, measured 6 ins. in height, 6 ins. in width, and 12 ins. in length. 
They were placed in the atch so as to break joints transversely. 
The skewbacks were also (2 ins. long, and of the section shown in 
Fig. 1. The concrete over the arch was apparently hard and strong 
when the test was taken. Before it was made the weakness of the 
tie rods was noted and they were reinforced by two bars 2 by >£ 
in. in section, hooked onto the bottom flanges of the beams and only 


Segmental arch 

FIG. 3. 

FIG. 2. 

key joint of the arch on the under side. All the arch blocks, how- 
ever, appeared to be unaffected. The load was removed and two 
4 by \% in. bars were substituted for the 2 by l / z in. bars. These 
are shown in their position in Fig. 3. After they were put in posi- 
tion the pressure was renewed. At 60,000 lbs. the concrete filling 
separated from the top flanges of the I-beams and cracked along the 
connection with the 15 in. flat arch adjoining, as shown in Fig. 3. 
At 62,000 lbs. that portion of the skews protecting the bottom 
flanges of the beams began to break off, and cracks appeared in the 
top surface of the concrete describing a circle of about 30 ins. 
in diameter, tangent with each end of the loading block, with an 
additional crack running from the end of the loading block to the 
end of the arch. The maximum load was reached at 64,000 lbs. 
Continued pressure resulted in increasing deflection and rapidly de- 
creasing load, with all 
cracks opening materi- 
ally. When the load 
had decreased to 32,- 
000 lbs. it was re- 
moved entirely. After 
a careful examination 
of the arch, the load 
was reapplied and run 
up to 3 1 ,000 lbs., when 
with increased pres- 
sure the load began 
again to recede, t h e 
arch continually fail- 
ing. The soffit of the 
arch had cracks ex- 
tending to the corners 
of the arch from three 
points immediately 
under the correspond- 
ing corners of the 
loading beam. In 
some cases these 
cracks occurred diagonally through the blocks and in others they fol- 
lowed the joints in a zigzag line. At the end of the arch the blocks 
showed cracks paralleled with the soffit of the arch a little above 
the center. Mr. Hill states that all of the blocks were practically 
destroyed except in the angles at the ends of the loading block. 

The blocks forming the 15 in. flat arch were each about 1 ft. 
in length, as shown in Fig. 2. The skewbacks were similar in con- 
struction to the voussoirs, molded on end to fit the flange of the 

Wood Block 


15" flat arch 



beam. In order to reinforce the tie rods, one of the 4 by 1% in. 
bars was put in place at the end of the arch where it joined the seg- 
mental construction, while the other was put in the center. As the 
soffit of the arch projected in the usual way below the bottom of the 
beams, it was necessary to cut away the entire soffit wall of the arch 
where it interfered with the tie bar, and the arch was then tested as 
though this had really cut the arch in two. leaving a good part only 
4 ft. long between the tie bars. 

The test of the arch was then conducted in the same way as 
that on the segmental arch. The pressure was uniformly applied 
up to 73,000 lbs., at which load some high spot of the jointing gave 
way, causing an increase of deflection without an increase of load. 
As soon as the blocking came to a new bearing the load increased to 
76,000 lbs. and remained practically constant with constantly in- 
creasing deflection for about two minutes, when a sudden drop of 
5,000 lbs. occurred with a momentary recovery, followed by a rapid 
failure of the arch. No cracks appeared either in the soffit or on the 
top surface. The failure came by shearing along the true arch lines. 

Neither arch showed any signs of having been distorted by the 
center bearing load. The circular crack in the top of the segmental 

Masons' Department. 







1 t 



< > 






arch seems to be the result of direct crushing immediately under the 
loading block, while the radiating cracks in the soffit mark the bound- 
ary of the arch area actually resisting the load. On one side the 
material was strained, while on the other side it was not. The 64,000 
lbs. on the segmental arch divided by the 56 sq. ft. of its whole area 
equals 1,142 lbs. per foot. The 76,000 lbs. on the flat arch like- 
wise equals 2.714 lbs. per square foot over its whole area of 28 ft. 
It seems to the writer that it may properly be presumed that the un- 
loaded half of the flat arch was some source of strength, and that 
tli is rate is really somewhat higher than it properly should be to be 
a fair measure of the strength of the arch ; but a comparison between 
the two rates as well as the cracks in the segmental arch, especially 
those in the soffit, indicates quite clearly that if the loading block 
had been 7 or 8 ft. long instead of 2 ft. 6 ins., the former rate of 
1,422 lbs. for each of the 56 sq. ft. of the segmental arch would have 
been much greater. 

It must not be forgotten that if the material will stand the shear, 
the arch will stand a much heavier evenly distributed load than one 
applied only at the center, theoretically twice as much, and there- 
fore an equivalent evenly distributed load would be twice as great 
or nearly so. However, without taking that into account, the arch 
is clearly much stronger than the beams, and stronger than needed 
in actual practise. It would also seem that the test ought to put to 
rest any question as to the strength of 7 ft. arches. 



IN regard to (e), sub-contractors are too apt to claim " the right " 
to estimate in an architect's office, or from his plans and speci- 
fications : it is a matter of privilege, not of right, — except in cases 
of advertised work. And contractors for the whole claim the right 
to have any one bid on sub-work : some contractors asking or allow- 
ing subs to estimate, to whom they haven't the slightest intention of 
awarding the work, this being done so that such bids may be used 
to dicker with better men. While the general contractor is respon- 
sible for all work, nevertheless, in these times, when sub-work often 
approximates 50 per cent, of the whole, it is a matter of serious im- 
portance to the architect to be sure of the standing and ability of 
the subs who are to execute the work under his supervision, — often 
work of most important character and requiring considerable direc- 
tion and supervision at the best, and it is the architect's duty to ap- 
prove of only those subs who know what thoroughly good work is 
and who will execute it faithfully. If general contractors gave the 
personal supervision to sub-work which contract obligations require, 
and would see that it was properly executed, the objections to indis- 
criminate sub-bids would be materially modified. 

As to (/), when a general contractor has put in a bid, based upon 
the bids of reliable subs known to and approved by the architect, 
the contractor has no right to trade and dicker with other subs ; such 
practise is a breach of good faith all around. The architect awards 
the contract, and the client pays for work on the basis of bids and 
work by certain subs, and the client is entitled to the reputation, re- 
liability, and work of such subs, and the subs are entitled to the 
work and for the amount of their bids without scaling down. If all 
dickering in subs could be forthwith abolished, the status of the 
building business would be quite for the better. Contractors claim 
that they have to dicker, "because they all do it" — and because 
bids are cut so fine that they " can't make any money if they don't 
do so"; but this does not appear to be a sufficient excuse for a 
breach of good faith. And, on the other hand, if subs would make 
fair bids for work, stand by their bids and refuse to dicker, they 
could control the abuse in a few months. One trouble in this respect 
is that the subs do not appear to have anything like an even judg- 
ment as to what sub-work is worth ; there is more variation in amounts 
of sub-bids, considerably more, than in bids by contractors for the 
whole, and as a rule the lowest sub-bids are too dangerously near 
cost price to promise honest work without unpleasant distrust and 

In respect to (j% the agents of materials are responsible for a 
good deal of mischief. " Business is business," to be sure, in a right 
and legitimate way, but why an architect, after he has specified cer- 
tain kinds or makes, should be troubled with from one to fifty 
agents, all urging something "just as good or better," or why agents 
go to clients when they cannot prevail with the architect, passes 
comprehension. Agents ought to understand that when an architect 
specifies a certain thing, it is quite likely that he has done so 
with due thought and selection, and that he is quite likely to specify 
something else in another case; in any event, agents should not 
attempt to interfere with or to undermine the architect's choice and 
judgment, or to euchre their fellows out of business duly provided 

In regard to (A), what I have said in the first paper covers the 
point. I would only reiterate in substance, that the practise is un- 
businesslike, immoral, and open to no excuse or justification. 



In regard to (i), it sometimes appears as if contractors laid awake 
nights to exercise an abnormal ingenuity in concocting schemes for 
extras and omissions ; certain it is that many of the schemes or ex- 
cuses they offer evidence a fertile imagination and utter disregard 
of contract obligations. This, I have no doubt, is largely due to the 
practise of cutting down bids to the lowest notch to get the job, and 
the resultant effect on profit and loss. When contractors bid on 
work on the basis of honest work at a fair price, the vexatious ques- 
tions of extras and omissions and " let ups " will be reduced to 
lowest terms and legitimate matters. On the other hand, owners 
are not without fault in this: the tendency, of late years especially, 
to get something for nothing, to get as much as possible for the least 
sum, has so permeated all lines of business, that the idea is sometimes 
carried to extreme lengths, and the contractor, anxious to secure 
work, is enticed into taking contracts below cost, unmindful of obli- 
gations and responsibilities so assumed. Owners are pretty sure to 
lay blame upon contractors or architects, in case the work does not 
come up to their expectations. Owners, take them by and large, 
know comparatively little of the art of building ; they do know some- 
thing of results, relation of cost to per cent, of income, repairs, etc. 
If a foundation settles and the building cracks, or the roof leaks, or 
the elevator gets out of order, or an electric wire sets the building on 
fire, the owner does not know just what causes bring these defects 
about; he does know the defects exist and naturally charges them to 
poor judgment on the part of the architect or to skin work on the 
part of the builder, unmindful of the fact that he may have influenced 
the contractor to propose a low bid for the contract and has already 
received more than his money's worth. 

Modern advance in requirements of construction operating 
plants, finish, conveniences, etc., while of less cost, proportionately, 
than fifteen or twenty years ago, are much more complicated and 
extensive, cover a larger field, and require more scientific application 
and higher type of installation and adjustment, more exact efficiency 
and more rigid requirements in supervision of building operations, and 
proportionate cost; (i.e., contract compensation). The best results all 
through will always be obtained when the architect is master builder 
also of the building which he has designed ; this would undoubtedly, 
in some cases, involve something of additional cost, but I am quite 
of the opinion that the results would be most satisfactory and justify 
the expense, and in some cases the cost would be less than by con- 
tract; this has been my experience. 

There is a wide difference of opinion as to what constitutes a 
fair price for extras or omissions. Contractors, as a rule, claim all 
they think they can get for extras, and allow as little as possible for 
omissions, and owners vice versa. Some contractors ask what it 
"costs them " to do the extra work, plus 10 per cent, to 15 per cent., 
and offer to allow what they "figured on it," minus the profit, for 
omissions, and the architect is vexed with such questions to an ex- 
tent much beyond what he is paid on said accounts. 

The only basis which seems to be fair for extras and omissions 
is the actual reasonable net cost of labor and materials necessary for 
the work, in either case, plus a fair profit, as may be agreed upon, 
mutually or otherwise, or by general acceptance. The per cent, of 
profit to be allowed, over actual cost of extras and omissions, might 
well be established by the Master Builders' Association, also said 
association might issue monthly schedules of net market rates, em- 
bracing all materials used generally in contract or job work and 
going wages, the schedule varying according to the variations of 
market rates, and such schedules would be of much assistance and 
of value in the making up of bids. 

But aside from such established schedules, the cost of work will 
vary with individual contractors by reason of brains, experience, 
systems, credit, etc., or the lack of these. And inasmuch as the 
contractor will not admit that the owner will be right in asking the 
contractor to do work for nothing or at an excessively low price, 
because the cost to the contractor is little or nothing, from one cause 
or another, so the contractor cannot in fairness ask the owner to pay 
an excessive price, because it cost the contractor a needless and ex- 

cessive amount from lack of proper system, credit, etc., in the con- 
duct of his business. 

Another point which should be carefully observed by contrac- 
tors, both general and subs, is not to go ahead and do extra work 
without a definite understanding as to its nature and cost, and a 
written order for it at time of change as fixed by the architect, while 
such matters are fresh in mind, and the same applies to omissions. 
Contractors are apt to neglect this point, either from negligence or 
from an absurd feeling that the architect will feel offended if his 
oral directions are questioned, as implied by asking for a written 
order. Such feeling is a mistake, for I venture to say that architects 
prefer to have such matters fixed at the time, and thus avoid unneces- 
sary misunderstandings at final settlement. Architects should bear 
in mind that the fixing of such matters at the time is a duty not only 
to clients, but to contractors as well ; and contractors should bear 
in mind that "extras," without a written order for the same, are not 

In regard to (/), the most potent factor in matters of cost and 
loss of profit to contractors is a lack of system. I have seen some 
contractors fritter away the profits on a good job, and more, too, 
where they might have made good money, with due regard to busi- 
ness methods. 

Space does not admit of my going into details. One of the 
fundamental rules which contractors should keep in mind is, " Spare 
no expense to economize," and one of the first considerations of 
economy is to find out just how the architect wants the work done, 
and with what materials, and then go and do it, and do it right the 
first time, and save doing it over again. The best workmen at best 
pay are the cheapest, and a high-salaried foreman to lay out and 
direct the job (and do nothing else), and who can read the plans 
intelligently and keep ahead of them, is a mighty sight cheaper than 
a low-priced man, who will rattle around the job and " help lay 
bricks," and there should be one foreman on the work to oversee ail 
work, and not a half dozen with conflicting directions. Keep an 
accurate account of stock, day by day; don't waste it, and don't let it 
run short, and don't have stock delivered different from that speci- 
fied. I have had dealings with a contractor who knew every morn- 
ing just how much stock he had on each job, of each kind, and he 
conducted a large business. His men never waited for stock and 
consequently wasted no time puttering around, and the right kind of 
stock was always on hand. Keep the job cleaned up; piles of 
broken bricks, dirt, and general debris should not be allowed to 
accumulate for an hour for men to stumble over or pick their way 
around. Much time and money are wasted in the careless and negli- 
gent manner in this respect which characterizes the majority of work. 
Three or four laborers to keep the job clean and walks in shape will 
profitably save the time of thirty to forty workmen, and especially if 
the laborers are employed at night, so that the work is free and clear 
for a start in the morning. House all stock, especially in cold 
weather. It takes more time to properly granulate the frost lumps 
in sand than it does to protect it, and it costs less to neatly pile 
bricks than it does to chuck them in a heap and have 5 to 10 per 
cent, of broken stock, and the best stock in the majority of cases 
(even when not called for) is the cheapest in the end. Flights of 
rough stairs, from stage to stage, or from story to story, are cheaper 
than ladders. In Italy, where I have observed much work (and 
where time does not count as it does here), runs are provided, and 
the ease and quickness with which laborers swarm over a building 
is remarkable. Provide for sub-work at the start; don't wait till 
it is wanted ; have it on the job when needed, and have it done 
right at first. A sub-contractor should understand that his work is 
expected and required at the building, at a certain day and hour, and 
that he is to have it there, with sufficient men to place it in the short- 
est possible time consistent with the best work. No sub-work 
should be given out without a written contract, stating time of 
delivery and finish and forfeit for delay. The usual delay in sub- 
work is a matter of constant and increasing vexation to contractors 
and architects, and of material loss to contractors and owners. 


T 1 1 E R RICK B IT I L D E R 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The vacation season is here, and, consequently, 
a lull in transactions of importance in the building world. 
We have been told by one of New York's oldest and most prominent 
builders that this is the best year for the building 
trades since 1890. Almost all the builders have 
enough to do, and many have refused to bid on any 
new work. The only trouble now is the difficulty in 
finding enough skilled mechanics. We asked this 
same builder whether, in his candid opinion, it would 
be wiser and safer for investors to wait until fall be- 
fore beginning new building operations, in the hope 
that the high cost of materials would drop to the 
low prices charged during the fall of last year, and 
also whether contractors will not always figure lower 
in the fall, because there isless work to do, competition 
keener, and because enough work must be secured to 
keep the men busy during the winter. In reply he 
said that he thought there would be so little differ- 
ence in prices next fall that it would not be worth 
while to subject oneself to the annoyances, incon- 
veniences, and delays incumbent upon building in 
the winter, especially as the country is now in so 
peaceful a state and prosperity on every hand seems 
to be so well established that good prices will con- 

It is the intention of the government to make 
the new Custom House in Bowling Green one of the finest buildings 
in the country. Twenty competing architects are now busily engaged 
on their designs, which must be submitted to the Treasury Depart 
ment not later than September 18, It will be seven or eight stories 
high, and cost about $2,750,000. The lot is so situated that the 
principal architectural fronts will be in Bowling Green and State 
Street. The first floor will be level, or nearly level, with the side- 
walk, with elevators and staircases convenient of access. 

It seems a strange coincidence that the new Custom House 

should return to the old site of the Government House, once in 
Bowling Green, which was used as a Custom House in the early davs 
of New York. The Government House was built for Washington, 
and was occupied by Governors Clinton and Jav. 

After more than a year of quiet on lower Broadway, we are now 
to have two new " sky-scrapers." They are to be built on opposite 
corners of Broadway and Cedar Street, one being the building for 
the American Exchange National Bank, Clinton & Russell, architects; 
and the other for the Niagara Fire Insurance Companv, Bruce 
Price, architect. H. J. Hardenbergh has planned a thirteen-story 


Lamb & Kicl>, Architects. 

brick and stone fire-proof hotel, to be built on 45th Street, west of 
Fifth Avenue. \V. Wheeler Smith has prepared plans for an eight- 
story fire-proof store and loft building, to be erected on Yarick Street : 
cost, v' C. F. Miller has planned three seven-story brick, stone, 
and terracotta fiat buildings, to be built on Lenox Avenue, corner of 
uith Street; cost, $135,000. Henry R. Marshall has prepared 
plans for a five-story brick and stone dwelling, to be built on 50th 
Street, for E. Morgan Grinnell. Charles Rentz has planned two six- 
story brick flat buildings, to be erected on 10th Street; cost, 
>ioo,ooo. Carrere & Hastings are preparing plans for a two : 
story brick office building, to be erected on South William Street, 
for Chutt & Meyers. Robert Maynicke has prepared plans for 
a ten story brick loft and store building, to be erected on Fifth 
Avenue, between 18th and 19th Streets ; cost, 5550,000. Charles 
Brendon has planned eight four-story brick and stone dwellings, 
to be erected on 49th and 50th Streets, near I'ark Avenue; 
cost, 5172,000. Hill & Turner have prepared plans for a five- 
story brick flat building, to be erected on 26th Street ; cost, 
550.000. C. P. H. Gilbert has planned a five-story brick and 
stone dwelling, to be built on Riverside Drive : cost, 5So,ooo. 

Lamb & Rich, Architects. 

CHICAGO. — A municipal art league is soon to be an 
active factor in the making of a more beautiful, or per- 
haps it were better to say, for the present at least, a less ugly 
city. The preliminary meetings have been attended by some 
of the best known members of the artistic and architectural 
professions, and by several prominent and public-spirited citi- 
zens. The organization will soon be perfected, and will be 
ready for active work at the close of the vacation season, when 
a campaign against big billboards, signboard eyesores, the 
smoke nuisance, etc., will doubtless be begun and carried on 
until permanent results are accomplished. There is plenty of 
strong public sentiment in favor of radically improving the city 
from an esthetic point of view, but it needs the active, untiring 
leadership of a strong organization. The architects' and artists' 



clubs have lacked power in this direction, because made up entirely 
of professional men who have been chiefly active in other, though 
perhaps kindred, directions. It is believed that an organization 
which includes in its membership a large and representative body of 
men and women not actively engaged in artistic pursuits, yet jealous 
of Chicago's artistic reputation, will be strong and influential enough 
to awe and subdue in time the worst offenders against decency in 
form and color in our thoroughfares and public places. 

In line with the present universal desire for a better munici- 
pality, — for making the most, 
though tardily, of our opportuni- 
ties, — comes the announcement of 
the program for the Chicago Ar- 
chitectural Club's competition for 
the Illinois Chapter (A. I. A.) 
medals, to be opened in September 
and closed in time for the spring 
exhibition of 1900. 

The program as outlined re- 
quires the designing of a new city 
hall and educational building on 
the lake front, between the Art 
Institute and Randolph Street, to- 
gether with a monumental building 
or buildings at Randolph Street, 
on the private properties there ; 
also a subway east of the proposed 
" Municipal Court," to carry the 
boulevard system across the river, 
and an additional feeder to the 
Randolph Street viaduct, from 
Washington Street, which crosses 
the subway. The problem of im- 
proving and beautifying the lake 
front, the river, and the river sur- 
roundings, and of solving the 
bridge question satisfactorily, is a 
big one, and it is to be hoped that 
the competition will at least result 
in some original and happy sug- 
gestions. It may be doubted, 
however, if it would not be better 
to omit from the problem the plan- 
ning of the proposed new public 
buildings, and to require general 
suggestions only for their masses 
and treatment, showing their place 
in the grand scheme. 

Local architectural engineers 
seem to be inclined to abandon 
the steel and concrete " raft " sys- 
tem of foundations in favor of pil- 
ing driven down into hard pan. 
Two recent examples of this ten- 
dency toward securing solid, non- 
compressible bearings for large 
structures are the Methodist and 
Cable Buildings. Piles are now 

being driven for the latter. The foundations of the Methodist 
Huilding, now completed and ready for the superstructure, are 
unique, and promise to be very satisfactory. They consist of circular 
concrete pillars, 80 ft. deep and 4 ft. in diameter, with expanded bases 
8 ft. in diameter, in a very dense hard pan. The excavation was ac- 
complished with the help of sectional caissons, no supports being 
required in the hard pan. The surface friction of the pillars, in 
addition to their solid bearing, will, it is expected, preclude the 
slightest settlement. Mr. H. W. Wheelock is the architect. 

The use of concrete in this manner as a substitute for wooden 

piling would seem to be especially advantageous in all similar cases 
where adjoining tall buildings might be jarred or caused to settle 
by pile driving. Moreover, notwithstanding the well-established 
durability of wood under water, it does not seem as fit a support for a 
steel and masonry structure as does concrete. The building on piles 
stands on wooden stilts; the other literally is founded upon a rock. 



Brite & Bacon, Architects. 

(Drawings shown in plate form.) 

ITTSBURGH. — In view of the immense increase recently in 
the iron and steel business in Pittsburgh, we might expect 
more promising building opera- 
tions, for usually with the iron 
and steel business brisk business 
generally is good. Whatever the 
cause, it is a fact, however, that 
there is little new work coming on 
in architects' offices. The iron 
and steel business is almost un- 
precedented, and many concerns 
have called in their salesmen and 
are not seeking orders, and many 
are building large new plants. 
The Westinghouse Company, 
which is reported to have orders 
ahead to run their shops two years 
and a half, are making large addi- 
tions, and also building a large 
five-story office building at East 
Pittsburgh. The cost of their im- 
provements, without equipments, 
will amount to nearly a million 
dollars. The Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany and the Schoen Pressed Steel 
Company are also installing large 
plants, the Carnegie Company ex- 
pending a million on one new plant 

Bids have recently been re- 
ceived for adding four stories to 
the Westinghouse Building. This 
building was one of the earliest of 
the high buildings built here, and 
while fire-proof, so called at that 
time at least, is built with solid 
walls. The walls and foundations 
were found inadequate during the 
course of construction, and a most 
peculiar cut was made on the front 
to lighten the weight, but this did 
not prevent several large cracks 
from making their appearance. A 
curious fact also learned recently 
in connection with this building is 
that while steel or iron columns 
were used in the interior, the floor 
beams and girders are not con- 
nected to them, but simply rest on 
them. The effect of four stories 
more will be awaited with interest. 
The removal of the hump on Fifth Avenue seems to have been 
dropped for a time at least. One of the principal obstacles in the 
way of this improvement seems to be in the question what to do with 
St. Paul's Roman Catholic Cathedral, the congregation naturally 
objecting to having the first floor left 25 or 30 ft. from the street 
level, and until a purchaser can be found for this property, which, 
by the way, is one of the best sites to be had in Pittsburgh, there is 
little likelihood of this work being done. The destruction of this 
building would, on the other hand, be a matter of regret, as it will 
be remembered by all who have seen it as one of if not the most 

i 4 4 



Brite & Bacon, Architects. 

(Drawings shown in plate form.) 

interesting brick building in town. The fact, however, that 
it was given a coat of white paint some time ago would 
reconcile us in some degree to its destruction. 

Competitions recently held have been for the Allegheny 
Observatory, to be built in Riverview Park, for the West- 
ern University of Pennsylvania, awarded to T. E. Bilquist ; 
and for St. Paul's Orphan Asylum, awarded to Edward 

Alden & Harlow are preparing plans for a Carnegie 
Library, to be built at Duquesne; cost, $250,000. T. E. 
Bilquist has the new Edgewood Deaf and Dumb Orphan 
Asylum. Charles fSickel has prepared plans for a seven- 
story store building. F. C. Sauer is planning the Tenth 
Ward School for Allegheny City; cost, $80,000. 

worked, the greatest freedom in the choice 
and execution of ornamental details. With 
other materials the possibilities of ornamen- 
tation are much more limited on account of 
the difficulty and expense attending the 
making of moldings and the carving of en- 
riched work. With stone there is still a 
large field for the skill of the designer, 
particularly in the softer granites, limestone, 
and marble, and much commendable work 
is added yearly in these materials to Ameri- 
can architecture. 

With brick construction, which is every 
day growing in popularity and use, the case 
is entirely different, because, with the great 
hardness of a first-class brick, and the soft 
mortar joints between them when laid in 
the wall, it is practically impossible to do 
any carving on a brick front, or even to cut 
moldings out of bricks themselves before 
laying, except possibly in a very limited 
way, and in soft and most undesirable kinds 
of bricks. The use of ornamentation, 
therefore, in bricks, requires the pressing 


IN designing and building a house or other structure of 
wood the architect and contractor are allowed, on 
account of the ease with which the subject material can be 




of the soft clay in molds to the desired shape, and 
the drying and burning in a kiln. 

The proposition of making specially shapeu 
bricks to order involves many difficulties. In the first 
place, several weeks' time is required by the process, 
which is therefore not always practical. Then there 
are difficulties of burning to the right color, the cor- 
rect size, with straight lines and true surface free 
from cracks and other defects, all of which entail 
much trouble, and often require the remaking of 
some or all of the special bricks, with a corresponding 
expense and delay. All of these considerations have 
conspired to confine the use of brick ornamentation 
largely to a class of buildings where expense and 
trouble were of little consequence compared with the 
finished effect, and have prevented it from becoming 
popular for general use. As a result, one much 
oftener sees stone trimmings on a brick front than 
ornamentation made of the bricks themselves. 

Within a few days we have received the ad- 



vance sheets of a catalogue illustrating a line of molded bricks 
manufactured by Fiske & Co., managers, which we think deserves 
more than a passing notice. Not only does it illustrate the most 
complete line of molded bricks which we have yet seen catalogued, 
but it contains information particularly valuable to the designer, and 
in which molded brick catalogues have usually been lacking. 

Some three hundred different molds are illustrated, covering 
almost every detail of ornamental construction necessary in the 
ordinary building. Many sketches giving suggestions for different 
constructions, such as architraves, belt courses, panels, pilasters with 
caps and bases, and so on, are shown ; but what is of far greater impor- 
tance to the designer is the fact that full details and dimensions are 
given on every piece, so that nothing is lacking to enable the archi- 
tect to use the designs in the composition of whatever subject he may 
have in hand. 

Thus, on each piece will be found not only the length and thick- 
ness, but the bond and the projection ; and being drawn to scale, the 
size of the ornamental details can easily be obtained. The brick 
thus represented are those made by the mud process. Fiske & Co. 
manufacture by this method only. 

The catalogue illustrates a line of moldings which are either 
constantly on hand in certain well-chosen colors, or for which dies 
are ready for immediate production, and which, being standard 
patterns, are made up in large quantities, from which the right color, 

shade, and perfect pieces may 
be selected for a given job. 

While some objection 
may be raised by critics that 
these, being " stock patterns," 
do not allow the architect 
enough latitude in the design 
of his building, it should be 
remembered that it is in the 
treatment of standard materi- 
als that the architect generally 
develops his individuality, 
rather than in the selection of 
some unique material or pe- 
culiar shape, and while for 
special work special shapes 
may be desirable, the number 
of combinations, each with its 
own individuality, which can 
be made up with such a cat- 
alogue, is easily understood 
by the practised designer. 

We believe that the 
building profession is to be 
congratulated upon this 
new acquisition to the 
already large list of avail- 
able material for ornamen- 
tation of modern buildings. 
While it is not the in- 
tention of the company to 
send out these catalogues 
promiscuously, yet they 
will be glad to distribute 


Executed in terra-cotla by the Northwestern 

Terra-Cotta Company. 
Mason & Rice, J. M. Wood, A. W. Chitten- 
den, Associate Architects. 

them among those of the architects who are interested in a work 
of this kind. Parties desiring a copy should address Fiske & Co., 
164 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass. 


THE following-named architects would be pleased to receive 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples : Sylvain Schnaitta- 
cher, Adams Building, San Francisco, Cal. : John Stafford White, 
Chemical Building, St. Louis, Mo. 


Built of cream-white bricks, made by the Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 


The Atlas Clay Material Company, through their 
agents, H. E. Fuller & Co., are furnishing and setting the terra- 
cotta fire-proofing for a large apartment building on Leverett 
Street, Boston. 

Bryant & Kent, 30 Kilby Street, Boston, are now acting 
as the special Eastern agents for the " Brooklyn Bridge " brand 
cement, manufactured by the New York and Rosendale Cement 
Company. Over 60,000 bbls. of this cement have been sold in 
the New England market since the first of May through this 

The following buildings are a few of the many recently 
equipped with the " Bolles " sash: Public schools, No. 19 and 
No. 16, Buffalo, N. Y. ; six public schools, Greater New York; 
Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; addition to store of 
John Wanamaker, Philadelphia, Pa. ; and the Empire Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The C. P. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, Conn., report 
very heavy business secured through their agents, the Central 


T UK BR IC K B V I K 1) K R 


Finished in light buff brick, furnished by the Kittanning lirii k ( lompatrj . 
Halsey Woods, Alden & Harlow, Architects 

New England Brick Company, of New Britain, on orders for both 
hollow and common brick. They have recently enlarged their plant 
and can make and ship brick to order very promptly. 

Waldo BROTHERS, agents for the l'erth Amboy Terra-Cotta 
Company, have secured the contract to supply the terracotta for the 
Whiting Building, Kingston Street, Boston, Woodburv & I.eighton, 
contractors; also to furnish the terra-cotta for the Milton, Mass., 
Academy Building, Winslow, Wetherell & Bigelow, architects. 

J. C. Kwart & Co. are furnishing their Akron Rooting Tile for 
the carriage house of P. D. Armour, Jr., Chicago; for the Simmons 
Memorial Library, Kenosha, Wis., I). H. Burnham & Co., architects; 
for the superintendent's building, Oak Hill Cemetery, Evansville, 
Ind. ; for a railroad station at Victor, Col.; for the Frostel residence, 
Milwaukee, Wis.; for a fire-engine house, Allegheny, Fa.; and for a 
high school, McKeesport, Pa. 

Bukgy & McNeill, Pittsburgh, report a shortage in all classes of 
brick in their city. They have orders booked for over a million red 
and fancy shades of front brick, and find difficulty in supplying the de- 
mand. They state that the cause of this unprecedented condition in 
the Pittsburgh brick market is due to the great activity in the build- 
ing industry in that city, which exceeds in volume anything before 
known there. 

The Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company have, 
through their Eastern representative, E. E. Nickson, closed contracts 
to furnish the fire-proofing for the following buildings: Motel Termi- 

nal, Boston. Arthur H. Bowditch, architect : Boston 
Dispensary, Boston, Peters & Rice, architects ; Paw- 
tucket Library. I'awtucket. R. I., Cram. C.oodhue & 
Ferguson, architects ; residence for R. S. Bradley, 
Boston, Little & Browne, architects. 

Waldo Brothers are supplying Atlas Port- 
land and Hoffman Rosendale cements for the Metro- 
politan Waterworks at Spot I'ond, Stoneham, Mass. 
They are furnishing Meier's Fuzzolan Cement for the 
stonework in the building now being erected at the 
corner of Washington and Bedford Streets, Boston ; 
Peabody & Stearns, architects: Norcross Brothers, 
builders. Also, the Welsh quarry tiles for floor work 
at Randall Hall. Cambridge, and Pumping Station, 
Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 

II. E. Fuller & Co.. Boston, report that they 
are furnishing the architectural terracotta for the 
Steiger Block, Holyoke, Mass., G. P. B. Alderman, 
architect; for the Masonic Block. Brockton, Mass., 
J. W. Beale. architect ; for the Old Ladies' Home, 
Fitchburg, Mass.. H. M. Francis, architect; and for 
a public school building, Somerville, Mass , Prescott 
& Sidebottom, architects. 

Tin. D inkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, through 
their Eastern rep- 
resentative. E. E. 
Nickson, have 
closed contracts 
to furnish the ar- 
chitectural terra- 
cotta for the fol- 
lowing buildings : 
Additions to the 
Slater Villa, New- 
port. R. I., Pea- 
body & Stearns, 
architects; resi- 
dence for H. H. 
Cook, Lenox. 
Mass., Peabody 
& Stearns, archi- 
tects; St. John's 
Church, East 
Boston. Mass., 
Martin & Hall, 
architects, Provi- 



Work executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 


Janes & Leo, Architects. 


Executed by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
A. W. Scoville, Architect. 

The Cela- 
don Terra- 
Cotta Com- 
1 any. Ltd., have 
secured contracts 
to furnish the i r 

roofing tile for the following buildings : Billiard hall, for A. C. Bur- 
range, Cohasset, Mass. : Frederick N. Reed, architect. Office build- 
ing, Raritan Copper Works, Perth Amboy. N. J. Library for R. B. 
Raney, Raleigh, N. C. ; C. M. Cassell. architect. Resi- 
dence for James J. Mossers, Allentown, Pa.; Jacoby & 
Weishampel, architects. Phelps Medical and Surgical 
Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. ; Robert B. Newbury, ar- 
chitect. Residence. Mrs. Amelia Schlosser. Chicago, 111. : 
W. A. Otis, architect. Township High School Building. 
Evanston, 111. Residence for E. M. Young, Allentown, Pa.; 
Jacoby & Weishampel, architects. Summer house for O. 
R. Willard, South Hanson. Mass.; Frederick X. Reed, 
architect. Two houses for Adrian Iselin, New Rochelle, 



N. Y. ; Percy Griffin, architect. Hoagland Memorial Church at 
Dover, N. J. ; Paul G. Botticher, architect. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company report that they 
have just received an order to furnish their white enameled brick for 
the front of the Tribune Building, Minneapolis, Minn., Frederick 
Kees, architect. The building will be handsomely trimmed with 
enameled terracotta. They also state that they will serve their 
cream enameled brick for the large court of the new Marshall Field 
office building, corner Court and Park Streets, Chicago, D. H. 



terra-cotta capital. 

Made^bylthe^NewJJersey I'erra-Cotta.Company. 

Burnham & Co., architects ; their dull finished white enameled brick 
for a building front at Booneville, Mo., Samuel W. Ravenal, archi- 
tect ; and a similar material for the front of E. T. Mithoff's new 
building at Columbus, Ohio, C. A. Stribling & Co., architects. 
These brick are identical with those used last year by Mr. Mithoff 
in the Betz Building at Columbus. 

The Ludowici Roofing Tile Company have recently issued 
a small pamphlet setting forth the distinct advantages afforded by 
the use of their terracotta tile on iron framing for the roofing of in- 
dustrial buildings, where it is essential that the roofs shall be at once 
efficient, durable, and fire-proof. Particular claim is made for the 
slightly absorbent qualities of their tile, as providing against the an- 
noying drip incident under certain conditions of condensation to all 
other non-absorbent roof surfaces. A brief description is given of 
the sizes, weight, etc., of the tile, its interlocking principle, and the 
proper manner of laying same on roof. To render this last being 
more readily understood, the book contains two full-page illustrations ; 
one being a scale drawing of a roof showing the iron construction 
and the manner of applying tiles without sheathing or book tiles; 
the other being an interior view of the Chicago Electric Light Sta- 
tion, showing the under side 01 these tiles when roof has been laid. 

The Ohio Ceramic Engineering Company, of Cleveland, 
has enlarged its plant twice during .the last eighteen months, and we 
are now in receipt of information that it has, within the last month, 
purchased an entire building adjoining, for the purpose of adding to 
the capacity of its present establishment. This addition more than 
doubles the floor space, and, as the company has already made ar- 
rangements to fill the additional space with machinery suitable for 
its requirements, it is needless to say that it will be in a much better 
position to handle its business than heretofore. From Mr. Robin- 
son, the president of the company, we learn that business has been 
steadily increasing, and that the enlarged plant has become an ab- 
solute necessity to enable the company to properly care for its cus- 

tomers' wants. The company is now in a position to furnish any- 
thing in the line of machinery for plastic work. 

The following letter was received by the Tiffany Enameled 
Brick Company and speaks for itself regarding the desirability of 
using enameled brick for exteriors in cities afflicted with the smoke 
nuisance : — 

Chicago, June 10, 1899. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, 
Marquette Building, City. 

Gentlemen: — We wish to tell you how greatly we are pleased with 
the enameled brick front on our branch store at South Chicago. 
We erected this building in 1S93 and used enameled brick as an ex- 
periment, and we have been delighted with the result. They make 
a very handsome front in the first place, and the ease and cheapness 
with which the brick can be cleaned makes them especially desirable 
for smoky cities like Chicago. You are at liberty to refer any one 
to us regarding your brick, should you care to do so. 
Yours very truly, 

Geo. B. Carpenter & Co. 

The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company is now supply- 
ing the architectural terra-cotta for the following buildings: 
Terminal Hotel, Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Mass ; Arthur H. 
Bowditch, architect. New York Yacht Club Building, New 
York City ; Warren & Wetmore, architects. Building for the 
Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, 921 Ludlow Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Louis Hickman, architect. Dwelling houses, 
105th Street and West End Avenue, New York City; Janes & 
Leo, architects. Apartment house, 183d Street and Broadway, 
New York City; Stein, Cohen & Roth, architects. Pittsburgh 
& Lake Erie Railway Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; A. W. Falk, 
architect; J. A. Atwood, chief engineer. Delta Phi Building, 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Yarnell & Goforth, architects. Fire house, 
Yonkers, N. Y. ; E. A. Quick & Son, architects. Apartment 
house, 40th Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. ; W. 

H. Whitall, architect. Apartment house, 12th and Spruce Streets, 

Philadelphia, Pa. ; Yarnell & Goforth, architects. 

The process of grinding by the use of millstones is one of the 
oldest mechanical arts known to man. It is, however, only within a 
comparatively recent period that any decided advance has been made 
in the use of improved millstones. This improvement consists in 
substituting for the softer stones in ordinary use millstones made 
from large blocks of Rock Emery. 

Rock Emery, being as hard as a diamond, is peculiarly adapted 
to this purpose. An emery stone is always sharp ; it never glazes, 
and cuts with unexampled rapidity. 

Rock Emery Millstones are formed from blocks of emery rock 
in its natural state set in a filling of metal that is nearly as strong as 
iron. In use the metal filling about the blocks wears gradually away, 
slightly exposing the hard edges of the emery blocks, which cut like 
files. The bosom of 
this millstone and the 
furrows are made of a 
softer stone, that is 
easily cut away to suit 
any class of grind- 

To the small mill- 
er, as well as to the 
grinder of the hardest 
rocks, Rock E m e r y 
Millstones have an es- 
pecial interest ; as the 
emery face seldom re- 
quires dressing, thus 
dispensing with the 
necessity of a skilled 
miller. PATENT horizontal MILL. 



Emery .Millstones are not expensive. They grind everything, 
and are by tar the fastest grinders known. They are so hard and 
strong that they easily reduce rocks that would soon destroy all other 
mills. Mere than twelve hundred factories, some of them among the 
largest in the world, are u-ing Rock Emery Millstones, reducing 
cements, paints, chemicals, carbon, soapstone, slate, marble, plaster, 
phosphates, barytes, infusorial earth, sand, and a long list of hard 
and soft materials. 

These millstones are manufactured by the Sturtevant Mill Com- 
pany, of Boston, Mass., and a r e made to fit any mill frame. 

The cut shows a mill made especially for Rock Emery Stones. 
This mill has a 5 in. steel shaft, to which the runner is firmly fixed. 
The lower stone is raised and lowered by means of the hand wheel 
and lever, and the stones are kept in perfect tram without any atten- 
tion of the miller. 

The stones automatically separate to throw out bits of iron 
getting between them. They are fitted with special anti-friction ball- 
bearing steps which run in oil. The bed stone is bolted in, and can- 
not be got in wrong. 

The stones can be entirely worn out without resetting, an 
advantage possessed by no other mill. It is difficult to obtain 
skilled millers, and this mill frame with emery stones not only 
grinds everything faster and finer than others, but requires less at- 
tention, and is capable of reducing substances that would soon de- 
stroy any other grinder. It is constructed to do a large amount of 
work, and to give the least possible trouble. Its few parts are inter- 
changeable, and can be replaced at small expense. 

We think any miller will recognize by the cut that this mill is 
the simplest, strongest, and by far the best he has yet seen. 

The face of the Rock Emery Stone, it will be remembered, 
seldom requires dressing and is always sharp. 




Cabot's Mortar Colors 


Not the lowest priced, but so strong and & 

4% durable and so easy to work that they are ^ 

^ actually the cheapest. Used fifteen years by «. 

*w people who insist upon quality. 5* 

Cabot's Brick Preservative 

■«M 1 he only waterproofing for brickwork that K*- 

«M . £&• 

^ is permanent. Three times as waterproof as j^. 

*q linseed oil, and goes farther. Prevents f? 

•& water-soaked walls, efflorescence and disinte- J^- 



<5 gration by frost. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Sole Manufacturer, 

70 Kilby Street, Boston. 

Send for circulars 
and prices. 

1 Fireplace 

The best kind to buy are those we 
make of 


Ours are the most durable and most 
pleasing in every way. Our customers 
say so. 

Send for Sketch Book of 59 charm- 
ing designs of mantels costing from 
$J2 upwards. 

Phila. & Boston 
Face Brick Co., 

715 Liberty Square, 
Boston, Mass. 


VOL. 8. NO. 7. PLATE 49. 




VOL. 8. NO. 7. PLATE 50. 

T 5 








Detail, Front Elevation. 


BRITE & BACON, Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 7. PLATE 51. 


JOHN A. FOX, Architect. 


VOL. 8. NO. 7. 









PLATES 52 and 53. 


VOL. 8. NO. 7. 

PLATE 54. 

2 g 

X < 
° z 
m % 

2 D 
•r ^ 

< * 

< D 

W Q 
w o 

3 O 

o o 



VOL. 8. NO. 7. PLATE 55. 

Second Floor. 

Third Floor. 

Fourth Floor. 


Ground Floor. 



VOL. 8. NO. 7. PLATE 56 

BRITE & BACON, Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 8. PLATE 57. 

Detail of Front. 


ALDEN & HARLOW, Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 8. 

l^fc^^M^^^^ ^^, 


VOL. 8. NO. 8. PLATE 59. 








VOL. 8. NO. 8. 

PLATE 60. 




PEABODY & STEARNS. Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 8. 

PLATE 61. 


* ' 

■ HH 


A. W. LONGFELLOW, Jr., Architect. 


VOL. 8. NO. 8. PLATE 62. 




PLATES 58 and 63. 









UJ <j 

• (V f- ^ 

g r* ° S 

o H S o. 

H ^ x 2 
< o 1 

> H « - 

UJ Z „; S 

>""(/) « 

£ UJ U i 

LO O U ^ 

Q Q 2 | 
05 Z O ■- 

H ^ d « 
Q £ 2 










VOL. 8. NO. 8. PLATE 64. 

/v/y/ f^/oor /^/cjsr 


i \ i 

I — 

;a <r: 

Z-so'J- S3 S-/&* .. 

j»^^J piJW#J?'4 j M 


i I 




■ " j .,,, 


-6 ^"- S/&/6* 

,Q OVco 



.0/ef"oi cot 




/■■' rr, 



\T* 4 


r2-to~T- ZS.s/os 




2-SoT-SS S/&> - 

.. .t?* fr'+Ki-tmr** — I/OSS' 0/ 

I [|XllJL' a, M>/| 

7. II 1 J 

I" n / 

— fe sj — 3 

T ^ . !'._ 


WILSON EYRE, Jr.. Architect. 


m VOL. 8 

NO. 8 








h r. b. 




Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2-50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-S° P er vear 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


TH E saying that time is money is an adage which is so thoroughly 
recognized in our modern business undertakings, that any- 
thing looking towards a reduction of time required is considered 
a regardable factor in every undertaking. This is particularly true 
in building. When we read accounts in the past of how a building 
of no more magnitude than the Farnese Palace consumed year after 
year, and, in fact, almost generations of continued effort, and com- 
pare the results with what is often accomplished nowadays in a few 
months, we have an uneasy feeling that either our ancestors took 
too much time, or that we do not give the work the attention 
which it requires. As a matter of fact, however, speed in building 
operations is by no means inconsistent with the best of workman- 
ship. That is to say, that through the proper organization on the 
part of the builder with the facilities which are within reach of 
every one who has the money to buy them, it is possible to erect a 
building of almost any size in the course of a very few months. 
There have been phenomenal stories from time to time of the rapid 
rate at which some of our Western structures have sprung up, almost 
like mushrooms. We recall one case particularly of a building cov- 
ering 8,000 ft. which was practically completed, as far as related to 
all the structural work, inside of ninety days. The function of the 
burnt clay industries in reducing the necessary time for building is 
unquestionable. We hear complaints of delays due to terra-cotta, 

and how hard it is to get orders filled promptly and on time, and yet 
any one who has had practical experience with stone knows that 
while the crude material, if it can be obtained, can be set quickly and 
effectively, only half the battle is then won, as it has to be cut in 
place and by hand, which would not be the case with the more read- 
ily obtained, more elastic, and more readily duplicated terracotta. 
Of course, given ample time in advance to get out every stone and 
to have everything numbered and ready to put right in place, one 
material can serve as well as another ; but such conditions rarely 
obtain in a modern commercial building. Seldom are the plans 
definitely decided upon until after the contract is signed, and it has 
been our experience that under such conditions, if there is a great 
deal of repetition in a building, terra-cotta is the only material which 
lends itself to rapidity of execution. 

As regards the main bearing walls in an ordinary building, brick 
is the only material which can be depended upon in a rush job. We 
have to wait for cast iron, we always wait for structural steel, and 
usually have to wait for cut stone, but brick can be had by the mil- 
lion on short notice in all our large cities, and it is the use of brick 
and terra-cotta, and the fact that it can be put in so readily, set in 
place without delay, and handled without special machinery that en- 
ables our modern commercial buildings to so outdistance the records 
of the past. 

One of our largest builders some time since amused himself by 
making calculations as to how much time he would require with 
modern machinery and appliances to construct the great Pyramid. 
Our recollection is that the time was something like sixteen months. 
This is on the assumption that it was to be constructed of block 
granite, but if it were to be constructed of brick throughout, he es- 
timated that he could contract to complete the whole inside of nine 
months. This would be at the rate of something less than one 
hundred million brick a month. These are mere speculations, to be 
sure, but the fact is almost beyond question, that to secure the econ- 
omy of time which is so necessary to modern investment, the burnt 
clay products of necessity are called upon to furnish the bulk of 


IF an essential element in the temperament of an architect is a 
liberal endowment of vivid imagination, we are quite sure that 
no one will question Mr. Goodhue's ability. " Monteventoso " is an 
artist's dream which must appeal to every one who loves pure imagi- 
native design, and if discoveries of the sort which Mr. Goodhue has 
made at the base of the Apennines could be extended so as to reflect 
a little of the same spirit in more of our modern structures, and cast 
a measure of romance over the humdrum steel beams and brick 
arches of our daily bread and butter, our metaphors might become 
decidedly mixed, but our art would be far happier. It is a curious 
phase of the present state of architecture in this country that we see 
the extremes of the most matter-of-fact, dry-as-dust, uninteresting, con- 
structive work right alongside of the most poetic, imaginative work 
which in some respects the world has ever seen. And in our streets, 
though commerce reigns supreme and questions of return on the in- 
vestment are assumed to be more important than matters of pure 
art, we yet see every day a constantly increasing proportion of the 



purely picturesque and an ever growing tendency on the part of our 
architects to look at their art through the rose-colored glasses which 
make life so enjoyable. We have now the opportunities in the way 
of materials, our clients have the money, and if we do not succeed 
in producing within the next generation works of a high esthetic char- 
acter it will not be because they are unexpected or unwelcome. We 
need the imaginative treatment which Mr. Goodhue has manifested 
so happily. We need more of it in our brick and terra-cotta, in our 
decorations, and in our point of view as well, and perhaps " Monte- 
ventoso " may be an incentive to some of the younger men, who 
seem to be in the rut of mere routine, to lift their eyes beyond the 
everyday, uninteresting work which forms the bulk of the grind in 
every large office, and see the delights and the esthetic possibilities 
of architecture, the most fascinating of the arts. 

WE were witness to a rather interesting test of the strength of 
a brick arch a few days since. A building was in process 
of demolition which had stood in place ever since 1858. The floors 
were constructed of brick arches turned between cast-iron beams: 
steel was not known in those days. The arches were 4 ins. thick at 
the crown, spanning about 4 ft. 6 ins., and the haunches were filled 
up level with concrete. The mortar in which the bricks were set 
appeared to have very little cement in it. In taking down the upper 
portion of the building a heavy stone weighing in the vicinity of a 
ton dropped from a height of about 30 ft. It struck fairly in the center 
of one of the arches and broke a hole clean through the brickwork 
slightly larger than the stone, without, however, dislodging any of the 
remainder of the brickwork. The masonry about the gap was per- 
fectly secure, and did not seem to be damaged at all by the shock. 
This is the result which it is usually claimed will follow an accident, 
though we have no doubt considerable of the strength of this partic- 
ular arch was due to the mortar, which had been slowly hardening 
during the last forty years. 


PREPARATIONS are being made for the annual convention of 
the American Institute of Architects, which is to be held in 
Pittsburgh the 13th, 14th, and 15th of November next, and with the 
prosperity which seems to be dawning upon architects it ought to 
be possible for many of the profession to attend this convention and 
derive great mutual benefit therefrom. The value of conventions of 
this sort does not lie in the mere addresses or exhibitions which are 
offered in connection therewith, though these are often of very de- 
cided merit, but it is rather in the comparing of notes, the readjust- 
ment of mutual standards, the bringing together of different minds 
from different parts of the country, and the awakening process which 
usually results therefrom that the benefit to the profession is most 
surely to accrue. It is not good for man to be alone in this world, and 
the best of architects would do but poor work if they had no one 
but themselves to depend upon. We are fortunately obliged to help 
each other. And while past conventions of the American Institute 
have left much to be desired, and have not always attained the high 
standard of possibilities which their being might imply, we cannot 
afford to forego what they have offered, and each year it seems as if 
there was more reason for their existence, and more positive meas- 
urable good resulting to those who attend them in the spirit of mu- 
tual help and study. 


A Chaldean Brick. — What is asserted to be the oldest 
brick in existence was recently exhibited at a meeting of the Acade"- 
mie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, of Paris, by M. Henzey. the 
keeper of the Louvre. It is supposed to date from the fortieth cen- 
tury before Christ, and was discovered at Tello, the ancient Sirpulo, 
in Chaldea, by the French archaeologist, De Sarzee. The brick in 

question was curved in shape, and, while it had been baked, it did 
not show any signs of having been pressed or molded. The mark 
of the maker was merely the impress of his thumb, and the speci- 
men is, without doubt, one of the earliest marks of civilization ever 
discovered. As brickmaking is the earliest of the known arts, this 
particular piece must mark very nearly the dawn of civilization. — 
New York Evening Post. 

Architects for Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo. — 
The allotment of the architects for the various buildings of the Pan- 
American Exposition to be held at Buffalo in 1901 is as follows: 
Liberal Arts and Agriculture, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, of Boston ; 
Machinery and Transportation and Electricity, Green & Wicks, of 
Buffalo; Electric Tower, Howard, Cauldwell & Morgan, of New 
York; Stadium and Administration, Restaurant, Station, and Cloister, 
Babb, Cook & Willard, of New York ; Horticulture, Forestry, and 
Graphic Arts, Peabody & Stearns, of Boston ; Temple of Music, 
Esenwein & Johnson, of Buffalo ; Mines, Ethnology, and three en- 
trances, George Cary, of Buffalo ; landscape plan, bridge, south 
approach, and all formal landscape work, except the entrance court, 
Carrere & Hastings, of New York. The block plan has been 
adopted for the general arrangement of the buildings, the site of 
which will comprise a tract of about 212 acres adjoining Delaware 

Higher Cost of Building. — The Record and Guide, of 
New York, in discussing the higher cost of building as applied to 
that city, presents some interesting figures as follows : — 

One of our busy architects has given us a case that is typical of 
general conditions. About 'three months ago he drew plans for an 
eight-story mercantile building, the cost of which, estimated upon 
then current prices, was to be $45,000. His client proceeded to 
finance the operation upon that basis, and three months later, that is, 
the other day, concluded to begin work. Actual estimates were 
then received, and it was found, to the confusion of every one, that 
prices had advanced about one third. We are speaking now of the 
lowest estimate obtainable. Instead of costing 545,000, nearly 
$60,000 were needed to complete the building. As illuminating the 
subject, we append a few of the actual estimates received, comparing 
them with those of three months ago: — 

Prices Three Present 

Months Ago. Prices. 

Ironwork $14,500 $23,895 

Plumbing 1,280 1 ,975 

Steam heat 2,400 3,600 

Roofing, etc 1,800 2,800 

Mason work, labor 10 per cent, advance. 
Hardware, 100 per cent, advance. 

Exactly in what way the matter will work itself out, it is not easy 
to see. Some people are inclined to think that a great many of 
these "suspended" operations will only be temporarily delayed. 
Investors and operators will wait for a time, but when they find that 
the advance in prices is not a merely temporary circumstance they 
will adjust themselves to the situation and get to business. Work 
must go on. Prices may even go higher, and each advance will 
frighten a certain number of people into doing something from fear 
of finding themselves in a worse position by and by. . We are in- 
clined to think that the builder will be wisest who accepts the present 
market as being as favorable as anything he will get for at least a 
year or two to come. Prices that have ruled, of recent years, have 
been ruinously low, and the man who did not take advantage of 
them has missed his chance for the present. The prosperity of the 
country must have its due effect on the building material market and 
on real estate, and the facts which we have just been discussing 
indicate that the " marking-up " process has commenced in earnest. 
Real-estate investors and owners should note these facts. 


l 5 l 

hj BERTRAM-©"^ 

IN every Italian town, even the humblest, there are many things 
of interest, perhaps grandeur, and in and about the narrow 
streets of Monteventoso one can scarcely stroll more than a few 
moments without coming across something, a window or balcony, a 
fountain or loggia, which is bound to arrest the attention of the pas- 

In the Borgo della Montagna, — a strange, dirty quarter on the 
western slope of the hill which is surmounted by the church of Saint 
Catherine, and almost as steep and unexpectedly laid out as the 
Contrada degli Avvellenatori, — is the most architectural, if one may 
use the word, portion of the town, the haunt of the most delightfully 
unexpected glories. At one time apparently the Borgo della Montagna 
was the aristocratic ward — the Faubourg Saint Germain, so to speak. 
Starting at the corner of the piazza it stretches down the hill to the 
Arch of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and southward to the old monastery 
garden, now used by the peasants as a sort of Pingreeized space set 
apart for their special delectation in the way of raising vegetables, 
and by the goats as a public training ground. 

Just before you reach the top of the hill — that is, about three 
hundred steps from it — is an old stone palace of Ghibelline tenden- 
cies, outwardly as stern and uncompromising as the vengeance its 
owners were wont to wreak. But despite its severity it is now the home 
of the most genial of men, for at one corner of the piaii' terrene, if you 
can call that a ground floor which has two stories below it on one 
side, is the curiosity shop of Signor Simone Truffaro. Old Simone 
is a rogue, of course; with a very few things worth buying — I am 
poor, and they are, I dare say, still there — bristle a whole cartload 
of falsities of various kinds, false old masters, false diptychs and 
triptychs, false furniture, and I fear false smiles on the part of old 
Truffaro and his pretty but equally false daughter Lizetta. There is 
one thing in the house that is indubitably real, and wonderfully 
preserved, only you must needs show yourself very much of a con- 
noisseur indeed, and be a very great friend of the proprietor, before 
he will show it to you — you can't buy it and honestly I don't believe 
he would sell it if he could. It is the courtyard. 

As I have said, the exterior of the building is of stony .severity, 
but one of its former proprietors, during the gracious days of the early 

Renaissance, being weary of wars, saw fit to recase, if indeed he did 
not entirely reconstruct, the courtyard with pale gray terracotta and 
colored and glazed reliefs of the same material. Being very circum- 
scribed in extent, these ornaments have the advantage of meeting the 
eye at so little distance that every refinement of modeling, every 
subtlety of surface is manifested at once. It is strange how — when 
first the world of Italian art had turned its thoughts to " the Glory that 
was Greece and the Grandeur that was Rome" — how completely 
and absolutely it seemed to give up everything else. One would think 
there was enough in the history of more recent times, cruel and 
shameful as it was, to inspire them in their work, but no; everything 
must needs be classic, and author, artist, and architect harked back 
to Myth for subjects, from the greatest of masters, such as Alberti, in 
the church of San Francisco at Rimini, down to the poorest pedant 
of them all, whose vain and forgotten verses are one masquerade of 
gods and muses, nymphs and shepherds. 

The " high " Renaissance is unforgivable to the romanticist, and 
the cathedral of Chartres remains a book written in the most un- 
decipherable of dead languages to the academy graduate, but in the 
early Renaissance for a trifle of time there seems to exist a common 
meeting ground about whose sun-flecked and shadow-dappled paths 
the modern and architectural Guelf and Ghibelline can wander at 
will, conversing amicably enough and without need of recourse to blows. 
And this little nameless courtyard is one of the most satisfactory 
of examples. It is true that it is the work of none of the great 
masters of the period, but more probably of some local modeler in 
clay, who, chancing to visit Florence, laid to heart the new spirit 
at work there. Poring perhaps over the manuscripts sent by the 
Eastern emperor to Cosmo de Medici, and stored in the new library, 
on his return by some fortunate chance he was commissioned to 
execute this courtyard, while his heart still throbbed and mind still tin- 
gled with what he had heard, read, and seen. Here are the nymphs and 
muses (with a singular reticence or forgetfulness the designer seems 
to have omitted all the high gods), the shepherds, the eggs-and- 
darts, the dentils, and beads of classicism, but somehow — perhaps 
because of the strangeness of the material to the subject — everything 
seems invested with an unworn and unwonted charm, quite as 



different from real, classic works like the Elgin marbles as the Mars 
and Venus of Botticelli in the National Gallery at London must needs 
be different from the ocher-colored pictures by Apelles of which we 
are now unhappily bereft. The main body of the work, caps, bases, 
architraves, etc., is of pale gray terra-cotta, but such a gray and such 
a surface ! The color is, first of all, gray to the sight, but as you look 
there begin to be visible hints and ghosts of other tones, strange 
pinks and blues, yellows and greens, softly veiled by the gla/e ; and 
the term ''glaze " is hardly correct, since there is no vulgar shine like 
that we all know and abhor in the catafalque called a piano, and even 
sometimes found in materials more nearly resembling those of which 
I am speaking now. No, this glaze is deep and semi-transparent, 
filling the interstices and hollows of the modeling with soft liquid 
spaces, its surface not shiny but dulled, whether by age or handcraft 
I do not know, into something 

that shimmers and casts back 

lights when desired, or by its 
smooth and reflectionless surface 
serves to bring out without change 
of word or thought the meaning 
of the modeler. In the spandrels 
of the arches are medallions of 
various classic characters, all 
scarcely sculpture, but rather what 
an architect would substitute for 
sculpture if it lay within his 
wishes, and — a harder task — 
power to do so. Not coarse, 
muscular, masculine figures or 
rotund and rather shameless 
dames, such as one sees in mod- 
ern French and German works — 
alas! even in American, too — 
things for which the greatest ar- 
chitect in the world could but 
provide a more or less unsuitable 
encadrement, if that is the word. 
All the figures here are so grace- 
fully and tenderly molded as to 
completely escape the strutting 
appearance that sculpture usually 
wears, but, not satisfied with the 
miracle of modeling he had per- 
formed, the artist cast about his 
creations the added glamourie of 
color, now faint and delicate as 
the gray by which they are Mr- 
rounded, and then in some shad- 
owy spot gleaming with splendid 
smalt and tawny cadmium. In 
the center stands a small foun- 
tain with its figure, and here, if 
anywhere, a fault makes itself felt. 

The pedestal and basin are gray-green, but the figure, a youth with- 
out distinguishing attributes, which cannot be later in date since it 
is evidently by the same hand, is absolutely colorless though glazed 
to the last point. Whether the artist felt as does the organist, who. 
having climbed through chords and melodic mazes to the grandest 
summit of sublimity, and fearing a Phaeton-fall into the sea of 
banality and the commonplace, ends abruptly on some unfinished 
phrase, or whether he had worked out a fantastic theory that the 
focus of so much magnificence could be naught else than white. 
dazzling and pure, one may not tell ; in certain lights with the sun 
at the meridian there creep in certain justifications for such a theory, 
but for the greater portion of the time you can but wonder that after 
so much the master should have so stayed his hand just short of per- 
fection. It is needless to apologize for the lack of any sketch of 
this place: if a thing is good enough to be worth sketching it is too 


good for me to sketch, and the little photograph I shamefacedly 
snapped of it turned out worthless with the verticals all distorted 
and the exposure hopelessly undertimed. If by any chance you 
should find yourself in Monteventoso and find the shop (I don't 
think you will, but it is just possible), mention my name to Signor 
Truffaro and perhaps he'll show you this courtyard, but when you 
come out through the shop be particularly careful about your 
purchases, for, if he notices that you are distrait you are lost. Above 
all, don't let him sell you anything of any value: it's sure to be quite 

There is one grave objection to northern eyes in almost all 
southern countries: anything which we can dignify by the name of 
greensward is practically unknown. In the Jardin Borda, at 
Cueruavaca, in Mexico, that realized and lovely dream of a fabu- 
lously wealthy mining king and 
poetical adventurer, one may wan- 
der for hours without feeling the 
lack of grass, so bright is the 
scene, so soothing the mossy 
cisterns and fountains of cement, 
so all-abounding the tropical fruits 
and flowers ; but when you come 
to recall the place you remember, 
with a slight shock, that grass — 
genuine green grass, such as the 
meanest dooryard at home pos- 
sesses — was nowhere in evi- 
dence. To be sure, at certain 
seasons, I am given to under- 
stand, grass does grow in Mexico, 
but at such times I have not 
been there, and so remain skepti- 

In Italy, where everything 
you see seems merely an efflores- 
cence on the mold of vanished, 
even prehistoric civilizations, they 
have had more time in which to 
remedy the shortcomings of nat- 
ure : so in the more favored lo- 
calities the "personally conducted " 
are enabled to gaze — not tread — 
on sward as green and as perfect 
as at home. But always the peev- 
ish one complains, especially if he 
or she be of the variety that is 
constantly comparing things 
abroad with things at home to the 
utter discomfiture of the first 
named : " So that is Monte Rosa. 
Ah. yes — fine — but you should 
see Mount Wachusett, when the 
sun is just setting." Or in 
Chamounix: " Pretty? yes, indeed, but I bet you was never in the 
grand canon of the Dead Coat River, in Kootchie-Kootchic Count). 
Colorado it's strange how so many Americans come over here 
before seeing the wonders of their own heaven-blessed free country 
— unpatriotic I call 'em," etc., etc. Probably you are as impatient of 
this sort of talk as I, but let us confess that on the subject of grass 
such travelers are more than usually well entrenched, while remem- 
bering with shame and sorrow that the Briton visiting our hospitable 
shores can scoff at our grassy pretensions quite as lustily as we — 
some of us -do at Mexico's or Italy's. 

Throughout Emilia, the moment one leaves the carefully culti- 
vated gardens of the wealthy city or citizen, as the case may be, and 
steps outside the walls or enclosure gates, he soon finds himself 
walking on barren rock or sun-browned and hardened tufa. 

Everywhere, that is, but at Monteventoso, and even there in but 



mm & 

•^»ftt«vevTo S fc It'll. 

: — _Z^lprfi^ — ^' 




one circumscribed way. for down the mountain side to join the little 
river at the foot comes, 1 can't say roars or tumbles or even falls 
indeed, trickles is almost too grand a word - a small thread of water 
through a rod-wide meadow of the greenest green grass. When 1 
first found it 1 supp.-sed it had its source in some wild glade among 
the oaks and chestnuts high above and. with a faint sensation of home- 
sickness for my native forests, I set out to climb up to this suppositi- 
tious point for a view of the town 
spread bird's-eye fashion below. As 
1 walked, first past low, straggling 
campanni half hidden in veritable 
bowers of ilex and olive, and before 
which old hags and cow-eyed girls 
were washing clothes in the pools, then 
past rather more pretentious dwellings 
varied by occasional spaces of pasture, 
I grew conscious that my barbarian 
longings for savage fastnesses were 
little likely of realization, since things 
seemed to be growing more and more 
well-cared-for at every step. At last, 
following a sudden turn made by the 
brook, 1 was brought to a standstill by 
a steep and flowered incline down 
which the water dribbled silently: 
looking up for some way to follow the 
brook, I noticed the tiled roofs and 
stained white walls of a tiny villa, set 
deep among the trees above, and lan- 
guidly curious, I made my way by a 
rather circuitous flight of stone steps 
to the summit of the cliff. Here were 
the two things for which I had come 
in search ; for, before me, among the 
flowers and statues of a bewilderingly 
lovely garden close was a small, rec- 
tangular pool in the midst of which 
rose a fountain — now silent — and 
figure of some nymph -the Arethusa 
of the stream, perhaps ; while, turning, 
I looked out over the tree-tops, among 
which glistened the thin thread of 
water winding its way downward past 
the little cottages with their washer- 
women, through the rocks and sand, 
past the foul and grimy walls of the 
town, to the river and plain. Below 
me in the now windless and shimmer- 
ing atmosphere huddled the purple 
and red roofs of the town, the tort- 
uous streets marked by narrow courses 
of liquid purple through the gold and 
salmon roofs and walls, from whose 
midst rose the campanile, clear cut 
against the hazy distance, the detona- 
tion of its bells on the instant break 
ing the air into an invisible tempest, 
while its forked battlements seemed 
less to bring to mind "old, unhappy, 
far-off things, and battles long ago" 
than to accent the peace and stillness 

of to-day, the time and the place. Architect and American as I 
was, and in Italy for the stern practical purpose of study among 
the monuments of the past, with little enough leisure even for that 
laudable purpose, 1 felt a bit softened (the walk had been hard 
and 1 was, perhaps, tired ), so seeing no one of whom to ask per- 
mission, and a marble bench standing cool and inviting on the 
terrace beside me, I made bold to sit down to waste some of my 

precious time : 1 say precious, since I had agreed for a consideration 
to supply a certain periodical with an alarmingly large quantity of 
pictures and text before a date at that time altogether too near, — a 
clear, logical, and argumentative article on the influence of a certain 
newly invented portable centering for the construction of vaults, with 
isometric drawings to point a moral rather than adorn a tale. 

And instead of being at work in my stuffy little cubicle of a bed 
room in the Albergo della Ruota be- 
low, here I was, high on the moun- 
tain side, sitting in somebody's pri- 
v a t e garden close on somebody's 
private marble bench, gazing out 
across the plain toward distant Mo- 
dena 1 which 1 fancied 1 could even 
see), dreaming a world of things 
none of which had any possible rela- 
tion to architecture. In the boskage 
behind me the birds were singing 
about the same things that filled my 
mind; small beasts moved cau- 
tiously ; little green lizards sat on the 
parapet and looked softly at me; a 
nightingale, feeling the approach of 
dusk, tried over a few notes by way 
of practise for the coming serenade 
to the rose; the breeze, the eternal 
wind of Monteventoso, also began to 
stir in his sleep and to stretch him- 
self among the leaves, and — the 
present came back with a shock as 
I heard a gentle voice murmur 
something which, strangely enough, 
I could not seem to hear, and I 
sat up stiffly feeling most guilty — 
the trespasser before the owner, the 
peccant before his judge. A second 
look convinced me that the judge 
was likely to be merciful, for I was 
gazing into the face of no bag-wigged 
official, or even absurdly pompous 
gendarme, but that of a lady, not 
a beautiful Satanita or Biancabella 
ol old time, but the intensely mod- 
ern sorrow-scarred visage of a raon- 
daine, who knew her Rome and 
Paris, even London and New York 
— yes, even Boston. She was speak- 
ing French, but at my first sally of 
stammering apology changed to Eng- 
lish as grammatical as my own, yes, 
more so, but with a charming quaint- 
ness of diction and precision of pro- 
nunciation that would have told me, 
even if her air had not, that here 
was no countrywoman. The Con- 
tessa l'aolina Scogli d'lllusioni 1'er- 
duti, for such was her name and 
title, invited me cordially not to em- 
barrass myself, but to remain for the 
actual sunset, a most beautiful occur- 
rence in this part of the Apennines. 
The dear English speech sounded so sweet to my ears, and the 
Countess' voice was so gentle, that I needed no further excuse 
for staying. She was a descendant of the same Scogh whose 
history bad been so frankly and faithfully set down in the vol- 
ume from which I have already quoted, a work you may be sure 
was careful not to mention, but in her seemed to be exemplified all 
the bright lace of that history of which Fra Pietro gives only the 



x 55 























one circumscribed way, for down the mountain side to join the little 
river at the foot comes, 1 can't say roars or tumbles or even falls — 
indeed, trickles is almost too grand a word — a small thread of water 
through a rod-wide meadow of the greenest green grass. When I 
first found it I supposed it had its source in some wild glade among 
the oaks and chestnuts high above and. with a faint sensation of home- 
sickness for my native forests, I set out to climb up to this suppositi- 
tious point for a view of the town 
spread bird's-eye fashion below. As 
I walked, first past low, straggling 
campanni half hidden in veritable 
bowers of ilex and olive, and before 
which old hags and cow-eyed girls 
were washing clothes in the pools, then 
past rather more pretentious dwellings 
varied by occasional spaces of pasture, 
I grew conscious that my barbarian 
longings for savage fastnesses were 
little likely of realization, since things 
seemed to be growing more and more 
well-cared-for at every step. At last, 
following a sudden turn made by the 
brook, I was brought to a standstill by 
a steep and flowered incline down 
which the water dribbled silently: 
looking up for some way to follow the 
brook, I noticed the tiled roofs and 
stained white walls of a tiny villa, set 
deep among the trees above, and lan- 
guidly curious, 1 made my way by a 
rather circuitous flight of stone steps 
to the summit of the cliff. Here were 
the two things for which I had come 
in search : for, before me, among the 
Rowers and statues of a bewilderingly 
lovely garden close was a small, rec- 
tangular pool in the midst of which 
rose a fountain now silent — and 
figure of some nymph the Arethusa 
of the stream, perhaps: while, turning, 
I looked out over the tree-tops, among 
which glistened the thin thread of 
water winding its way downward past 
the little cottages with their washer- 
women, through the rocks and sand, 
past the foul and grimy walls of the 
town, to the river and plain. Below 
me in the now windless and shimmer- 
ing atmosphere huddled the purple 
and red roofs of the town, the tort- 
uous streets marked by narrow courses 
of liquid purple through the gold and 
salmon roofs and walls, from whose 
midst rose the campanile, clear cut 
against the hazy distance, the detona- 
tion of its bells on the instant break- 
ing the air into an invisible tempest, 
while its forked battlements seemed 
less to bring to mind " old, unhappy, 
far-off things, and battles long ago" 
than to accent the peace and stillness 

of to-day, the time and the place. Architect and American as I 
was, and in Italy for the stern practical purpose of study among 
the monuments of the past, with little enough leisure even for that 
laudable purpose, I felt a bit softened ( the walk had been hard 
and I was, perhaps, tired ), so seeing no one of whom to ask per- 
mission, and a marble bench standing cool and inviting on the 
terrace beside me, I made bold to sit down to waste some of my 


precious time : 1 say precious, since I had agreed for a consideration 
to supply a certain periodical with an alarmingly large quantity of 
pictures and text before a date at that time altogether too near, — a 
clear, logical, and argumentative article on the influence of a certain 
newly invented portable centering for the construction of vaults, with 
isometric drawings to point a moral rather than adorn a tale. 

And instead of being at work in my stuffy little cubicle of a bed 
room in the Albergo della Ruota be- 
low, here I was, high on the moun- 
tain side, sitting in somebody's pri- 
v a t e garden close on somebody's 
private marble bench, gazing out 
across the plain toward distant Mo- 
dena i which 1 fancied I could even 
see), dreaming a world of things 
none of which had any possible rela- 
tion to architecture. In the boskage 
behind me the birds were singing 
about the same things that filled my 
mind: small beasts moved cau- 
tiously; little green lizards sat on the 
parapet and looked softly at me ; a 
nightingale, feeling the approach of 
dusk, tried over a few notes by way 
of practise for the coming serenade 
to the rose: the bree/e. the eternal 
wind of Monteventoso, also began to 
stir in his sleep and to stretch him- 
self among the leaves, and — the 
present came back with a shock as 
I heard a gentle voice m u r m u r 
something which, strangely enough, 
I could not seem to hear, and I 
sat up stiffly — feeling most guilty — 
the trespasser before the owner, the 
peccant before his judge. A second 
look convinced me that the judge 
was likely to be merciful, for I was 
gazing into the face of no bag-wigged 
official, or even absurdly pompous 
gendarme, but that of a lady, not 
a beautiful Satanita or Biancabella 
of old time, but the intensely mod- 
ern sorrow-scarred visage of a mon- 
daine, who knew her Rome and 
Paris, even London and New York 
-yes, even Boston. She was speak- 
ing French, but at my first sally of 
stammering apology changed to Eng- 
lish as grammatical as my own, yes, 
more so. but with a charming quaint- 
ness of diction and precision of pro- 
nunciation that would have told me, 
even if her air had not, that here 
was no countrywoman. The Con- 
tessa I'aolina Scogli d'lllusioni l'er- 
duti, for such was her name and 
title, invited me cordially not to em- 
barrass myself, but to remain for the 
actual sunset, a most beautiful occur- 
rence in this part of the Apennines. 
The dear English speech sounded so sweet to my ears, anil the 
Countess' voice was so gentle, that I needed no further excuse 
for staying. She was a descendant of the same Scogli whose 
history had been so frankly and faithfully set down in the vol- 
ume from which I have already quoted, a work you may be sure I 
was careful not to mention, but in her seemed to be exemplified all 
the bright face of that history of which Ira I'ietro gives only the 


: 55 























Jill a &**it: ? ^8 - <4. 



dark reverse. She knew, it seemed, certain acquaintances, almost 
friends, of mine in London and New York, and had stopped with 
people in the suburbs of Boston with whose names I could scarcely 
help but be familiar, since they occur almost diurnally in the column 
next the real-estate newsof the Transcript and frequently even in that 
column itself. Thanks to her. I was enabled to see certain things 
closed to the ordinary tourist in Monteventoso, such as the cabinet 
of her ancestor, Count Tebaldo, in the Signoria below, with its 
carved and inlaid paneling and heavily molded and gilt ceiling, the 
flat spaces of which contained rather ill done pictures of the school 
of Francia, or the Gothic retable with its altar-piece by Signorelli, 
representing the Apocalypse, which, long sought by amateurs and 
dealers, had never, she thought, been exposed to their covetous gaze, 
since it was in the private chapel of one of her cousins, a lady so 
poor that we in America could scarcely conceive such utter impecuni- 
osity. but so proud of her family's past —here the Countess smiled 
an apologetic smile that were Mr. Vanderbilt or Mr. Morgan to 
come to Monteventoso, with the intent of purchasing the picture, they 
would be forced to return empty-handed, for the picture was literally 

But it was not alone in things pertaining to her people that the 
Countess proved herself a cognoscente. She knew many of the dates 
of the different portions of the church, was not so inclined to smile 
at the thought of Charlemagne's having laid the corner-stone as I 
was. told me of a number of things I had quite overlooked in the 
church itself, and finally the legend of the vanishing frescoes in the 
crypt. In the dim past there was a monastery on the same spot, 
which antedated the present church by several centuries, and among 
the brotherhood was one, a scoffing, light-minded young man, who 
had come there not so much through penitence as through the desire 
of his father, a noble Venetian, to remove him as far from the 
scene and consequences of a particularly serious peccadillo as pos- 

This young brother had some artistic pretensions, and so, alas! the abbot, who had engaged some miserable, strolling painters 
to decorate the crypt. One day the superior and this youth were 
watching these men as they worked, when the latter broke out in a 
most unholy fit of laughter, and stated, it is to be feared with a cer- 
tain oath more familiar among the gay young garzoni of Venice 
than among simple and Go 1 fearing monks, that he could paint better 
in the dark than these men in broad daylight. The abbot's reproof 
at the time was gentle, but that night his patron, Saint Gemigniano, 
appeared to him in a vision and commanded that such godlessness 
should go no longer unpunished, and that the user of oaths be im- 
prisoned in the crypt until he should have completed the work, which 
was therefore done, though of course not in complete darkness, since 
the pictures are sufficiently good to indicate that at least torches 
were supplied the youth along with the food, which was lowered to 
him daily. 

When the Countess had finished the tale, which 1 have consider- 
ably condensed, I thanked her for her kindness and rose to bid her 
farewell. She was good enough to regret that nay departure on the 
morrow would prevent her asking me to appear before her again at 
this time, but she trusted I would come again to Monteventoso. She 
was an old woman, and her poor house resented being left alone as 
much as she had been in the habit of doing, and no doubt she would 
be still in Monteventoso should 1 come, besides — she smiled brightly 
— who could tell, perhaps soon, even the following summer — for the 
— s had invited her 1 would come to Nahantto see her, and then I 
might tell herthe legends of Boston. A reference to Peter Kugg here 
showed she knew them quite intimately already, and I had visions of 
employing Mt. Waterman as a tutor against her arrival. Then with 
a cordial handshake, I took my leave. After stumbling down the 
darkling pathway through the ilexes to the steps in the cliff, I turned 
again and looked back. All was still, and the thin crescent moon 
just touched with its finger of light the panes of the '• windows 
fast and obdurate! How the gardens grudged me grass where I 
stood ! " 

A Village Church, Cost Fifty Thou- 
sand Dollars. 


E ECCLESIASTICAL architecture is architecture as we find it in 
_j church building. Popular taste in America indicates now 
and always has, in the best work, a preference and appreciation for 
what is classic, and it is naturally deduced that church building should 
have a character consistent with this prevailing temper, which has 
taken so firm a hold upon American favor. This is a plea for con- 
sistency in church architecture rather than the advocacy of any of 
the so-called styles. Until the revivals of the nineteenth century, it 
would seem, from reference to history, that the church has always 
sought to be pliant in this matter, maintaining harmony with con- 
temporary tendency in art, which elevates in this connection the 
practical and utilitarian to its highest expression ; the churches 
of the Middle Ages express this entire agreement between religious 
and civic buildings, and are stamped with the character that pro- 
claims, without doubt, the inspiration of church building to have been 
also the art impulse of the people. Scholarly work will always show 
an avoidance of mere picturesque dilettanteism, and the church, 
always catholic, grappling as it must with the whims of the high, as 
well as ignorance of the low, should guard against pretense or any de- 
parture from the simple and honest, and can, by accepting the best 
aim in popular architecture of to-day, attain as great success as the 
master church builders of earlier periods. From east to west the 
early beginnings of church architecture in America show a native 
impulse toward consistency as the greatest practical need in this 
matter and unaffected acceptance of popular taste, as illustrated by 
the colonial churches and the Spanish mission churches of Cali- 
fornia; this harmony seems only to have been interrupted by a 
transitory wave of medievalism, whose term of enduringness must 
of necessity be limited. 

The problem in hand is one easily recognized as a frequent 
demand of the times, and one which should incite the architect to 
undertake an unaffected part in the exercise of his skill. While serv- 
ing with utmost simplicity the purpose for which it is ordained, the 
building should be stamped with a dignity and a repose that its 
focal relation to the village plan exacts. The nave of the church of 
to-day is differentiated from the nave of medieval times in that it is 
a space arranged for the comfortable gathering of a congregation ; 
the relative proportions of the chancel to the auditorium, and the 
convenient accommodations for priest, choir, and people depend- 
ing chiefly upon the degree of ritual observed. In this instance 
we have assumed that the service would be fully elaborated and that 
an unobstructed view of it throughout the building would be con- 
sidered desirable. This object has been attained by roofing the nave 
with a low single span of 40 ft. Assuming that our church is to be 
located in a California village, roof timbers of the length and thick- 
ness requisite to carry a heavy Spanish tile roof of these dimensions 
would be easily procurable from the redwood forests. The rafters 
would be of irregular sizes, ranging from 10 by 10 ins. to 8 by 14 or 
16 ins., and the tie beams holding the roof together would be say 
iS by 30 or 36 ins., and would sustain themselves without trussing. 
The cross roof spanning the transepts and chancel, etc., would be 
constructed in a similar manner, except that being of a wider span 
than the nave roof, the rafters at the ridge line would be supported 
on three arches, the center one being the chancel arch. The rafters 
would be spaced 3 or 4 ft. apart and covered with 1 '/£ in. planking, 
varying in width from iS ins. to 3 ft. to the plank. The whole of 
the roof timbers to be rough hewn, and left without stain or varnish, 
— just as they come from the adze. The tie beams crossing the nave 
and the ridge beams afford opportunity for enrichment in the roof 
by carvings of a very bold and free nature, such as would be effec- 
tively seen at this height from the floor, and this enrichment, carried 
along the beams and the brackets supporting them, could be supple- 



merited by broad dashes of color stenciled on the wood and carried 
into the moldings, all the woodwork first being charred to a brownish- 
black tone. The walls internally could be finished with plaster pre- 
pared for color treatment. The three arches supporting the ridge of 
the cross roof would be of equal spans, and a very rich ornamental 

either side as well as in front. On either side of the chancel, and 
dividing it from the vestries and chapel, there is designed to be iron 
screen work similar to that under the arches. The organ is located 
on the south side and would stand free within the screen enclos- 
ures, so that its sound would be carried equally to all parts of the 

screen of wrought iron, almost wholly filling each arch, would sepa- 
rate the chapel chancel and vestries from the nave and transepts. 
The idea of this screen work is merely suggested in the sketch of 
the interior, but from the plan the general effect of such a screen can 
readily be imagined. The screen to the chancel arch is designed so 
that during service it would be opened out almost the entire width of 
the arch in two gates ; 
that part above the hori- 
zontal bar supporting the 
rood or cross remaining 
stationary, and having 
much hammered leaf 
work. All the ironwork 
of these screens would be 
hammered and forged. 
The soffits of the arches 
and the piers supporting 
them should be terracotta 
or molded brick. To the 
east of these arches, the 
roof, following the lines 
of the gables, would slope 
down to the east wall, with 
a dormer window break- 
ing through the roof op- 
posite each arch to supple- 
ment the side lights of 
this end of the church. 
This arrangement of the 
roof over the chancel, etc., 
is unusual, but it has the 
advantage of greater sim- 
plicity, and consequently 
allows of a more elaborate 
and bolder treatment of 
the altar and reredos. 
The altar itself would 
set forward from the east 
wall, giving ample space on 


church. It is not intended that the clergy vestry should be anything 
more than a place for routine official work to be done, so that a 
pastor's study would be provided elsewhere. The chapel, designed 
to seat about forty, is in most Episcopal churches now found to be 
of the greatest convenience for daily services. In front of the 
arches, dividing the chancel chapel and vestries froni the nave, there 

are shown to be two stone 
steps extending from tran- 
s e p t to transept. The 
sanctuary floor is again 
raised above these several 
steps to give the altar 
proper elevation. 

The lower part of the 
tower, while serving as a 
vestibule and connecting 
link between the Sunday 
school and nave of the 
church, also affords oppor- 
tunity to place the font by 
itself. The tower entrance 
gives access to a cloistered 
garden at the northeast 
corner of the lot, — a 
pleasant breathing space 
for clergy and congrega- 
tion before and after ser- 
vice. This garden might 
also be used in fair weather 
for open-air Sunday-school 
services, etc. In the upper 
chambers of the tower 
would be suspended the 
bells, with the bell-ringer's 
room below. 

The details of the ar- 
rangement of the Sunday 
school are more a matter 
of individual preference, 

c 5 8 



and in this plan the endeavor has been to comply with the more 
usual demands. 

The floor of the entire church and Sunday school would be 

laid in concrete, finished in the case of the aisles, in nave and 
chancel, with stone flags in large squares, and elsewhere under the 
seats and in the Sunday school with wood blocks bedded in as- 
phaltum. This method would render the floors perma- 
nent and noiseless. 

Externally, the walls would be faced with klitt- 
kered or overburned burred common brick, laid with 
large joints, with terra-cotta or molded brick for the 
cornices, etc. 

The tile used for the roof would be the large, half- 
round, dark Spanish tile, glazed. 

With a view to the more or less secular functions 
for which the Sunday-school building is at times used, 
it was thought better to locate it at the west end of 
the lot. as far as possible from the precincts of the 
chancel. The relative position of the Sunday school to 
the church has a symbolic significance, as it is here 
that the young are instructed before entering into the 
full privileges of the church. The principal entrance 
is from the west, facing the park or plaza, and here a 
simple Corinthian portico, 30 ft. wide and 24 ft. high, 
is provided to give protection from the elements and 
shade the entrance. The cloisters, garden court, and 
front court would be paved with hard brick laid edge- 
wise in ornamental designs. 

In the matter of external design, much 
has been left to the nature of the material 
used to supply animation and interest. This 
the rough quality of the klinker brick, in 
combination with a bold rich cornice and 
the picturesque sky line, would do ade- 

The width of the nave is 44 ft., and 
the total length of the church inside 100 
ft., the width across the transepts 90 ft., 
the height of nave from floor to ridge 36 
ft., and the height of the tower S6 ft. 

If the principle that endurance of his 
work should be the foremost aim of every 
architect, applies to one class of buildings 
more than to another, it is perhaps in church 
buildings that effort in this direction is to 
be specially encouraged. Good building 
lends tangibly to the moral support of every 
institution, individual, or enterprise so fortu- 
nate as to possess a habitation, and inasmuch 
as that in almost every community the church has its field of use- 
fulness, it should have, as a power to promote the best effort in 
architecture, few if any rivals. The backbone of every building is 

X.-.i : : 

made up of walls and roof. Style follows upon proper observance 
of the principles of sound construction, and beauty comes with 
convenience and proportion. 


J 59 

Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 


CHAPTER X.— Concluded. 

[The illustrations A, B, C, D, E, F, and G are not taken from 
Mr. Street's work, but are added as additional illustrations of the 
Italian brickwork. — Eds.] 

WE soon reached Pavia, and were, as we expected to be, well 
rewarded by its churches. The general aspect of the city is 
singular, owing to the number of tall slender brick towers which 
seem to have formed a necessary appendage to almost every house 
in the Middle Ages. They are entirely without openings or orna- 
ments of any kind beyond the scaffold-holes, and one can compare 
them to nothing that I know so well as to the great shot-tower at 
Waterloo bridge, save that they are always square and not circular. 

We did our best to see the cathedral, but were unsuccessful; it 
was being repaired, and was so full of scaffolding that we could see 
nothing. It contains a shrine said to contain the body of S. Augus- 
tine, which I much wanted to see, but seemed in most respects to be 
an unprepossessing church. 

From the cathedral we found our way to San Michele, a very 
celebrated church, and as interesting to an antiquary in search of 
curiosities as to an architect in search of the beautiful. The west 
end is very curious, and has a succession of sculptures, introduced in 
the most eccentric manner, and with but little method in their ar- 
rangement. There are three western doorways, and all of them are 
elaborately ornamented with carvings, the central door having above 
it a very singular figure of S. Michael. 

San Michele, together with San Teodoro and San Pietro, seem all 
to be of about the same date, and are of the same character; the 

most remarkable feature be- 
ing in each case the oc- 
tagonal cupola, which rises 
above the crossing of the 
nave, choir, and transepts : 
externally these cupolas are 
arcaded all round under the 
eaves, and roofed with flat- 
pitched roofs, and are far 
from being graceful ; open 
arcades are introduced under 
the eaves and up the gables, 
and everywhere there is a 
profusion of carving. It is 
likely enough that this Lom- 
bard-Romanesque style, as 
we see it at Pavia and else- 
where, did, as has been sup- 
posed, set the example which 
was very soon after followed 
in the great churches at Koln 
and elsewhere along the 
borders of the Rhine. In 
size, however, the children 
far exceeded their parents, 
for San Michele is not re- 
markable for its dimensions, 
except in the width of the 

The church consists of 
a nave and aisles of four 
bays, a transept of great 
length, a central lantern, and 
a short choir with circular 
eastern apse ; small apses 
are also built in the east 
walls of the transepts. A 

fine crypt is formed under the g 
whole of the eastern arm of 
the cross, and is entered by 
steps on each side of the thir- 
teen steps which lead up to 
the choir. The nave aisles 
have a second stage or tri- 
forium, groined throughout; 
and the whole of the church 
is vaulted, the transepts hav- 
ing barrel vaults and the three 
apses semi-domes. The in- 
ternal effect of the lantern is 
extremely good ; the penden- 
tives under the angles are 
very simple, and low windows 
are introduced in a stage be- 
tween them and the octagonal 
cupola or vault. The whole 
church is still left in its orig- 
inal state with red brick walls 
and stone piers and arches, 
save where, as in the eastern 
apse, the vault is painted with 

a Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, executed in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is very seldom, consequently, that a church of this age is 
seen to so much advantage : and undoubtedly the fine, simple, but 
well-ordered arrangement of the plan, and the dignified character of 
the raised choir and the central lantern, would, even if the colour 
were not as picturesque and agreeable as it is, make this interior one 
of extreme interest. One of the best portions of the exterior is the 
east end. Its extreme loftiness is enhanced by the groups of shafts 
which divide it into bays, and rise from the plinth to the cornice. 
This part of the building is, mainly of stone, except in the fine gallery 




below the eaves-cornice, where brick and stone are used together. 
In addition to the west door already mentioned, there are two very 
elaborate doorways north and south of the nave in the bay next to 
the transepts. 

San Michele is, on the whole, the most interesting building in 
the town, but is hardly superior to the grand remains of the old forti- 
fied castle of the Visconti, which stands just on the outskirts of the 
city, close to the Milan gate. This is only a portion of the original 
erection, only three sides of a great quadrangle which is inclosed by 
the building now remaining. The plan originally was a vast square 
with lofty square towers projecting at the angles, and of these only 
two remain. The whole front is still very nearly perfect, and is not 
far from five hundred feet in length, the main building of two stories 
in height and the towers of four, and all the old windows more or 
less intact. The whole is crowned with a forked battlement, and the 



old bridge still re- 
mains opposite the 
entrance with its 
outer gate, though 
t h e drawbridge 
has given way to 
a fixture. This 
grajid pile is now 
used as a barrack : 
its most valuable 
architectural fea- 
tures are all 
towards the i n - 
ternal quadrangle, 
which is of grand 
dimensions, more 
than three hun- 
dred feet in the 
clear. Towards 
this court there is 
the same sort of 
through ou t 
(though many 
modifications o f 
detail) — an open 
arcade of pointed arches below, and a series of fine windows lighting 
a corridor above. The lower arches are of stone, everything else of 
brick, and the details everywhere are refined and delicate almost be- 
yond those of any brickwork that I know elsewhere. The original 
scheme is best seen on the south side of the quadrangle, of which I 
give an illustration. This work dates, 1 suppose, from about A, D. 
1300, but it was soon found to be inconvenient to have open traceries 
for the upper corridor, and the arches on the other two sides were 
filled in before the middle of the fourteenth century with very good 
two-light windows. Fortunately the whole of this work is still in very 
excellent preservation, and deserves much more notice and study than 
it has ever, I believe, received. 1 The ordinary bricks used here 
measure io}4 in. X 5 in. and are 3 in. high, whilst in San Fantaleone 
they are i l / z in. high and as much as 13 in. long. Here (as generally 
in the centre of Italy) the bricks have all been dressed with a chisel, 
with which diagonal lines have been marked all over the face. I can 



only assume that this has been done to improve the texture of the 
bricks in appearance, and, perhaps where two bricks are side by side 
on the same plane, to make a little distinction between them by tool- 
ing the bricks in opposite directions. Two other features of I'avian 
brickwork may also here be mentioned : one, that the depth of the 

'Mr. Griiner has published some very careful drawings of these details, in which he 
has restored the painted decorations with which the coloured construction of the walls was 
enriched. The style of decoration was much. like that of.Sta. Anastasia, Verona. 

arch-bricks is al- 
most always in- 
creased from the 
springing line to 
the centre — the 
intrados and ex- 
trados not being 
co n ce n t ric ; the 
other, that the arch- 
bricks do not ra- 
diate from a centre, 
but are arranged 
so as to obtain a 
vertical joint in the 
centre. The first 
is a very defensible 
practice, the second 
seems to me to be 
the contrary. 

There are sev- 
eral other churches 
to be noticed here. 
The most interest- 
ing to me after San 
Michele is that of 

Sta, Maria del Carmine, or San Fantaleone (for it seems to rejoice 
in a double dedication), which, in some respects, is more akin to our 
northern Gothic work than any other Italian church I have as yet 
described. The plan and all the details of the interior are exceedingly 
simple. The nave is divided into four groining bays, each of which 
has two arches into the aisles ; the transept takes one bay and the 
choir one, and there are an aisle and a row of chapels on either side 
of the nave, and chapels on the east side of the transept. The only 
openings between the arches and the groining are small circles by 
way of clerestory, ludicrously small as compared with the immense 






'■ 1 Yi 

, ' ' 










space of blank wall below them, which seems to call loudly for decora 
tive painting. The whole of the interior is executed in red brick, 
which has, however, been much daubed with a coloured 
wash; its effect is, notwithstanding, very fine and well 
worthy of imitation. As in Italian churches gener- 
ally, the choir is very short as compared to the length 
of the nave. The exterior is even better worth exam- 
ination than the interior; the design of the west end 
is an exaggerated example of the mode of finishing 
west fronts not uncommon in Italian Gothic; it is to 
some extent a sham, and therefore bad, but there is 
much which is of value in its detail, as it is even more 
than usually elaborate ; and apart from the general out- 
line of the mass, which pinnacles and pilasters cannot 
redeem from ugliness, there is considerable beauty in 
the group of windows and doors arranged so as to rise 
gradually to the centre. The cornices are very heavy 
and elaborate, and the whole front may be looked at 
as a masterpiece of terra-cotta and brick architecture. 
It is purely Italian in its great breadth and general 
arrangement, and, I confess, very far from being to 
my taste, though I could wish that we had more often 
some of the same breadth and simplicity in our own 

It is very curious that this west end is the only 
elevation in this church which is at all distinctly Italian 
in its design ; for those of the transepts and choir might 
much more reasonably be put down as imitations of 

Northern work; they are very similar, and a descrip- 
tion of the latter will therefore suffice. It is flanked 
by massive buttresses, and has two large and lofty tre- 
foiled lancets, surmounted by a circular window of 
great size ; the whole is very richly moulded and exe- 
cuted entirely in brick. The buttresses and roof finish 
at the top in a rude temporary-looking manner, and it is 
therefore impossible to solve the interesting question of 
their original terminations, which must, I imagine, have 
been pinnacles. The ordinary bricks used here are 
about 10 in. x 3 in. in size, and laid with very wide 
joints of mortar; those used for window-jambs and 
arches are of much deeper colour and finer clay than 
the others. There is something quite refreshing in 
coming suddenly and unexpectedly upon such a simple 
and English-looking elevation, after the multitude of 
thoroughly Italian fronts it has been our fate to see 

On the north side of the nave there seems to have 
been a fine row of pointed windows, but they have been 
all destroyed to make way for Renaissance improve- 
ments. There are very large buttresses dividing the 
bays in this aisle — a feature which is unusual in Italy, 
and which, in addition to the design of the choir and 
transepts, would seem to show that this church was not 
entirely the work of an Italian. In the plan, too, it is 
remarkable that, though the general arrangement is 
quite that of the large Italian churches, such as the 
Frari at Venice and Sta. Anastasia at Verona, in one 
particular it is unlike them. The groining bays of the 
aisles are square, and not oblong ; and as two of the 
aisle arches make one bay of the nave, the groining 
compartments in both are as nearly as possible square. 
This is an arrangement which occurs often in German 
Romanesque, but is not seen so often in Italy. 

There is a fine campanile between the south tran- 
sept and the choir; it has four stages above the roof 
of the church, and scarcely any opening below the belfry 
windows; these are exceedingly good, of three trefoiled 
lights under an inclosing arch, with two plain circles 

pierced in the tvmpanum, the monials being shafts of white marble. 

A low spire of circular bricks finishes, but does not improve, this 





very beautiful belfry. There is another brick pointed church at Pavia 
— San Francesco — which has a tine west front redeemed from the 
common Italian character by the grand window-arch in its central 
division; and though this has been filled in with later and barbarous 
work, to the entire concealment of the tracery, its effect upon the 
whole front is astonishingly good. The detail is very elaborate, and 
in the arch a great number of terra-cotta ornaments are introduced. 
The front is divided by large pilasters into a centre and wings cor- 
responding with the nave and aisles, but these are again subdivided 
by smaller pilasters, each of which is composed of three circles on 
plan, and finished rather nicely with a kind of tinial at the top. 

San Francesco is lighted by a succession of small clerestory 
windows, and the aisles have large buttresses, the greater part of the 
upper portion of the west front being a mere mask to make out the 
desired outline. I begin really to wonder whether I shall see a west 
front before I leave Italy which is not a purely unnecessary and un- 
prepossessing sham ! 

Pavia is a busy and a pleasant city, and one that 
improves on acquaintance: it is true that it was very 
hot and sultry, but to this I have been fairly acclima- 
tized, and so rather enjoyed it, except when a piazza 
had to be crossed in the sun, or a walk to be taken 
along a street unprotected by arcading, which by the 
way is much rarer here than in Padua, Mantua, and 
other cities which I have been describing. The main 
street of the city is very picturesque, with somewhat 
of a fall towards the south, so that just a glimpse is 
obtained between the houses of the distant Apennines. 

From Pavia we went, on our road to Milan, to pay 
a visit to the renowned Certosa. The road thither, 
which is also that to Milan, pursues a monotonously 
straight course by the side of a canal, or canalized 
river, and between rows of stiff trees, until, about 
four miles from Pavia, a turning at right angles out 
of the main road soon leads to the gateway of the 
monastery, and through this — which stands open ap- 
parently rather through carelessness than out of hospi- 
tality — we drove into the courtyard in front of the 
church. This, grown all over with weeds, looked cer- 
tainly very desolate and wretched, and but a poor pref- 
ace to the polished marbles of the west front, and the 
riches and paintings of the interior of the church. 

The west front is of great magnificence of mate- 
rial, though of a kind of design which seems to have 
proceeded upon the principle of setting all established 
architectural styles and customs entirely at defiance. 
This indeed may be said of the whole church, which 
is a kind of mixture of Lombard-Romanesque features 
with some Gothic, and no slight dash of the Renais- 
sance spirit: altogether a most magnificent hybrid, but 
certainly a hybrid. The doors stand wide open, and 
from the decaying and desolate court in front of the 
church we enter into the nave, full of everything that 
is magnificent in material, and all preserved with jeal- 
ous care and in admirable order ; we look up to the 
lofty vault which spans the grand width of the nave, 
and find the groining ribs arched overhead in pure 
pointed form, and cannot help marvelling how far this 
one pointed feature harmonizes — 1 had almost said 
sanctities — the whole interior, though in fact, save 
this one point, there is scarcely a single detail through- 
out the church which would ever pass muster as really 
being of Gothic character. 

I think it is hardly possible to scan or criticize 
the architecture of such a building: it is better to 
follow the guidance of the cicerone, and look at the 
pictures behind the many altars set around with pre- 
cious stones, and inclosed within reredoses made of 
such an infinite variety of marbles, that, with some degree of envy, 
one thinks how precious such an array would be on this side of the 
Alps, even if spread through fifty churches. 

The nave and aisles are divided from the side chapels and from 
the transepts by high metal grilles, and the transept is again divided 
by another screen from the choir: this produces a very singular and 
unusual effect, and makes the transept appear somewhat like a nave 
placed at right angles to the choir. All the chapels on cither side of 
the nave communicate with one another, so that the monks are able, 
without entering the nave, to obtain access to all of them, whilst 
females are carefully excluded both from the chapels and from the 
transepts and choir, Except a I'erugino in one of the chapels on the 
north side of the nave, and one picture in the sacristy, there seemed 
to be no pictures of any very great value ; in fact, travellers are asked 
rather to admire the value of the stones which are used in the altars, 
and the marbles in the reredoses behind them, than the paintings 




which they inclose. The groining of the church, enhanced as it is 
in effect by the way in which it is painted — with a blue ground, 

agricultural activity, took us from the Certosa to Milan ; and long 
before we arrived there the white pinnacles of the Duomo, with the 
Alps in the far distance, came in sight; certainly, 
seen thus, the Duomo is one of the least satisfactory 
or imposing great churches I have ever seen, and 
does but little in the way of imparting character — 
as most cathedrals do — to the city which lies at its 
fo'ot. At last we reached Milan, and entering through 
a triumphal arch — the Ticinese Gate — and pass- 
ing the front of Sant' Eustorgio, we threaded our 
way down a very long narrow street, by the side in 
one place of a row of Roman columns, still standing 
tolerably perfect in the midst of the crowded high- 
way, until at last we found ourselves housed in a 
more luxurious hotel than it has been our fortune to 
meet with for some days. 

T^ 1 


powdered very richly with gold stars — conduces more than anything 
else to the very fine effect of colour which the nave produces; and 
the beautiful pavements, composed mainly of red and white marbles, 
laid in elaborate geometrical patterns, increase not a little the general 
effect. This is an instance of the superiority of decorative painting 
over pictures as far as improvement of architectural effect is con- 

South of the church are two cloisters; that near- 
est to the church of ordinary size, but the other, to 
which it leads, prodigious in its dimensions, and very 
singular in its effect, being surrounded at regular inter- 
vals by the houses of the monks rising out of and above 
the regular line of the cloister roof. I went into one 
of these houses, and found its accommodation exceed- 
ingly ample; three rooms, closets, and a garden be. 
ing provided for each monk. The arches of the 
cloisters are exceedingly rich in terracotta orna- 
ments, and throughout the exterior of the church 
and other buildings it is remarkable how very elab- 
orate these ornamental mouldings are; they are left 
in the natural reddish colour, and, as the walls are 
whitewashed, they have a very singular effect. We 
found here, as at other places, men busily engaged 
in making casts for the Crystal Palace at Syden- 
ham, whose managers certainly seemed to have 
ordered casts of everything that could be modelled 
throughout Europe! 

There are now 1 twenty-five monks at the 
Certosa, and the number appears to have been grad- 
ually on the increase since the reconstitution of the 
monastery in 1S44; it was certainly very gratifying 
to see that, whilst all the rest of the buildings looked 
forlorn and dilapidated, the church itself was most 
scrupulously well preserved, presenting in this re- 
spec t a great contrast to the fate of monastic 
churches generally in the north of Italy. 

A tedious drive by the side of a long straight canal, passing on 
our way large well-managed farms and other signs of uncommon 

1 This was written in 1855. 


RAVELERS to the Old World are often sur- 
prised and pleased at finding the use of brick 
so general, wherever it is possible to employ them. 
They are in evidence in street paving, in sidewalks, 
in curbs, in floors for cottages, floors for barns, poultry 
houses, factory floors, gate posts and fences, and 
wherever used are so arranged and chosen as to ap- 
pear as if nature had intended the brick and nothing 
else to serve the purpose. 

The old garden walls and dividing fences, which 
still show the limits of the domain belonging to the old ruins, are 
chiefly of brick, coped with stone or slate, and many of them to-day 
are in a good, serviceable condition, though they have done service, 
in some instances, over seven hundred years. The Cathedral of 
St. Albans, which is one of the oldest in England, is built of brick, 
as are some of the walls surrounding it, and the curb of the'great 


well was also built of brick of Roman make, brick that have had the 
conflict of wind and weather, battle and breeze, for upward of fifteen 
hundred years. — " Architect" hi Clay Record. 






BUILDINGS that could not easily be destroyed by fire were 
constructed in very ancient times, and the notion of using 
materials and methods of construction, having this particular object 
in view, is therefore a very old one. The words and phrases ex- 
pressing the art, now in common use in the English language, came 
into that common use, however, only about the middle of the 
present century, when they signified practically the same as they do 

The Romans built a massive construction of brick and concrete 
with masonry floors and groined arched ceilings, sometimes covering 
very wide spans. Partitions, as we understand the word, were prac- 
tically unknown. Division into rooms was accomplished by thick 
masonry walls, similar in character to the exterior construction. 
There was little or no combustible material used and the buildings 
were practically indestructible. When floors were supported by 
timber, the heavy beams generally used were exposed in the ceiling, 
but the final floor construction was invariablj masonry finished with 
concrete, stone, or tile. The essential constructive features of this 
architecture were, of course, much older than the Romans, but they 
gave it permanence and character, and the construction was copied 
in later times throughout southern Europe and, to a considerable 
extent, in the tropical Spanish countries of America. 

In northern Europe, however, and in the United States and 
Canada, where timber was more available, and the climate was 
better suited, and the commercial demand was not so much for 
permanence as for immediate use, wood was always used to a 
much greater extent. On this account fires have always been 
more prevalent in London than in Paris, and in America more than 
in Europe. 

Up to the end of the eighteenth century wooden beams were 
used almost exclusively in these parts of the world for floors and 
roof construction, even in the largest cities and most costly build- 
ings, but they were often, especially in northern Europe, com- 
bined with concrete materials or clay products, to secure a partial 
protection from fire. As cities grew in importance and fires be- 
came proportionately more destructive, the importance of fire pro- 
tection was emphasized. Either the southern methods must be 
followed, or newer methods must be made indestructible, or greater 
dependence must be had on a protective service. So it seemed to 
them in that day, and though we have progressed greatly in expe- 
rience and knowledge since then, the question is much the same even 
in this day. 

The English Parliament appointed a committee about 1775 to 
investigate the question. However, little good came of it, and it was 
really not until the middle, or near the middle, of this century that 
the English were thoroughly aroused to the importance of the ques- 
tion in their own country. The London fire officers tried for years 
to secure better methods of building, and English architects and 
technical papers discussed the matter at great length. Practical and 
economic considerations gave character and force to this agitation. 
In Paris the methods of building had been more conservative, and 
losses by fire had been less; but in these same days they also were 
theorizing and experimenting and equally as ready as the English to 
improve their methods. 

Cast-iron beams and brick arches began to be used in the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century and up to about 1 S50 they were used 
extensively in the best buildings in England, France, and Germany. 

It is this period that gave birth and importance to the experiments 
and investigations into the strength and other characteristics of cast 
iron, much of which is now of little importance to the architectural 
and engineering world. Rolled iron beams were invented about 
1S50. and within a very few years were being manufactured and 
used in all the leading countries. In America, they were first rolled 
by Peter Cooper, at Trenton, N. J., in 1 S54. From the beginning 
they were used to carry the floors of buildings. It did not then 
seem possible that a tire could gain sufficient headway to material!} 
injure them. No one anticipated that it would be necessary to 
cover them, and it was confidently predicted by both the fire officers 
of London and by English architects generally that thev would 
solve the problem, and that the rolled beams carrying brick arches 
would make perfectly fire-proof floors. .About fifteen years later, 
however, such construction was condemned by the same fire depart- 
ment. Many floors were constructed, both in England and on the 
Continent, in warehouses and other important buildings, with the 
rolled beams exposed on the bottom, and in every great fire the de- 
struction was complete. The idea that the rolled beams could be 
completely protected and that this protection was really the essential 
element of all fire-proof construction, involving rolled beams, was 
comprehended very slowly. In [866, a Frenchman obtained a 
patent involving as one feature a method of covering the bottom of 
the beam with burned clay material. The soffit tile in common use 
in America is an American invention, made in 1883, The recent 
substitution of steel for wrought iron has not altered the fire-proofing 
problem, but has materially widened the limit within which struc- 
tural material may safely be used. 

The use of plaster of Paris beton and cement concrete with 
wood, to secure a construction much less liable to burn than an all- 
wood construction, grew greatly in favor in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century and the first part of this one. After rolled beams 
were invented, similar methods in combination with iron continued 
to be employed both in England and in France, especially in build- 
ings for dwelling-house purposes, but the chief dependence in impor- 
tant buildings was then, as it has continued to be, in brick arches or 
their equivalent. Most improvements in burned clay products were 
born in Europe and developed and perfected in detail and made 
practical in America. Not only were the inventions covering the 

Board or ptas+er 
Wood joist \or boa 

ed floor 

|ror> beorr. t * +ri | eW. . 

Posifior-i of \tC rod 
Ceiling f- or tomrrton rooms 
Ceiling furred dowr, for W«+t"«.. 

Kir;. 1 . 

important principles of tire-proofing construction first taken out by 
Europeans. English, French, and German, hut if the records are 
correct, they were for the most part first put to practical test in those 

Though it has been repeatedly stated to the contrary, the first 
flat hollow clay tile arch is older even than the rolled beam, and of 
English construction. An account of this arch was published in 
England in 1854 It is stated that about 15,000 sq. ft. of such 
arches resting on cast iron beams were constructed in a lunatic asy- 
lum known as " The Retreat," belonging to the Society of Friends. 
in York, England. The beams were 4 ft. 6 ins. to 5 ft. apart, 
and the whole calculated to carry the dead load and a reasonable 
live load, in the usual way then, and equally usual way today. Fig. 1 



shows a section of this construction as given by the author, Mr. 
l'ritchett. But this is not the only interesting feature of this record, 
for he testifies to an even very much earlier construction of flat 
arches in floors. " I first adopted this mode of arching," says the 
writer, " in the erecting of the pauper lunatic asylum, at Wakefield, 
in 181 7: an account and section of which was published in 1 8 1 9, 
with the plans, etc., of that building. These bricks were not hollow, 
and the size was limited by the Act of Parliament, but at ' The Retreat ' 
they are 12 ins. long, and of the size and shape shown in the draw- 
ing. The arches weighed, when finished, 31 lbs. to the superficial 
foot, and cost in York 16s. per square in mortar and 25s. in cement. 
The soffit is very nearly flat. I used to allow an inch of camber, but 
found the settlement so very small that the camber occasioned a 
waste of plaster, as nearly all the buildings at Wakefield were fin- 
ished Hush with the beams. At ' The Retreat ' the beams are beaded 
on the edges to quirk the plaster to, except in the best rooms, where 
light ceiling joists are used. Where the arches abut against inter- 
nal walls the springing bricks are walled in, but in outer walls they 
spring from a light iron beam in the wall, to which tie rods are at- 
tached to prevent thrust tilt the whole gets set and becomes one solid 

The first use of special hollow burned clay material in America 
was in Cooper Institute, in 1855, but in this case single pieces were 
used reaching from beam to beam. The first hollow flat arches, 
similar to those used by Mr. l'ritchett, were not used in America 
until 1S73. 

And so the features of construction that relate to fire protection 
have improved through all this century. It has not been a very 
steady progression, though it has been a definite one. Here and 
there an enthusiast has dreamed of a better thing and labored to 
materialize it. In the same indifferent manner science has helped 
it. Demand and supply has also figured as a creative force, though 
probably the former was always as inactive as it is now. As a rule 
the demand is not for the best, not for that which signifies growth, 
but rather for a moderate degree of protection limited by the expense 
of it. The supply, too, has often been of like character: the manu- 
facturer has not always cared so much to provide improved products 
as he has to make those he could sell to the best advantage. There 
have been decades of growing and decades of standing still. One 
nation has suggested while another has developed. 

In the present decade the spirit of progress has received a great 
impetus. Every feature of construction is being experimented with 
as never before, and the public is demanding of those who are 
especially interested exact information more than in any previous 

A proper conception of the problem must always depend upon 
a full understanding of the characteristics of all the materials enter- 
ing into the construction of buildings, and also of what might be 
called the general constructive principles governing their design. 
The development of the art in the future will depend upon the growth 
of our knowledge along both lines. The more complete this knowl- 
edge, the more perfect the conception. 

Regarded from the point of resistance to destruction by fire, 
there are really two quite different classes of construction, and we 
need first of all to thoroughly appreciate the distinction between 
them. In one the fire-proof qualities are dependent upon the effec- 
tual construction of solid masonry, brick, and stone, while in the 
other they are chiefly dependent upon what we ordinarily call "fire- 
proofing materials." The former might be termed a " massive con- 
struction," while the latter is widest known as " skeleton construction." 
It is interesting to note in this connection that this expression was 
first suggested by a comparison with the human frame clothed with 
all that gives perfection, presumably made for the first time in a dis- 
cussion at a conference of the Royal Institute of Architects in 1877, 
long before this method of construction had taken shape in American 
designing. In the United States it was probably first used in print 
by Mr. Wellington, former editor of the Engineering News. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Work in Ameri- 
can and Foreign Cities, and Manu- 
facturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — At this midsummer season, when business is 
dull in every line and there is consequently little new work to 
report, it is interesting 
to look over the work 
of the past half year 
and to draw a few 
comparisons. From 
January to June there 
has been a gain of 66 
per cent, in the amount 
of money invested in 
building operations in 
New York over the cor- 
responding period last 
year. This shows very 
clearly that the general 
improvement in busi- 
n e s s throughout the 
country is stimulating 
business activity. 

In a total increase 
of about #37,000,000 
for the twenty leading 
cities of the country, 
over $30,000,000 of 
that amount is credited 
to Greater New York. 
As a center of building 
operations the metropo- 
lis dwarfs any other 
city in the country very 
decidedly. It is equal 
to more than six Chi- 
cagos and seven Phila- 
delphias. Of course, 
not all of the #84,000',- 
000 worth of new build- 
ings projected in New 
York will be instantly 
carried out ; and even 
with the big proportion 
that will be promptly undertaken, some time must elapse before the 
money expenditure involved will be distributed for labor and mate- 
rials. Hut the statistics are the forerunners of actual activity. They 
may safely be taken as the beginning of unusually brisk conditions. 
We have had further successful tests in this city showing how our 
tall buildings can be of benefit in fighting fires in their neighbor- 
hood. Judging from the success of these tests, when seven streams 


Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, 

for the Ritlenhnuse Apartments, Philadelphia. 

Willi, G. Hale, Architect. 


Executed by the While Brick and Terra-Cotta Co nj any, for residence at New 

Kochelle, N. Y. 

Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

1 66 

tup: rrickbuilder 

of high buildings should be compelled to put standpipes where at 
present there are none. 

The movement to secure proper park treatment to the seven 
acres of land given to Brooklyn by the town of (iravesend fifteen 
years ago for park purposes is a good one and ought to be success- 
ful. This is not a case where the city has to buy land through a 
tedious legal process, but where it already possesses a suitable tract 
that can be turned into a park at a moderate expense. This piece 
of property is located at the end of Ocean Boulevard. It faces 
the ocean and extends from t.Sth Street to Brighton Beach. 

Plans are being prepared in competition for a new office build- 
ing, to be erected at Broad, New, and Wall Streets, for the New 
York Stock Exchange. Among those competing are Bruce Price, 
George Kramer Thompson, and (iiorge B. Post, 1 >e- Lemoa & 
Cordes have planned a six-story brick and stone department store, 
to be built on Sixth Avenue, between 21st and 226 Streets, for 
Adams & Co.; cost, $1,250,000. Carrere & Hastings have pre- 
pared plans for a brick and stone dwelling, to be built on 89th 
Street, near Fifth Avenue; cost, £ 75,000. 


Wilson Eyre, Jr., Architect. 

I PHILADELPHIA. — So much is said about civic pride by- 
hopeful advocates of higher architectural achievement in 
public buildings in Philadelphia, without, seemingly, unsettling the 
calm composure of city officials, that it is noteworthy that in one 
department of city work a proud glance may be cast over recent 
improvement. A few years ago, the fire stations, engine houses, 
truck houses, and all, in this good, strait-laced city, were a horror 
to behold, from an architectural standpoint. The fire department 
has always stood high for efficiency, but it was housed most ig- 
nobly. Old buildings, too unattractive to rent longer as stores, 
were fitted up in good order inside, but outside, with the addition 
of a funereal row of cast-iron boxes in the main front, standing 
slimly between the wide doors, nothing was improved, and so was 
had an engine house. 

Since Mr. Windrim, the architect, served a term as director of 
public works, a change set in, and now architects as prominent as 

were thrown simultaneously across 
Broadway from the standpipe in 
the St. Paul Building, — one from 
the roof, while six branch lines 
were in full operation below, — it 
was shown not only that two of 
the largest steam fire engines in 
use by the fire department of this 
city can draw sufficient water from 
one hydrant to fight a fire, but also 
that a tire in one of these tall 
buildings — provided it is properly 
equipped with a standpipe — can 
be fought and extinguished with- 
out any more difficulty than is met 
with in putting out a fire in a 
structure whose height does not 
exi red the average. More water 
than was being used could have 
been pumped to the roof by the 
two engines, one of which had to 
be stopped during the second part 
of the test, as too much water was 
pumped for the outlet, and fifteen 
lines could have been employed and 
as strong a stream obtained as 
with the seven actually used. 
Under these circumstances, it 
would seem that legislation should 
be obtained whereby the owners 

Wilson Eyre, Jr., Architect, 




Edgar V. Seeler and James H. Windrim design many of the new 
buildings for the department, so that if the present system prevails, 
in a few years the engine and truck houses should be noted, not for 
their dingy ugliness, but for their suitable and proper architectural 

Possibly in nothing so much as public school buildings is the 
need of architectural reform in evidence. Putting aside the 
huge granite high-school structures, which are not such as to 
educate the student in things esthetic, one fails to note in the 
average school even the attempt at architectural treatment. 
This state of affairs is undoubtedly to be attributed to the sys- 
tem under which all architectural work, if such it may be called, 
is turned out by a bureau of the board of education, the chief 
position in which offers a salary so small as to be no tempta- 
tion to an architect of high ability. 

The approaching Grand Army Encampment in Philadel- 
phia has caused the city to form the project of another " Court 
of Honor" on the order of that of last winter, this to have the 
high-sounding title of " Avenue of Fame." 

The inflated price of steel is having a marked effect on 
building speculation. The proposed new hotel on the site of 
the Girard House lags, apartment and office building plans 
await the downward turn of the market, while builders have 
great difficulty in getting small orders at any price. 

The University is still adding to its large group of build- 
ings. The huge Law School by Cope & Stewardson, in all the 
brightness of white stone and red brick, stands ready for the 
roof, and estimates are asked for a large addition to the dor- 
mitory system, in architecture agreeing with that of the initial 
portion finished some four years ago. The closing side of the 
triangle is now to be built, with a tower as a memorial to 
University students lost during the war with Spain. 

A gymnasium for the college is projected, and numerous 
club houses connected with the University are building in the 
University quarter. 

Company will furnish the steel. The estimated cost 
of the building is between two and three millions of 

The scarcity of structural steel seems likely to 
seriously hamper the more important building opera- 
tions in the near future. A local architect, just re- 
ceiving estimates on a factory building, has been told 
that no steel could be promised him before January 
1. This means an increased use of cast iron for 
compression members, and will be a good thing for 
the local foundry men, who are already very busy. 

The most serious result of a recent severe storm 

was the wrecking of the steel frame of a large church 

on the north side, which was complete and ready for 

the masonry enclosure. The ceiling was to be 

vaulted, and the steel arches of some 60 ft. span were 

in place. The temporary braces and guvs had been 

carelessly removed, and when the wind struck it a 

sledgehammer blow with a sudden gust, moving fifty 

miles an hour, the uprights slowly tottered and leaned, 

then went crashing and roaring over against and 

through the brick walls of the adjacent parish school building amid 

a gorgeous display of sparks struck from the twisted metal. The 

total loss will be in the neighborhood of 515,000. 

A fine educational building is to be erected facing the northern 
end of Lincoln Park. It will be devoted to the use of the new nor- 
mal school endowed by Mrs. Emmons Blaine, and is to be built by 

CHICAGO. — The month of July has shown a very grati- 
fying increase in building operations as compared with 
the same month a year ago, when 370 buildings were started, 
costing $1,803, 525. The figures for July, 1899, are 358 build- 
ings, costing $2,583,000, an increase of 43 per cent. Building 
interests are still hampered by the brickmakers' strike, and 
there seems no hope of an early settlement. 

Messrs. E. C. and R. M. Shankland, the well-known civil 
engineers and designers of structural steel work, have been 
commissioned by the Crown Prince of Japan to design the 
framework for his new palace. It is said that the Carnegie 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

1 68 


Roofed with Akron vitiiiied shingle tile, made by J. C. Ewarl Company: architectural terra- 
cotta by tlu' Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 
Aldcn \' Harlow, Architects. 

her from plans by one of Chicago's Beaux Arts medal men, - Mr. 
John Gamble Rogers. 

Mr. J. C. Llewellyn has designed a very interesting group of 
brick and red tile buildings for the agricultural department of the 
State University at Urbana. One of its features is a large court for 
the display of agricultural machinery and appliances. 

A number of architects are at work on huge schemes, destined 
perhaps some of them never to take tangible form, but all signs 
point hopefully to the arrival, somewhat late, it is true, of an era 
of real prosperity foi the architectural profession in Chicago. 

ST. LOUIS. — There seems to be much dissatisfaction among the 
builders and architects with the present condition of business. 
It was thought in the early part of the season that there would be 
much building done during the year, and the indications at the time 
were such as to warrant conclusions of this character. There was 
talk everywhere of building, and a number of improvements of con- 
siderable magnitude were started, which were mentioned at the time. 
It is a little remarkable that nearly all of these buildings are on 


Executed by the St. I..,uis Terra-Cotta Company. 
Elzner & Anderson. Arclii 

Washington Avenue, between ioth and 13th Streets, and one visit- 
ing that locality only might be led to believe the entire city was re- 
building. These buildings are intended for commercial and factory 
uses, and are of mill construction, therefore giving little employment 
to skilled mechanics. 

The sudden rise in price of all kinds of building materials before 
contracts could be awarded was no doubt the cause of much contem- 

plated work not going ahead. When prices have become fixed 
and business adjusted to the new order of things there is little 
doubt but much important work will be commenced, as at the 
present low rate for money there can be no better investment 
than a good commercial or office building. 

No little interest has been taken in the forthcoming com- 
petition for the buildings of the Washington University. The 
trustees have invited Messrs. Karnes & Young, of St. Louis; 
Carrere & Hastings and McKim, Mead & White, of New York : 
Cope & Stewardson, of Philadelphia; Cass Gilbert, of St. 
Paul, and Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, of St. Louis, to submit 
drawings, but it is rumored that the terms were so unsatisfac- 
tory that some of these refused to enter. The buildings will 
cost about $600,000, and are to be located upon the new prop- 
erty west of Forest Park, where the University will move as soon 
as the new buildings can be occupied. 

Holy Trinity parish will soon complete a new church on the 
southeast corner of Mallinckrodt and 14th Streets, at a cost of 
$125,000. The building will have an auditorium 117 ft. by yo 
ft., with a seating capacity of i,too. It is in the transitional 
style, with two towers on the principal facade, and a lantern at 
the interception of the nave and transepts. 

Architect J. L. Wees has prepared plans for a hospital for 

the Homeopathic Medical College, on the southeast corner of 

Jefferson Avenue and Mullanphy Street. It will be four stories 

high, and be built of light brick and terra-cotta. The cost will be 


Reports from the World's Fair committees are very encourag- 
ing, and if they meet with the success that will guarantee the hold- 
ing of the Fair, 
there will likely 
be many build- 
ings started by 
the beginning 
of the year. 


THE new 
entitled " Artis- 
tic Roofing 
Tiles," recently 
issued by the 
Celadon Terra- 
Cotta Company. 
Limited, is an 
e x c e p tionally 
treatise, calcu- 
lated to make 
much better ap- 
preciated, both 
from an artistic 
and practical 
standpoint, the 
advantages o f 
having build- 
ings constructed 
with burnt clay 
tile roofs. The 
catalogue con- 
tains a full de- 
s c r i p t i o n of 
each variety of 
tile which the 
company manu- 





This panel is 12 ft. high, and was executed in white terra-cotta 

by the Excelsior Tem-GoUa ( Company. 

Horgan ci Slattery, Architects. 



facture ; to render these more readily understood, sectional cuts are 
given of each tile described, showing it individually, also in its rela- 
tive position when laid on the roof. The advantage of such a com- 
plete description is most material to an architect, as by it he can 
determine which of the various styles represented will best suit the 
purpose and condition of any roof he has in contemplation. 

The catalogue is profusely illustrated, having half-tone cuts of 
all the various styles of tile made by the company, and also of some 
twenty different structures roofed with Celadon tiles. 

Interspersed through the catalogue is a series of lists of build- 
ings equipped with this make of tile. These lists give name of 
owner, location of building, and name of architect, and are so di- 
vided that each style of tile comes under a separate list. The build- 
ings thus enumerated number over three hundred. The concise, 
clear arrangement of the catalogue, and the essential worth of the 
matter which it contains, make it a book of much value to an archi- 
tect as a work of reference. Parties desiring a copy should address 
the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, Alfred, N. Y. 

Anthony Ittner, St. Louis, has recently issued Catalogue 
No. 4, descriptive of his line of pressed and ornamental bricks. This 
catalogue is arranged in convenient size for pocket use, and is attrac- 
tively bound in black morocco. It contains over two hundred and 
fifty illustrations of the designs of molded brick which are made at 
the Ittner yards. Besides these, considerable space is devoted to 

stock designs of man- 
tels, some very attrac- 
tive patterns of same 
being shown. The 
arrangement of this 
little work is particu- 
larly good, every de- 
tail being presented in 
a clear and intelligible 
manner. Exact dimen- 
sions accompany the 
cut of each style of 
brick illustrated. In 
several instances sec- 
tions of arches, panels, 
etc., are shown with 
the bricks laid, to more 
fully demonstrate the 
use of certain designs 
of ornamental brick. 


White brick (or Iront and side wails made by the Penn- 
sylvania Enameled Brick Company. 
Ernest Klagg, Architect. 


James A. Davis 
& Co. report that they 
are furnishing the ce- 
ment to be used in the 
construction of the 
New Music Hall, cor- 
ner of Massachusetts 
and Huntington Ave- 
nues, Boston, McKim, 
Mead & White, archi- 
tects. The" Lehigh" 
Portland cement will 
be used exclusively. 

The Columbus 
Face Brick Com- 
pany, Columbus, 
Ohio, report that they 
have secured the con- 
tract to furnish their 


Work being executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

K. V. Seeler, Architect. 

" Ironclav " mottled brick for the new St. Augustine Church, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Rutan & Russell, architects. This is said to be the 
largest church contract let in western Pennsylvania this year. Three 
hundred thousand brick will be required. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, through their Buffalo 
agent, John H. Black, have closed the contract to supply the terra- 
cotta for the First Baptist Church, Buffalo, R. A. Wallace, archi- 
tect. The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, through Mr. 
Black, will furnish their Conosera Tiles for the roof of the above- 
mentioned church. 

The Mosaic Tile Company, Zanesville, Ohio, have recently 
received several important contracts to furnish their tiles on new 
building enterprises. Among these are the Peabody Hotel, Memphis, 
Tenn., the Lindell Hotel, Lincoln, Neb., and the Nashville ( Tenn.) 
Terminal Station. The company have doubled their capacity for 
manufacturing Roman Mosaic Tile by the addition of special ma- 
chines and kilns. 

The St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company have the contracts 
to furnish the architectural terracotta for the Thornton High 
School, Harvey, 111., O. L McMurry, architect, and for the Isaac 
Walker Hardware Company's Building, Peoria, 111., R. H. Salter, 
architect. The company have recently completed a three-story ad- 
dition to their factory and are now building two new muffled kilns to 
further increase the capacity of the plant. 

The White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company has closed 
contracts to furnish the architectural terracotta for the following 
buildings: Baptist Church, Elizabeth, N. J., A. F. Leicht, architect; 
store and lofts, 1 2th Street and University Place, New York, W. C. 
Hazlett, architect; residence, Tuxedo Park, N. Y., Hoppin & Koen, 
architects ; restaurant building, 1164 Broadway, N. Y., D. W. King, 
architect; residence, 112 East 38th Street, New York. Wallace & 
Gage, architects. 

The Chambers Brothers Company have recently received 
an order for an outfit of their brickmaking machinery to go to Ger- 
many, and upon the installation of this plant will probably complete 
arrangements for a resident agency in that country. The outfit com- 
prises disintegrator, elevator, pug mill, and common hollow brick- 
making machinery. The order was given after several months of 




Executed byithe Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

George 1'.. Rogers, Architect. 

study of brickmaking as conducted in this country by a member of 
the firm who will operate this new plant in Germany. 

The United States Enameled Brick Company, chartered 
June 19, held a meeting of stockholders in the office of the Reese- 
Hammond Fire Brick Company, Bolivar, I'a.. on June 24, and 
elected the 
f ol lowing 
board of di- 
rectors : J. 
B. H a m- 
mond, E. R. 
II a m m ond, 
B. F. Reese. 
I. e o n a r d 
Roden, all of 
Bolivar. I'a., 
and J. B. 
S o m m e r- 
v i 1 1 e, of 
Whee ling, 
W. Va. The 

following officers were also elected for the ensuing year: J. B. Ham- 
mond, president; B. F. Reese, vice-president; W. M. Wynn, secre- 
tary ; E. R. Hammond, treasurer, and Leonard Roden, general 
manager. It is the intention of the company to take the small ex- 
perimental plant of tin- Reese-Hammond Fire Brick Company, and 
enlarge the same at once, and to be in the market within ninety days. 
The secret process that this company owns and controls by 
which the brick will be made will enable them to produce a 
brick that will not craze. All parties interested, stockholders 
as well as officers, are men of large experience in the clay- 
working business. 

J. C. EWART & Co. are furnishing their Akron Roofing 
Tiles for the following building operations: Schoolhouse at 
Pittsburgh, I'a., C. M. Bartberger, architect: First National 
Bank Building, Media, Pa.; sixteen houses for F. Keemon & 
Son, Philadelphia, Pa.; residence for P. A. B. Widener. Ash 
burne, I'a.: residence for John VVanamaker, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
residence for Collins Marsh, Pittsburgh, Pa.: residence for 
John Keim, Louisville, Ky. : a residence in Chicago; a resi- 
dence in New York: fire-engine house, No. 15, Allegheny, Pa. 

We note in Y'/ir Iron Age of late date the announcement 
of a shipment by Messrs. Merchant & Co., of Philadelphia, of 
30,000 lbs. of seamless drawn condenser tubes to Glasgow, 
Scotland. The present duty on -seamless brass tubes " is 45 
per cent, ad valorem. The fact that our manufacturers are 
able to export these articles for sale in foreign markets would 
seem to indicate that the 45 per cent, duty is unnecessary. 

uted by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

Neville & Bagge, Architects. 

The Mason Safety Tread is now being very generally 
specified by architects and engineers throughout the country, and 
the day seems to be rapidly approaching when this device will be in 
as common use in other large cities as it now is in Boston, where 
Mason Tread is included as a matter of course in nine tenths of the 
important buildings under construction. Four different architects 
in Buffalo have included it in their specifications for four large 
school buildings, of which two are now under contract; and one or 
more school buildings in each of nine other cities are to have this 
modern equipment. Among other recent orders are the Central 
Union Depot in Cincinnati. Mt. St. Joseph's Convent (nickel-plated 
treads), near that city : Mehl & Co.'s large factory at Jersey City; 
1 Hieens County Court House, New York : the Western" Union 
Building at Pittsburgh ; the new hotel and business block at North 
.Adams: three New York police stations; about two hundred more 
street cars at Cleveland : and eight large platforms on the battle ship 
Indiana. A newly published blue book for architects will be sent 
on application to the American Mason Safety Tread Company, 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, have 
closed contracts for the use of their roofing tiles as follows: From 
the Alfred Plant : Residence for Mr. John Swisher, Newark, Ohio, 
Wilbur T. Mills, Columbus, Ohio, architect: apartment building for 

S. B. S co- 
vill e, Oak 
Park, 111., 
P a t t o n, 
Fisher & 
Miller, archi- 
tects; resi- 
dence, New- 
York, Tho- 
mas Gra- 
ham, archi- 
tect: bank 
b u i 1 d i n g, 
N. Y., H. 
G a r d i n e r 
Sibell, Brooklyn, architect; residence for Mr. John L. Waterbury, 
Morristown, N. J., Howells& Stokes, architects: stable for Mrs. Fred. 
O'Donnel, Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. D. Williamson, Chicago, architect; 
First Baptist Church, Buffalo, R. A, Wallace, architect; high school 
at Morristown, N. J., Seymour Davis, architect; residence, L. B. 
Price. Kansas City, Mo., Sheppard & Farrar, architects; residence, 

Built of " Shawnee " brick, made by the Ohio Mining andlManufacturing Company, and fur- 
nished by Burgy & McNeill, Pittsburgh Agents. 
Sidney T. Heckert, Architect. 


VOL. 8. NO. 9. PLATE 65. 

Sec noM 



VOL. 8. NO. 9. 





PLATES 66 and 71 




' j 











































VOL. 8 NO. 9. PLATE 67. 

Detail, Portion of Front Elevation. 


BORING & TILTON. Architects. 


VOL. 8. NO. 9. 


PLATES 68 and 69. 

i " T 


Front Elevation. 

0* p •» «• 



VOL. 8. NO. 9. PLATE 70. 



















































VOL. 8. NO. 9. PLATE 72. 































































Cushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

P. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $250 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-5° P er y ear 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 


No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 


IT is so seldom in modern practise that masonry of any sort is 
loaded anywhere near to its limit, that we are apt to forget how 
large a factor of safety has come to be considered wise, and how 
little real reliance is placed upon the innate strength of the units 
which go to make up the masonry walls. There have been a few 
cases on record where brickwork has been actually crushed by a load 
unwisely placed upon it in a building, but, generally speaking, the 
kind of brick that is considered advisable for use has practically a re- 
sistance to crushing so great that the determining factor in the design- 
ing of a wall or pier is not the strength of the unit, but rather the lateral 
stability of the completed structure. Indeed, measured by any tests 
which we can apply, the most ordinary sort of light hard brick has 
sufficient strength to satisfy the mere letter of even the most exacting 
building law. This was brought to our notice very clearly a short 
time since by some tests which were made by Norcross Brothers, the 
well-known builders, in connection with the construction of one of 
the large buildings in this city. A selection was made of a number 
of different qualities of brick, ranging from what would be termed a 
rather indifferent light hard up to a thoroughly hard burned dark 
brick equal to the best quality which is manufactured. The tests 
were upon a half brick only, the loaded area averaging about 15 sq. 
ins. A record was kept of the load which produced the first crack 
in the material, as well as the ultimate crushing strength'per square 

inch. The former ran from 2,720 lbs. per square inch for the poorest 
of the bricks up to 8,000 lbs. per square inch for the best quality, 
while the ultimate strength ran from 3,149 lbs. per square inch for 
the poorest sample up to 10,532 per square inch for the hardest. Or, 
reduced to tons per square foot, this means that the poorest sort of 
brick cracked under the equivalent of a load of nearly 196 tons per 
square foot with an ultimate strength of 226 tons per foot, while the 
best sample cracked under 576 tons a foot, and only yielded under 
an ultimate strain of a little over 758 tons per foot. When we 
consider that the utmost that the building laws of most of our large 
cities consider as safe is a strain of 15 tons per square foot on 
masonry walls laid up in cement mortar, this unit strain, as compared 
with the ultimate resistance of the poorest of these bricks of 220 
tons per foot, allows for a factor of safety of nearly 15, while in the 
case of the hardest bricks the factor is over 50. 

Now we would not argue from this that it is perfectly safe to 
use light hard bricks, or that the wise builder can save the difference 
in cost between a good and an indifferent brick and secure just as 
good a building. As we stated in the beginning of the preceding 
paragraph, the strength of a wall is not wholly measured by the re- 
sistance of the units of which it is composed, but rather by the 
stability of the whole. Our modern methods of scientific analysis 
have enabled us sometimes to shade construction within some pretty 
perilously close scientific limits, and we cannot afford to take the 
chances of poor workmanship or unexpected concentrated loads and 
trust to anything but the best bricks for a first-class building. Still 
it is a satisfaction to the architect or constructor who is at the mercy 
of a careless or indifferent workman to know that if a brick pier is 
built up reasonably well, the material itself is innately so strong that 
there is very little risk of failure. 

In this connection we recall the case of a large building erected 
some distance from Boston in which by an oversight the piers sup- 
porting an enormously heavy tower were built of a size which seemed 
so small as to arouse the fears of a constructor, who, to set his mind 
at rest, made some practical experiments on piers of the full size of 
the ones in the building, constructed in the same manner, which he 
loaded to destruction after having allowed ample time for a good 
hard set on the mortar. We have not the figures at hand which give 
the crushing strength of the pier, but as a result of these experiments, 
the builder felt there was not the slightest risk in loading good brick 
piers to 25 tons per square foot. 


WE were all much interested in the shrewd scheme which 
found so many supporters a short time since to extract 
gold from sea water. A no less subtle swindle betrayed many 
people a few months ago, which claimed to work the precious metal 
out of the dust of our streets; but an enterprise which seems quite 
as unreasonable was to dig diamonds out of macadamized roads. 
This is actually what took place some time since at Kimberley, in 
South Africa, where formerly existed a road which could fairly be 
quoted as the most valuable highway in the world. It was built out 
of the blue clay deposit taken from the diamond mines at a period 
before the consolidation of the companies, and upon investigation 

l 7 2 


was found to be so thickly studded with diamonds that by improved 
processes of separation millions' worth of gems were taken from it. 
We always knew that clay was a good thing. 


WE are sorry to see an indication of a possible revival of 
carved brickwork as an ornament to the building. While 
having the utmost confidence in burnt clay as a medium of express- 
ing the highest ideals in architecture, we also feel that every mate- 
rial has its legitimate use, and that the time will never come when 
burnt clay in any form can be treated like stone. To cut away the 
surface of brick or terra-cotta is to destroy its distinctive character, 
to lav bare its weakest sides, and to attempt a cheap imitation of 
what can be done far better in stone. We do not need to imitate 
another material in order to get the best results out of brick. 


IN one of our Western cities, last spring, a building partially col- 
lapsed through the failure of a brick pier, and as the form of 
construction there employed is quite common, a description of the 
" accident " may be instructive to the readers of this journal. 

The building was of three stories, with a flat roof, and built on 
an inside lot, of 25 ft. frontage. The first story was intended for 
stores, and the upper stories for lodging rooms. To give light and 
ventilation to the rooms in the second and third stories, an area was 
formed at one side of the building, about 4 ft. 6 ins. deep and 41 ft. 
long. The walls of this area were of brick and rested on steel beams, 
placed about flush on top, with the second story floor joists, and 
framed as in Fiii. 1. There were no posts in the first story: the 
longitudinal beams being supported by the cross beams. A, B, C. 
The wall WW and the pier 1* extended only to about the level of the 
second floor. The area was roofed over the store by a sky- 
light, and the weight of this skylight was all that came upon the 
walls at WW, the walls being practically curtain walls. The pier 
1', however, was required to support the end of beams BB. From 
the bottom of the beams to the first floor was about 11 ft. 4 ins. 
The walls and pier were built and bonded together. 

About five o"elock. one afternoon, the steel beams, and the por- 
tion of the building supported by them, suddenly fell to the cellar 
without warning. A few minutes before, the owner of the building 
was in the cellar, where the accident occurred, but at the time of the 
accident the building was fortunately vacant. 

The second and third stories had just been rough plastered 
(brown coated ), but not the first story. The only weight on the 
beams and walls was that of the material used in the construction of 
the building, which could be closely computed. 

After the collapse, the beam A was found broken short off 
i with a clean fracture ) where the beams D were framed into it, and 
the broken end of the short piece was embedded in the cellar floor, 
the wall end being in the air. The wall end of the long piece was 
pulled out of the wall, but the piece was leaning against the wall 
with the broken end on the cellar floor. 

The end of beams BB, which had been on pier P, were resting 
on the cellar floor, and the other end against the opposite wall. 
Beam C remained in position, but was badly twisted. Most of tin 
connections were more or less broken, but the longitudinal and cross 
beams were not wholly disconnected. 

About 5 ft. of the upper portion of the pier 1' was thrown 
down, making a hole in the wall from 4 to 5 ft. long, part of the 
bricks being on the outside of the wall and part on the inside. The 
rest of the wall was not apparently injured. 

The actual loads on the beams, at the time of the accident, as 
near as can be computed, were 20 tons at point X, Fig. 1, and 3K.3 
tons at point Y. This is just about the safe load for the beams. 

The load transmitted to the pier P by the ends of beams BB would 
be 30.75 tons, or 7.23 tons per square foot, the pier itself being 3 ft. 
long and 1 7 ins. thick, with a hard laminated stone on top the full 
size of the pier. The beams 15 15 rested on the stone template as 
shown in Fig. 2. 

Owing to the broken end of the beam A being buried in the 
ground, it looked at the first inspection of the ruin as though the 
beam had broken from some defect in the steel, although the fracture 
had the same appearance as the broken edges of the connecting 

When the beams A and C were removed from the rubbish, 
however, they were found to be bent horizontally, about as shown in 
Fig. 5, while there was practically no deflection vertically. This 
points very decidedly to the conclusion that the pier P must have 
failed first, and the sudden jerk on beams A and C, caused by the 
falling of beams B15, bent the former, and for some reason the beam 
A broke ( sideways) first, which relieved the strain on C. Also, when 
the pier fell, pieces of brick were thrown across a passage, about 3 
ft. wide, and through a window of the adjoining building. The pier 
was also built during freezing weather. 

Considering all of these points, and also the way in which the 
beams BB rested on the pier, the engineers employed on behalf of 

y 4 


the company that furnished the steel came to the unanimous con- 
clusion that the collapse was caused by the buckling of the pier P, 
something in the manner indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 2. 

The above concisely states the facts in the case. The lesson to 
be drawn is the necessity for closely computing the sizes of all 
structural work, especially where loads are concentrated, and the im- 
portance of loading piers symmetrically. 

The materials of which the pier was built were of good quality, 
for the locality, and the curtain walls also added strength to the 

If the beams had rested on the pier, as shown in Fig. 4, the 
pier would probably have supported the load, although when the 
building was completed and occupied, and perhaps had a foot of 
snow over the roof, probably no engineer would have pronounced it 



A Village Church, Cost Fifty Thou- 
sand Dollars. 


A CHURCH building committee has sometimes seemed to me a 
most impossible thing, a veritable hydra, with a profusion, or 
rather confusion, of heads. And now comes The Brickbuilder, 

or boldly assert that the day of the church is done, that its place 
was in the twilight of ignorance, not in the clear light of the sun of 

It is plain that many functions that the church once wholly or 
in large part filled have passed or are passing from its grasp. The 
control of temporal government, the rendering of judgment and exe- 
cution of justice between men, the monopoly of organized charity, 
exclusive jurisdiction over marriage and divorce, education of all 
grades, — these functions, in many places and over long periods, 

bearing oil and wine, and saying : "Behold a village of 25,000 in- 
habitants, needing a church. Here is the lot. The conditions are 
thus and so. There are ready for your use $ 50,000. Have your own 
way. Do as beseemeth you best." 

Before we begin the definite study of our plan problem and the 
simultaneous synthetic prevision of the forms with which our plan 
is to be bodied forth, let us, for a moment, turn aside to consider the 
church as an institution and to ask ourselves what its function is in 
modern life, what part it ought to play in the modern community. 
From the broad-viewed windows of our attic workshop we look down 
observantly on the tendencies and drift of the thought and life below 
us. We note that the pulpit as a platform for the affirmation of ex- 
cathedra doctrines or for the assertion of creeds curiously remote 
from the pathways of modern thought is losing ground. We see 
one group of men seeking to stem the tide by reversion to liturgy and 
ritualism, another 
group seeking to 
convert the church 
from a platform for 
doctrinaire discus- 
sion into an organi- 
zation for multiform 
social and communal 
activity, — a so-called 
institutional church ; 
yet other groups reaf- 
firming with grieved 
and combative spirit 
the supremacy and 
efficacy of their sev- 
eral opinions and 
beliefs ; while still 
other groups timidly 

either from the necessity of the case devolved on the church, or were 
claimed by the church as of right. Once, learning, the custody of 
books, the dissemination of literature, almost the entire intellectual 
life of the community, inhered in and centered about the church. 

Is the church then an anachronism ? Is the church building 
which we are to erect destined to satisfy only the passing desire of 
a few, and not a deep and permanent need of the community ? 
What functions are left for the church in our busy, industrial, 
scientific, modern life? One, certainly, and that of deepest moment 
to a humanity whose chief distinction is that it is differentiating it- 
self from the beast. Among all the beneficent agencies of modern 
life there is none other that directly functions the life of the spirit. 
We have scratched the shell of science, only to apprehend more 
clearly the magnitude of that main miracle, an ordered cosmos, 
evolving, progressive; and, conscious of reason, we bow in reverence 

and humility to the 
all-comprehe n d i n g 
mind. Struggling 
painfully with con- 
flicting desires and 
with weakness of 
will, we yet feel the 
stirring of " a power 
within us, not our- 
selves, that works 
for righteousness"; 
and, conscious o f 
love, we are fain to 
believe that the 
ben ef i c ent power 
springs from a 
mighty and a loving 
heart. In our utter 



loneliness in the great crises of the soul, our spirits strain for com- 
munion with a something that knows and understands; and, con- 
scious of spirit, we reach upward with desperate faith to an under- 
standing Being whose essence is spirit, and whose spirit is akin to 

We have spasms of cynicism ; we are nagged by doubts ; but 
ineradicable in humanity, forever recur the reverence, the humility, 

the love, the faith ; and from these grow religion and^the worship of 
the spirit that we name God. The optimism and the courage that 
are indispensable to wholesome living and to strong creative work are 
dependent on this reverence, this humility, this love, this faith; when 
they are lost to an individual in any age his life becomes a routine 
of bitter duty, or descends to the animal plane ; and the age to which 
they are lacking falls barren, and the life of the spirit shrivels away. 

The act of worship cannot of itself create reverence and faith, 
hut the psychological reaction needs no argument ; the systematic 
expression of a feeling gives to it life and growth. Here then is a 
vital and permanent function for the church: to foster the life of 
the spirit ; to stimulate reverence, humility, love, hope, faith ; to give 
definite expression to these feelings by the act of worship; to incul- 
cate that attitude of mind toward life that inheres in and springs 
from these feelings, and thus intimately to influence the conduct of 
life. The pulpit as a doctrinaire platform may pass away ; creeds 
may come and go; but the church as the " house of worship " must 
remain, its liturgies and its rituals, purified and refined, voicing for 
men their deepest feelings, their loftiest aspirations, their noblest 

Our diversion has led us back to our building and has served to 
indicate to us broadly certain ends we are to seek and certain limits 
we are to heed. Our task is to design a building which shall be a 
fit '• house of worship," a place beautiful as befits the life of the 
spirit, a place instilling by its aspect calmness of mind, a place in 
harmony with feelings of reverence and of faith, and calculated by 
subtile suggestion to stimulate these emotions. 

To this end we are to avoid forms and combinations, perhaps 
not inappropriate in themselves, but by common use connected with 
and directly suggestive of other and irrelevant moods and activities. 
Only the most urgent reasons will induce us to depart from this prin- 
ciple in any instance, and then the departure, instead of being flar- 
ingly emphasized, will be carefully subordinated to the general effect. 
Whatever we may see fit to use of new forms and arrangements, we 
shall best serve our end if we combine them with and subordinate 

them to forms and types, good in themselves and suited to our par- 
ticular need, which by long usage and deep-seated power of associa- 
tion are calculated to suggest the mood for worship. To startle and 
to amaze do not belong to the church ; the fantastic and the bizarre, 
the puerile and the ostentatious have no place here. 

The activities of our community are not those of war, and our 
building will not be boldly defiant, half fortress and half church. 
We are not the center of a great metropolitan district, and the type 
of the great, high-arched cathedral is not for us. The wide, well- 
shaded streets, the little park across the way, and the snug library 
beyond the park, combine to give us the desired keynote. Our 
church must not jar on this environment, must not be bumptious and 
self-assertive, but, fitting quietly into place, must evidently belong 
where it is. Even so, we might properly give it the distinction of a 
lofty spire, symbolizing thus the aspirations and the ideals of the 
worshipers: but, low and broad in its masses, with only a slender 
lantern on the close-clipt tower, it seems to us, in this instance, to 
express our conception better and to typify in its restfulness that 
peace of God that its worshipers so greatly need in the hurried and 
strenuous and complicated life of the modern community. 

We have found a sufficient ration d'etre for the church in its 
fostering of the life of the spirit, in its nourishing of reverence and 
faith, and in its persuasion to the worship of God, the Father of 
spirits; but the church has still other work to do in our complex 
modern world. Not the least striking phenomenon in the growth of 
the early Christian church was its breaking down, within the sphere 
of its own organization, of distinctions of class and caste, its affirma- 
tion of the brotherhood of man as a corollary to the fatherhood of 
God, its effort to express in daily life its sense of social unity. The 
lapse of nineteen centuries has witnessed radical changes in the 
forms of social life; but the need of the affirmation of brotherhood 
is greater if possible in the American community of to-day than it 
was in the Roman world of the Caesars. 

In theory many forces are at work for social unification: fa- 
cility of travel, multiplicity of newspapers, common-school education, 
a democratic organization of political life. In actuality there is to- 
day a seeming growing antagonism of interests and classes. From 

our high attic windows we note the ranging of employed against em- 
ployer, of laborer against capitalist, of corporation against individual, 
of rich against poor, of white against black ; we hear in each grow- 
ing community a jargon of tongues like unto Babel, emblematic of a 
jargon of points of view far more to be dreaded. We seem to dis- 


J 75 

cover that we are, in our industrial and social life, heterogeneous, 
disparate, antagonistic; that class irritability is displacing the con- 
sciousness of solidarity ; that a renewed and vivifying sense of the 
brotherhood of man is imperative, in order to pave the way for 
social progress, if not to avert disaster. 

The church, if true to itself, can know neither caste nor class ; 
its message is the gospel of sonship, of brotherhood, of love ; it 
stands for forbearance, for self-control, for justice, for solidarity. 
Among all the beneficent agencies of modern life there is none other 
that can so singly, so unswervingly, so effectively function solidarity, 
the oneness of society. In the church of the future we shall hear 
little of the reconciliation of God to man; in the church of the 
future, unless it fail wholly of its function and be cast aside like a 
worn-out garment, there shall go on unceasingly and triumphantly 
the reconciliation of men with men. It is this phase of the character 
of the church that is behind the impulse toward the "institutional 
church," a church that shall not be remote from life, foreign to our 
thought, and alien to our necessary activities. It is for the more 
adequate expression of this phase of church life that we need to 
supplement the church as the house of God with the church as the 
house of Man; and hence, by the side of, or, better still, united to 
our house of worship, we will plan a parish house, with provision for 
social activities, for the expression of and upbuilding of social unity. 
The type of our parish house will be ecclesiastical, because it is still 
the church, though in its social aspect; but there will be in it also a 
hint of the home feeling, the arcaded porch reminiscent of cloistered 
calm, and the fireplace potent with cheeriness. 

Our church building shall stand well to the north of the lot, its 
chief entrance to the west by an ample vestibule, kept low to admit 
the western light through the window at the nave end. A similar 
window to the east will abundantly light the altar space ; and from 
the high windows above the choir will fall a diffused and softened 
light. The choir room, the pastor's study, and a room set aside for 
the meetings and records of the vestry and the parish board commit- 
tees, we will provide north of the choir, with access from the aisle 

and a drawing room and various study and club rooms, having their 
entrance up the cloistered walk at the garden side by a vestibule un- 


3| C 






H6H7 - tJVFT 

and by a separate doorway from the narrow close at the north of 
the church. 

The parish house shall lie well toward the east of the lot, with 
sunlight from south and east and west. Here shall be a lecture room 

der the low, square tower. The rooms shall be reached severally, 
and yet be en suite. Toilet and cloak rooms easy of access shall be 
placed down the stairs, where also for the little tots shall be a kin- 
dergarten flooded with sunlight and having its separate 
access from the east, and toilet and wardrobes of its own. 
In the parish house shall be a kitchen and a serving 
room, and a miniature stack room for a parish library. 
But we shall place bookcases, sans doors and open to all, 
in the lecture room ; and if no equipment fund is forth- 
coming, we shall write a specification for some rattling 
good books, and shall include them in our contracts. 

We will bind our two buildings together by placing 
the tower in the angle at the head of the cloistered walk 
and of the southern aisle ; and the tower vestibule will 
serve to connect our house of God with our house of 
Man, emphasizing thus the necessity of an intimate con- 
nection between the life of the spirit and the activities of 
men. We will clothe the exterior walls with a purplish- 
gray brick trimmed with white terra-cotta ; the roofs shall 
be covered with a moss-green shingle tile ; and the lan- 
tern, clad in terra-cotta, shall echo the purple-gray of the 
walls. In the cloister, as in both vestibules, shall be a 
patterned pavement of dull red bricks ; cool gray bricks 
will fit better for the walks of our garden. For in the 
angle between the buildings we shall plan a formal gar- 
den, open on the highway to west and south ; and, as the 
ground falls away to the east some five feet in the length 
of our lot, we will sink the garden so that it shall be en- 
tered from the lower cloister level, and the passer-by shall 
look down through the wrought-iron guard onto its walks 
and turf and into its sparkling fountain. A terrace shall 
rise from the garden to the church, and from the south 
aisle a little porch, containing the font, shall give upon the terrace 
by doors to east and west. 

In the church interior we will seek to unite the pervasive charm 
of rich, soft colorings with a marked breadth of architectural treat- 



merit, — a chaste severity of line, a fitting dignity of form. We shall 
avoid plaster for the most part, and shall achieve permanent first- 
hand decorative effects by the use of brick and terra-cotta. The 
walls of both vestibules and the aisle walls, forming a background 
for the nave, shall be faced with brick, red below and golden brown 
above. The piers carrying the nave walls, and the nave walls up to 
the clearstory window sills, shall be in buff brick, light almost to a 
cream, and then, above belts of red and golden brown, in white 
brick to the cornice line. The chancel walls shall be enriched by 
dull-finish glazed bricks in warm, strong tones. 

The exigencies of our climate, its extremes of heat and cold, for- 
bid us to let the real roof form the ceiling; and, supported from the 
roof trusses by light tee iron, we will suspend a ceiling of book tiles, 
yellowish brown in effect, but not selected for uniformity of color, 
and varying, as they come from the kiln, from warm buffs through 
reddish browns to a tile here and there as deep as umber. The 
lower member of the trusses will project below the tile, and we will 
finish these with plaster colored an ivory white. Our woodwork will 
be black oak, partaking in its general design of the prevailing sim- 
plicity, but blossoming into greater elaboration at the pulpit, the 
organ, and the chancel. Miscellaneous, hit-or miss, wishy-washy, or, memorial windows, donated in a misguided spirit of 
mingled pride or devotion, shall be barred out. No glass will be per- 
mitted to be set, except such as has the true, deep, rich color that 
will give to the whole interior that soft, indescribable glow that we 
already see in our mind's eye. All memorial windows must pass our 
approval as to design and execution. For the present we are likely 
to use only a simple, unobtrusive, geometrical subdivision, and to 
content ourselves with color unaided by design. 

In the parish-house interior we shall not be able to afford fac- 
ings of brick, but we shall take care that our plastering has a finish 
that will give a texture effect to the colorings we shall choose. Here, 
while avoiding any freakishness or triviality of treatment, we shall 
relax the severity of style, and shall seek to impart a certain home- 
likeness well suited to the expression of the building's purpose. 

In the end we shall hope to have made our church typify its 
purposes so clearly and yet withal so alluringly that the passer-by, 
pausing for a cup of water at the fountain at the crossing of the 
ways, and looking down into the garden, shall be tempted to turn 
aside into the cloistered walk, and to enter the parish house and 
church, and that entering he shall linger for a moment, and linger- 
ing shall become conscious, even though dimly, of a something that 
puts the spirit in touch anew with God and Man. 

THE amount of live load as distinguished from weight of mate- 
rials in construction, which should be assumed in calculat- 
ing the strength of the floors and columns of the modern commercial 
building, is a matter which has been in dispute among the best au- 
thorities, and erring as they do generally on the side of safety, nearly 
all of our building laws have required an excessive amount of mate- 
rial, providing for loads which in practise never occur. In the new 
building law which has been proposed for New York City, an at- 
tempt has been made to recognize the absence of any necessity for 
excessive provision of this kind. In New York and Boston the laws 
as they at present exist call for provision for live loads of 100 lbs. 
per foot in an office building, the whole of this load over every square 
foot of floor being assumed as transferred to the girders, and thence 
to the columns, and so down to the foundations and the ground. In 
Chicago the practise has been to scale down these loads, assuming 
that only a certain portion of the floor is loaded as a whole at any- 
one time, and that if, for instance, 100 lbs. is assumed for the live 
load of the floor a load of only So lbs. need be assumed in calculat- 
ing the girders, still less in calculating the columns immediately sup- 
porting the girders, and considerably less for the bottom columns, the 
foundations, etc. Actual investigation has shown that the loads on 
the floors of a modern commercial building seldom exceed 1 5 lbs. a foot. 
While this might be a dangerous minimum for the law to recognize, the 
change in the New York laws is certainly a move in the right direction. 

Br. - -"irt:'] 



1 2 

- ,: . 

.- j ~^ 

1 2£ 

►-^_-~ i 



Design and Construction of Terra- 
Cotta Columns. 

IN an article of recent date, appearing in The Architectural Re- 
view, Mr. Russell Sturgis offers a number of timely sugges- 
tions on "How to Treat the Classical Orders." Without intending 
to dispute, much less deny, the abstract beauty of Grecian forms 
in their original purity, 
he accepts the inexora- 
ble conditions of life in 
our own time, and 
would meet them, in 
each case, by a free ad- 
justment befitting the 
environment. To quote 
his opening sentence: 
'• It seems clear that no 
order which any Greek 
devised, and none which used in Roman im- 
perial buildings, will, 
without alteration, serve 

the turn of the twentieth century." In this, he has no thought of 
turning away from the perfected types of an age when architecture, 
as an art, had reached its zenith; but he would insist on a less 
literal reproduction of accepted examples. Even the Roman Ionic 
— itself a bold adaptation, due to the arch having in a measure 
superseded the lintel — Mr. Sturgis holds open to needful modifica- 
tion. Referring to the Theater of Marcellus, he is especially em- 
phatic in that contention. " To take the proportions and minute 
details of that order and apply them to the thin-walled modern build- 
ing, or to use them at all without alteration for the parts of a free 
colonnade, is to do a thing devoid of intelligent propriety." 

This is, no doubt, a perfectly justifiable assertion, one that 
would not be disputed by cultivated architects; yet worse things 
than that are of common occurrence, and usually pass muster with- 
out protest. We could mention a building, for which eminent mem- 
bers of the profession are responsible, and in it stilted semicircular 
arches spring from Grecian Ionic capitals — a combination that 
would seem equally open to criticism, yet the effect is not by any 



means disagreeable. A replica of the Erechtheum capital might be 
said to look out of place against a background of plate glass in a 
modern store front ; but there it would, at least, support a trabeation 
of the kind for which it was originally intended. As a matter of 
fact, that capital is frequently employed without material change, 
and sometimes on shafts with which considerable liberties have 
been taken. An illustration of such use may be seen on a somewhat 
extensive scale in the Posner Building, Baltimore, now in course of 



On the first story of that building there 
are, in all, ten of these columns; and, as 
will be seen on plan, a cast-iron core carries 
the superincumbent weight, the same being 
cased with thin segments of cream-white 
terracotta. The flutes, in this case, are filled 
with a convex billet to the full height of 
column, stopped at necking by an inverted 
honeysuckle, which is also something of an 
innovation. This device, by tending to sub- 
due the needless severity of a fluted shaft, 
renders slight imperfections less noticeable 
than they would otherwise be at close range. 
It also helps to strengthen the fillet and 
offers less chance for such wilful or acci- 
dental defacement as may be expected when 
delicate members are within reach of the 
passing throng on a city's sidewalks. It 
will be noticed that the size of the square 
core, in a necessarily slender cylinder, reduces 
the thickness of casing to a minimum of 1 ]/ z 
ins. at the neck, and so makes it impossible 
to break joint with successive segments. The 
vertical joints 
had, therefore, to 
be continued 
without break, 
whic h made it 
imperative to de- 
vise some means 
of holding t h e 
in position. This 
is managed very 
effectually by in- 
serting a hoop of 
galvanized iron at 
every joint, half of which goes into a 
groove in the top and bottom bed, re- 
spectively, of each course. This work 
is set tight, the exposed joints averaging 
about one eighth of an inch, but the re- 
bate in the ends and the interstices 
around the hoops leave sufficient room 
for a bedding of cement, which, when 
set, holds the components of the outer 

casing immovable. In his reference to the colonnade that embraces 
the third, fourth, and fifth stories, on the 34th Street elevation of 
the Astoria, Mr. Sturgis falls into a curious mistake ; which, para- 
doxical as it may appear, goes to show how thoroughly he grasps 
the main facts of his subject. In assuming that " That colonnade, 
too, comes close home to our requirements, for it is of terracotta 
and in hollow cylinders, set one upon another, and surrounding an 
iron column as beads are strung upon a thread," he has described 
what might to have been more accurately than what is. Certainly 
an iron core is there, for the ten stories above must needs be sup- 
ported ; but the hollow cylinders are, for some reason that is still 
quite inexplicable, cut out of stone, instead of having been molded 
in clay to the required shape, like all other work above the third 
story on the same building. 

To fit these stones around the flanges of a riveted column, to 
flute the drums and carve all the alternating bands, as well as the 
capitals, was a laborious undertaking, and one that must have en- 
tailed great expense. They had, moreover, to be made in segments, 
for the riveted connections precluded the possibility of their being 
put on in any other way. In view of the fact that there are ten 
of these columns, the same design could have been carried out with 
greater facility and in a more enduring material at perhaps one third 



their actual cost in stone. Of all the- terra-cotta used on that im- 
mense building there is nothing better adapted to the peculiarities of 
burned clay, hardly anything on which good modeling could have 
been displayed to better advantage, and no single item that would 
afford so wide a margin for the exercise of legitimate economy in 
cost of production. With conditions so exceptionally favorable, we 
cannot wonder that the choice of so fitting a medium should have 
been set down as a matter of course. We have searched for but 
failed to discover any obstacle likely to be encountered in the exe- 
cution of this ' colonnade, beyond what has obviously been over- 
come in connection with the three tiers of terra-cotta windows in 
the screen wall immediately behind it. Far more exacting subjects 
had to be dealt with in the dormers and pavilions around the fif- 
teenth story, while the engaged columns at the tenth and eleventh 
stories called for much greater nicety, because of the absence of 
projecting bands, which serve to conceal possible imperfections at 
the joints. 

It is, of course, possible that the architect desired and expected 
to obtain a degree of uniformity in color beyond what he supposed 
procurable in terra-cotta. If so, he must have been grievously dis- 
appointed ; for the result not only falls short of any such expecta- 
tion, but goes far to reverse what was once conceded to be the natu- 
ral order of things. It is in the terra-cotta that we find a uniformity, 
which in the adjacent stonework is con- 
spicuous by its absence. Those who 
have seen the building do not need to 
have this remarkable contrast pointed 
out to them ; those who have been denied 
that privilege can form some idea of the 
extreme variation in the stone by turning 
to our illustration, 
which is made 
from a recent 

A co 1 u m n, 
not too large to 
be made in com- 
plete drums, is 
used as a window 
mullion in the 
upper stories of 
the I'osner Build- 
ing. The archi- 
tect, Mr. Charles 
E. Cassell, at the 
suggestion °f 
present writer, agreed to a style of treatment 
similar to that already described, so far as the 
absence of fluting is concerned. The effect 
of reed and fillet is much better than might 
be supposed by those who have not tried the 
experiment. This deviation from classical 
precedent is admitted, but it can be urged in 
extenuation that greater, and, we think, less 
justifiable departures could be charged against 
the Greco-Romans, who, by the way, were not 
quite so punctilious in their adaptations as 
some of our modern copyists. Among the 
columns recovered from the ruins of Pom- 
peii and Herculaneum, to which Mr. Sturgis 
has directed attention, some were left entirely 
plain. Another variety had the lower third 
plain and the upper two thirds fluted ; while 
a further compromise was effected by reed- 
ing the lower and fluting the upper portion. column used at 
On the shafts of one peristyle the fluting was entrances, 

merely indicated in outline; while the capi- school no. 10, 

tals appear to have been improvised rather troy, n. y. 



than copied from earlier examples, which must, at that time, have 
abounded on every hand. 

We have not resurrected these remnants of Roman architec- 
ture as models of refined detail worthy of unqualified acceptance. 
Still less do we refer to them in order to excuse the crudities too 
common in current work, perpetrated by men who think they have 
been born to create something that did not previously exist. Bui 
they serve to show that every age has had its own problems to 
solve, and that the people who had vanquished their compara- 
tively effete predecessors set about the task that lay before them 
with characteristic viijor and fertility of invention. We are not 
expected to do exactly as the Romans did, though there are 
many points of resemblance between their work and that of to-day. 

Their spirit of self-reliance and re- 
source should be a valuable stimulus 
to those who are, perforce, the pio- 
neers in a new era of architectural 
development. Just as the Roman 
arch gave rise to new systems of 
building more than two thousand 
years ago, so the steel skeleton has 
revolutionized modern methods, if 
not beyond recognition, certainly 
beyond possible expectation. In 
some respects they are rendered far 
more complex, yet in others they 
have been greatly simplified, and in 
nothing is this more noticeable than 
the increased facilities afforded for 
the use of terra-cotta columns. 

The skeleton of a modern build- 
ing, made up mainly of vertical and 
horizontal lines, resolves itself into 
successive tiers of posts and lintels. 
While this anatomy is self-support- 
ing, it requires a protective casing 
on which varying degrees of embel- 
lishment are permissible, and the 
voids must be enclosed to make it habitable. This casing takes 
the form of brick piers built around the main structural supports, 
with sill courses below, entablatures above, and intermediate col- 
umns, pilasters, etc., between the windows. The latter are often 
decorative rather than supporting members, and, therefore, have 
little weight resting upon them. Up to a diameter of say 16 ins., 
columns of this kind can be made in single drums, capable of sus- 
taining an enormous weight without any core whatever. If a 
stanchion should be introduced in those of smaller diameter to pre- 
vent buckling, or as a necessary part of the steel frame, these drums 
can be left hollow and provision made for threading them on from 
above. Or. where this plan is found impracticable by reason of 
riveted attachments, they can be molded in two pieces and the joints 
broken in setting successive courses. In larger diameters, whether 
the core be metal or built solid in brick and cement, the casing need 
not average more than 6 ins. in thickness, as it would be jointed up 
in three or more segments. In the latter case, vertical joints should 
be broken every course, the brick filling bonded into the chambers, 
all interstices being grouted with cement. 

A good specimen of the free-standing Roman-Ionic column will 
be found in an adjoining illustration. It is 16 ins. in diameter at 
the base, and 13X ins. at the neck, and is made in complete drums, 
each about 20 ins. in length. Without core or filling of any sort, it 
might be used with safety under a load of 20 tons, though it is not 
called upon to support more than one tenth of that weight. Two 
of them carry an entablature of slight projection at each entrance of 
School No. 10, recently erected in Troy, N. Y. The base and capi- 
tal, with the top and bottom sections of an engaged column, is like- 
wise shown from a photograph, which will be better understood by 
referring to the accompanying plan. This column is not bonded 


into the wall ; but — which we consider much better — the wall is 
bonded into the column in such way as to render steel or cast- 
iron reinforcement altogether unnecessary. Four of these are 
used on the principal elevation of a new high school in the last- 
named city, for which Messrs. M. F. Cummings & Son are the 
architects. Rather larger columns of the same general character in 
design and principle of construction occupy a similar situation on a 
building designed by Mr. J. E. Sperry, of Baltimore. In another 
building with which we are acquainted, a cast-iron upright stands 
part in the wall and part in column, to which the floor and roof 
beams are, we presume, connected; otherwise, it too might have 
been omitted without risk of crushing the core or its casing. 

With the exception of granite monoliths, which cannot be sur- 
passed for work on a first story, there is hardly a situation to be met 
with in current practise where terracotta columns may not be used 
in preference to stone. To quote Mr. Sturgis on this point: "We 
can still, when we have an open portico, build it of iron and sheathe 
every part of it with baked clay in the most approved fashion of 
fire-proofing; we can obey the law, meet the requirements of the 
higher common sense, and design in a pure Greco-Roman taste — all 
at once. We can also design in a pure modern taste, taking our 
traditional suggestion from the finest things of the past, working it 
out on lines of our own, going slowly, because our successors will do 
better than we in the light of our own experience and our own par- 
tial successes. ... It was said above that we could make our con- 
structional columns decorative, by means of terra-cotta, by using that 
material to sheathe the iron uprights essential to the structure. It 
might also have been said that we can perfectly well make terra- 
cotta columns do their work without the iron within ; for in many 
of the smaller colonnades the structural purpose is only apparent, or, 
at most, only secondary, and a very slender upright of metal, such a 
stud as serves for stiffening partitions in our dwelling houses, will 
serve the turn. Whether the colonnade is to decorate the veranda, 
while it carries the veranda roof, or to adorn the interior of a ball- 
room or theater, the proper relationship of design to construction is 
not at all abandoned by the concealment of the actual metal upright, 
bolted at top and bottom, by a jacket of defensible material. That 
is the essence of all our future building; the concealed slender skele- 
ton, the clothing of brick and cement, as if of bodily muscle, and 
the sheathing of the whole in its terra-cotta skin." Having read 


this comprehensive summing up, one can but regret that Mr. Sturgis 
should have retired, as we think, too soon from the active practise 
of his profession. 



Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 


steep sides of the hill on which it stands. Here I saw a good and 
little altered Romanesque church, with pilasters in place of but- 
tresses, and walls crowned with the usual eaves-arcade. At Rovigo, 


" In the elder days of art, 

Builders wrought witli greatest care 
Each minute and unseen part, 
For the gods are everywhere." 

— Longfellow. 

Drive from Padua to Ferrara — Monselice — Rovigo — Ferrara : 
Cathedral — Castle — Gallery — Road to Bologna — Altedo — 
Bologna : Cathedral — San Petronio — San Domenico — San 
Giacomo — Sta. Maria Maggiore — San Francesco — San 
Stefano — Leaning Towers — Casa dei Mercanti — Domestic 
Remains — Academy — Modena : Cathedral — Parma : Cathe- 
dral — Correggio — The Baptistery — Piacenza: The Palazzo 
Publico — Cathedral — San Francesco — Sant' Antonino — 
San Giovanni in Canale — Asti : Cathedral — San Secondo — 

[The illustrations A, B, C, D, and E are not taken from Mr. 
Street's work, but are added as additional illustrations of the Italian 
brickwork. — Eds.] 

ANY one who has followed the route from Venice to Milan 
described in the last chapter will do well, instead of following 
it on a subsequent visit, to make a detour from Padua to Ferrara 
and Bologna and thence by Parma, Modena, and Piacenza to Milan. 
I shall give some notes of such a journey in this chapter, the towns 
visited on the road completing the subject which I have set before 
me in this volume, and leaving no important city north of the 
Apennines, save Ravenna, undescribed. This exception is serious ; 
but the omission will be remedied naturally when, as I hope I soon 
shall, I ask my readers to go with me to the towns on the east coast 
of Italy. 

The journey from Padua to Bologna is now, and I suppose 
always was, extremely uninteresting. The only objects on the road 
which possess much attraction for the artist aie the towns I have 
mentioned, and these certainly much more repay a visit than do 
those on the parallel line of road which we have just travelled. 
Scenery there is none to speak of, and fortunately a railway makes 
the journey a quick one now ; but when I first travelled it I retained 
no recollection at the end of the route save of long straight and 


dusty roads lined on either side with tall poplars, and wearisome to 
the last degree. At Monselice we found a picturesque town domi- 
neered over by the ruins of a large castle, whose walls climb the 


further on, there is one of the tall brick towers so common here, 
with its Ghibelline battlement perfect. Just before reaching Ferrara 
we crossed the Po — here a large, unbridged, and dreary-looking 
river, flowing rapidly between high artificial banks to the sea. Its 
bed is, I suppose, now quite above the level of the plain, and year 
by year the question becomes more urgent and yet more difficult of 
answer, what is to be done with it ? Certainly there are rivers and 
rivers; and this great stream left none but painful and disagreeable 
impressions on my mind. At length, after ten hours and a half of 
the slowest of drivers and worst of vehicles, we reached Ferrara — a 
trajet now performed by railway in about an hour and a half, with 
advantage to every one's time and temper, and no counterbalancing 

The entrance to the city through a dirty suburb of tumble- 
down houses was not prepossessing. I knew nothing of what I had 
to see, and my delight was therefore all the greater when we drove 
into the piazza in front of the Duomo, and I found myself gazing at 
a building which at first sight looked as though it had been brought 
straight from the North of Europe, and planted here in the thir- 
teenth century as a warning against Italian fashions! Further 
examination proved that I was not far wrong in my first estimate of 
the west front; but it revealed also, I am sorry to say, that this and 
part of the south side were the only parts of the old cathedral which 
had been spared, when in the seventeenth century the whole of the 
church was gutted and converted into about as bad a Renaissance 
building as one could wish not to see. 

The west front is a great screen, and does not and never did 
follow the line of the roofs. It has three gables of about equal 
height covered with arcading, which increases in depth and richness 
of moulding and shadow to the top, where there are very fine open 
arched galleries, stepped up to suit the raking lines of the gables. I 

I, So 


know no Italian work which imitates 
so closely as this does the extreme 
richness which some of the Norman 
and English churches of the same 
period exhibit. The arches of the ar- 
cades are carried upon clusters of col- 
umns which are set with extraordinary 
profusion one behind the other. The 
centre of the three divisions of the west 
front is almost wholly filled with a very 
tine porch of three stages in height, and 
finished with gables on its front and 
sides. The lower stage of this porch, 
as indeed of the whole church, is round- 
arched, and belongs probably to the 
church consecrated herein 1135. The 
knotted shafts which carry the front 
wall rest on figures sitting on lions. 
The doorway is deeply recessed, and 
has figures of saints with scrolls. 1 The 
tympanum of the arch has a sculpture 
of S. George and the Dragon, and the 
lintel below it eight subjects, beginning 
with the Salutation, and ending with the 
Baptism, of Our I.oid. At the top of 
this stage is an inscription which con- 
tains the date give